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31 December 2012

The Curtiss XP-14 was to have been a fighter based around the Curtiss H-1640 Chieftain 12-cylinder air cooled double-row inline engine.

The Curtiss XP-17 was the designation given to the first P-1 when it was used to test a Curtiss Wright Tornado engine.

The Curtiss XP-18 was the designation given to a biplane fighter that was to have been powered by the Wright V-1560-1 twelve-cylinder air-cooled engine.

The Curtiss XP-19 was to have been a low-wing monoplane powered by the Wright V-1560-1 twelve-cylinder air cooled engine.

28 December 2012

The siege of Vienne (c.500-501 AD) was the final act in a Burgundian civil war that had briefly involved the Frankish king Clovis I, but that ended with the victory of Clovis's opponent Gundobar.

The battle of Vouille (507) was a significant victory for Clovis I, king of the Franks, and allowed him to conquer Aquitaine, taking it from the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse

20 December 2012

The Curtiss P-6 Hawk was the most advanced version of the Hawk biplane fighter to serve with the USAAF, and differed from the earlier P-1 by using a Curtiss V-1570 Conqueror engine.

The Curtiss XP-11 was the designation given to three Hawk biplanes that were to have been powered by the Curtiss Chieftain engine, but the failure of that engine meant that none were completed as P-11s.

19 December 2012

The battle of the Ouche (500 AD) was a victory won by Clovis, king of the Franks, during an otherwise unsuccessful intervention in a Burgundian family dispute.

The siege of Avignon (500) saw the Burgundian king Gundobar hold off a besieging Frankish army led by Clovis I for long enough to convince Clovis to offer peace terms.

18 December 2012

The battle of Soissons (486 AD) was the first recorded victory won by Clovis I, king of the Franks, and saw him defeat Syagrius, the ruler of the last Roman enclave in northern Gaul.

The battle of Tolbiac or Zulpich (496 AD) might have been a victory won by Clovis and other Franks that prevented a westward movement of the Alemanni.

17 December 2012

The Curtiss P-2 Hawk was the designation given to five P-1s that were completed with the Curtiss V-1400 engine.

The Curtiss P-3 Hawk was a version of the Hawk fighter powered by the Pratt & Whitney Wasp radial engine.

The Curtiss P-5 Superhawk was a version of the P-1 Hawk fitted with turbo-supercharged engines.

14 December 2012

The Curtiss PW-8 was the first in a long series of Curtiss biplane fighters to be produced for the US Army and Navy between the two World Wars.

The Curtiss P-1 Hawk was the first in a family of taper-winged biplane fighters that served with the USAAC, the US Navy and that was exported in significant numbers, remaining in service for over a decade.

12 December 2012

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.406H/ D-3800 was a version of the M.S.406 single seat fighter that was built under licence in Switzerland.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.412/ D.3801 was an improved version of the M.S.406 produced in Switzerland after the fall of France.

11 December 2012

The Loening OA-2 amphibian was a version of the OA-1 that was powered by a Wright V-1460-1 Tornado engine.

The Loening XO-10 was the designation given to the XOA-1A prototype when it was delivered to the US Army.

The Focke-Wulf Ta 254 was a design for an improved version of the Ta 154 twin-engined fighter, with bigger wings to improve its service ceiling.

10 December 2012

The Loening O2L was the prototype of an improved version of the Loening OL amphibian biplane.

The Loening XHL-1 was an air ambulance based on the OL-8 observation amphibian.

The Loening OA-1 was an unusual two-man amphibian aircraft that served with the USAAC in the late 1920s.

7 December 2012

The Loening PA-1 was the last fighter to be produced by the Loening company, and was an attempt to produce a successful biplane fighter after the failure of the Loening PW-2 monoplane.

The Loening OL was an unusual amphibian aircraft that used a single main float carried under the fuselage instead of the more standard flying boat hull.

5 December 2012

The Loening M-8 was a monoplane fighter that was ordered into production in large numbers during the First World War, but that was eventually produced in significantly smaller numbers for the US Navy.

The Loening PW-2 was a single seat monoplane fighter that was developed from the earlier M-8, and that was tested by the US Army but not accepted for production.

3 December 2012

The Genko War (1331-33) was a struggle between the supporters of the Emperor Go-Daigo and the Kamakura Shogunate which ended as an Imperial victory and led to the short-lived Kemmu restoration, the only period in which the Emperor held direct power between 1192 and the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate in the nineteenth century

The battle of Tsukushi (7 July 1333) was the final event in a complex plot against Hojo Hidetoki, the military governor of Kyushu, and saw him defeated by two of the three original plotters against him.

30 November 2012

The US Air Force and its predecessors have used a series of designation systems to identify their aircraft, starting by using the manufacturer's own codes then adopting a system of type numbers and two letter codes in 1919-20. This was replaced by the more familiar basic mission system in 1924, with single letters for most aircraft types. This remained in use (with variants) until 1962, when it became the basis of the current Tri-service aircraft designation system.

The short-lived 1920-24 USAAS aircraft designation system used one or two letter type designations, originally matched to a Type Number.

The XS designation was used from 1946 to 1948 for experimental supersonic aircraft. In 1948 the letter changed to X for special test, and the existing XS craft became X craft.

29 November 2012

On day two we add Helicopters, Observation and Liaison aircraft, Reconnaissance Aircraft, Trainers and Utility Aircraft.

28 November 2012

Today we start a series of articles on the aircraft designations of the USAAC, USAAF and USAF by looking at Fighter Designations, Bomber Designations, Glider Designations, Cargo Aircraft Designations and Attack Aircraft Designations.

27 November 2012

The 401st Bombardment Group was a B-17 Flying Fortress group that fought with the Eighth Air Force from November 1943 until the end of the war in Europe.

The 452nd Bombardment Group was a B-17 group that fought with the Eighth Air Force from February 1944 until the end of the Second World War.

26 November 2012

The Albatros W.4 was a floatplane fighter based on the Albatros D.I and designed to intercept British flying boats and sea planes that were attacking German air stations on the North Sea coast.

The Albatros W.5 was an improved version of the Albatros W.3 torpedo bomber, but only five were built and the type wasn't accepted by the German navy.

The Albatros W.8 was a patrol floatplane that was designed in 1918 and of which two or possibly three were produced.

23 November 2012

The Albatros W.1/ B.II-W was a floatplane version of the Albatros B.II, the most important of the company's unarmed two-man scouts.

The Albatros W.2 was a floatplane version of the Albatros C.III, the most numerous entry in Albatros' series of armed two-seater scouts, but only a single prototype was built

The Albatros W.3 was a prototype for the Albatros W.5 torpedo bomber, and was largely based on the Albatros G.II bomber.

22 November 2012

The 384th Bombardment Group was a B-17 Flying Fortress group that fought with the Eighth Air Force from June 1943 until the end of the war in Europe.

The 390th Bombardment Group was a B-17 Flying Fortress group that entered service just in time to take part in the raid on Regensburg on 17 August 1943 and that served with the Eighth Air Force for the rest of the Second World War

20 November 2012

The Albatros J.I was a ground attack aircraft somewhat inspired by the A.E.G. J.I but using the wings from the Albatros C.XII and constructed using the typical Albatros methods.

The Albatros J.II was an improved version of the Albatros J.I ground attack aircraft.

19 November 2012

The two-day long battle of Bubaigawara (27-28 June 1333) saw the defenders of Kamakura miss an opportunity to defeat the pro-Imperial army of Nitta Yoshisada, thus ensuring that the fighting would move to the Shogunate's capital at Kamakura

The siege of Kamakura (30 June-4 July 1333) was the final major battle of the Genko War (1331-33) and saw the army of Nitta Yoshisada capture the capital of the Kamakura Shogunate after a five-day long battle.

16 November 2012

The battle of Kotesashi (23 June 1333) was the first battle in the campaign that led to the capture of Kamakura and the final fall of the Kamakura Shogunate (Genko War, 1331-33). It was an inconclusive battle, and the fighting resuming on the following day.

The battle of Kumegawa (24 June 1333) was the second of two battles in two days in the campaign that led to the capture of Kamakura and the fall of the Kamakura Shogunate (Genko War, 1331-33), and was won by the pro-Imperial forces of Nitta Yoshisada.

15 November 2012

The Albatros C.XIII was a close support aircraft developed from the D.Va fighter. It was basically a two-seat version of that aircraft, but with a 3ft wider wing span and a slight increase in length.

The Albatros C.XIV was smaller than previous Albatros two-seat scouts and became the prototype for the Albatros C.XV, which was ordered into full scale production.

The Albatros C.XV was the last in the series of Albatros two-seat scouts, but although it entered production it arrived too late to see active service.

14 November 2012

The battle of Koganawate (10 June 1333) was notable for the death of Nagoya Takaie, one leader of a Shogunate army that had been sent to Kyoto to secure control of the area around the Imperial capital and attack the Emperor Go-Daigo's new court at Funanoe.

The battle of Rokuhara (20 June 1333) was one of the decisive battles of the Genko War, and saw the Shogunate general Ashikaga Takauji turn on his former allies, side with the Emperor Go-Daigo and drive the forces of the Shogunate out of their headquarters in Rokuhara.

13 November 2012

The 2nd Bombardment Group was a B-17 bomber group that operated with the Twelfth and Fifteenth Air Force, taking part in the invasion of Sicily, the campaign in Italy and the strategic bombing campaign across Europe.

The 42nd Bombardment Group was a B-25 Mitchell group of the Thirteenth Air Force that operated in the Solomons, New Guinea, Borneo, the Philippines, off the coast of China and over French Indochina.

9 November 2012

The Albatros C.IX was a design for a close support aircraft of which only three were built.

The Albatros C.X was the last in the series of two-seat Albatros scouts to use the basic configuration inherited from the unarmed B-class scouts, but had a more powerful engine and was a significantly larger aircraft than earlier Albatros C-class scouts.

The Albatros C.XII saw the first major change in the configuration of the Albatros two-seater scouts and combined features from the previous C.XII and their later D-class single seat fighters, in particular the D.V.

8 November 2012

The battle of the Third Day of the Fourth Month (17 May 1333) was a second failed attempt to take Kyoto made by the pro-Imperial leader Akamatsu Norimura.

The battle of Funanoe (13 May 1333) was an unsuccessful attempt by the exiled emperor Go-Daigo's jailor to recapture the emperor after he had escaped from exile on Oki, an island to the north-west of Honshu.

6 November 2012

The battle of the Twelfth Day of the Third Month (26 April 1333) was an unsuccessful attempt by the pro-Imperial Akamatsu Norimura to try and defeat the Shogunate's garrison in Kyoto

The battle of Yamazaki (29 April 1333) saw a force from the Rokuhara garrison of Kyoto fail to drive away a pro-Imperial army under Akamatsu Norimura that was threatening to cut off supplies to the city.

5 November 2012

The 20th Bombardment Wing was a B-24 Liberator Wing of the Eighth Air Force which took part in the strategic bombing campaign from December 1943 until April 1945.

The 93rd Bombardment Wing was a heavy bomber wing within the Eighth Unit that entered combat just before D-Day and supported the Allied invasion before taking part in the strategic bombing campaign for the rest of the war.

2 November 2012

The Albatros C.VII was similar to the C.V, but was powered by a Benz engine that was produced in much larger numbers than the interim Mercedes engine used on the C.V.

The Albatros C.VIII N was a night bomber developed in 1917 but that never entered service.

31 October 2012

The Albatros C.V was powered by a 220hp Mercedes D.IV engine and because of the limited production of the engine only appeared in small numbers.

The Albatros C.VI was similar to the C.III and the contemporary C.V, but was powered by the 180hp Argus As.III engine.

30 October 2012

The 92nd Bombardment Wing went through two incarnations during the Second World War, both as heavy bomber wings of the Eighth Air Force.

The 94th Bombardment Wing was a B-17 wing within the Eighth Air Force and took part in the strategic bombing campaign in Europe from December 1943 until April 1945.

29 October 2012

The battle of Sakabe (24 April 1333) was a minor skirmish in which the Imperial loyalist Akamatsu Norimura was nearly captured by the forces of the Shogunate.

The battle of Segawa (25 April 1333) was the last real success during the Imperial loyalist Akamatsu Norimura's attempt to capture Kyoto.

24 October 2012

The 40th Bombardment Wing formed part of the 1st Air Division of the Eighth Air Force and took part in the strategic bombing campaign over Europe from September 1943 until the end of the Second World War.

The 41st Bombardment Wing was a heavy bomber wing within the Eighth Air Force, and operated three B-17 groups as part of the strategic bombing force from September 1943 until the end of the Second World War.

22 October 2012

The battle of Hoshigaoka (28 January 1333) saw the revolt against the Shogunate spread onto Shikoku Island (Genko War, 1331-33).

The battle of Maya (27 March 1333) was the first of a series of victories won by Akamatsu Norimura, a supporter of the Emperor Go-Daigo, during an unsuccessful attempt to capture Kyoto.

19 October 2012

The siege of Yoshino Castle (February 1333) saw a large Bakufu army capture the castle after an eight day siege, forcing Prince Norinaga to flee to safety.

The siege of Chihaya (March-22 June 1333) was the turning point in the Genko War (1331-33). The Shogunate's failure to capture the castle meant that their main army was pinned down, encouraged pro-Imperial revolts around Japan and forced them to commit ever more troops to the fighting.

18 October 2012

The 100th Bombardment Group was a B-17 group that took part in the Eighth Air Force's strategic bombing campaign, supporting the armies on the continent after D-Day and was awarded the Croix de Guerre with Palms.

The 447th Bombardment Group was a B-17 group of the Eighth Air Force that took part in the campaign to support the D-Day landings before joining the full strategic bombing campaign.

17 October 2012

The 95th Bombardment Group was a B-17 group that took part in the Eighth Air Force's strategic bombing campaign over Europe as well as supporting the Allied armies fighting in Europe after D-Day.

The 96th Bombardment Group was a B-17 group that took part in the Eighth Air Force's strategic bombing campaign over Europe and also supported the Allied armies fighting on the continent after D-Day.

16 October 2012

The battle of the Yodo River (14 June 1332) was a victory won by Kusunoki Masashige over the forces of the Shogunate at the Yodo River (modern Osaka).

The siege of Akasaka (18 February-c.14 March 1333) was one of the few successes won by a massive Bakufu army at the start of the last year of the Genko War (1331-33).

12 October 2012

The Mitsubishi Experimental 7-Shi Carrier Attack Aircraft was an unsuccessful aircraft designed in an attempt to replace the Type 89 Carrier Attack Aircraft (B2M).

The Mitsubishi Experimental 9-Shi Carrier Attack Aircraft (B4M1) was a unsuccessful design for a carrier based torpedo and standard bomber that was difficult to control and that didn't enter service. 

11 October 2012

The Albatros C.III was the most numerous of the Albatros two-seater scouts and after a useful front line career went on to serve in even larger numbers as a trainer.

The Albatros C.IV was an experimental aircraft produced to test a new wing and a revised arrangement of the aircrew.

10 October 2012

The 385th Bombardment Group was a B-17 group of the Eighth Air Force and took part in the strategic bombing campaign over Europe.

The 388th Bombardment Group was a B-17 unit that took part in the strategic bombing campaign over Europe, as well as flying a number of tactical missions to support the Allied armies fighting in Europe after D-Day.

9 October 2012

The siege of Akasaki (c.31 October-20 November 1331) saw the forces of the Shogunate attack and capture the castle of Kusunoki Masashige, a supporter of the Emperor Go-Daigo, although Kusunoki escaped and continued the fight from nearby mountains.

The capture of Akasaki Castle (28 April 1332) was achieved by a surprise attack and saw Kusunoki Masashige recapture his own castle at Akasaka, which had fallen to the forces of the Shogunate in the previous year (Seige of Akasaka, November 1331).

5 October 2012

The battle of Karasaki Beach (October 1331) was the first battle of the Genko War (1331-33), and saw the Monastic supports of the Emperor Go-Daigo defeat a cavalry force sent to capture him.

The siege of Kasagi (3-31 October 1331) saw the forces of the Kamakura Shogunate capture the Emperor Go-Daigo's refuge at Kasagi, a success that for a time appeared to have crushed the Imperial cause (Genko War, 1331-33).

4 October 2012

The 2nd Bombardment Wing was a heavy bombardment unit of the Eighth Air Force, and its B-24 Liberators took part in the strategic bombing campaign in Europe, supported the fighting after D-Day and were briefly detached to the Mediterranean.

The 4th Bombardment Wing was a B-17 wing within the Eighth Air Force, and controlled a third of the bomber force until the formation of Bombardment Divisions. It took part in the strategic bombing campaign and also performed tactical bombing missions in support of the D-Day landings and the campaign that followed.

3 October 2012

The Albatros C.I was the first in a series of armed Albatros scout aircraft that were a mainstay of the German air force from 1915 until the end of 1917.

The Albatros C.II Gitterschwanz (lattice tail) was an experimental pusher aircraft built with wings and undercarriage of the Albatros C.I.

2 October 2012

The combat of Ostrolenka (16 February 1807) was a minor French victory won on the right flank of their long front in Poland, and ended a Russian attempt to push the French back in the south.

The Convention of Schönbrünn (15 December 1805) was an alliance between Prussia and France forced on the Prussians in the aftermath of Napoleon's great victory at Austerlitz.

1 October 2012

The 94th Bombardment Group was a B-17 unit that took part in the US Strategic campaign over Germany from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe as well as directly supporting the D-Day landings and the land campaign in Europe.

The 381st Bombardment Group was a B-17 group in the Eighth Air Force and took part in the daylight strategic bombing campaign over Europe.

28 September 2012

The Mitsubishi Army Type Ki 1 Trainer was a licence-built version of the Hanriot HD-14 that served as the main basic trainer in the Japanese Army from the mid-1920s until the mid-1930s.

The Mitsubishi Army Type Ko 1 Trainer was a licence-built version of the Nieuport 81-E2, one of the standard training aircraft in the early expansion of Japanese Army aviation.

27 September 2012

No.453 Squadron, RAAF, went through two incarnations during the Second World War, first as a short-lived fighter squadron swept up in the Japanese invasions of Malaya, Sumatra and Java, and second as a fighter squadron based in Britain.

No.454 Squadron, RAAF, was a medium bomber squadron that flew maritime patrols in the Eastern Mediterranean in 1943-44 before joining the Desert Air Force in Italy where it acted as a ground attack unit for the rest of the war.

25 September 2012

The Mitsubishi Hayabusa-type Fighter (1MF2) was designed in response to a Japanese Army fighter specification of 1927 but suffered an accident during testing and never entered production.

The Mitsubishi Experimental Washi-type Light Bomber (2MB2) was an unsuccessful entry into a 1925 Japanese army contest for a light bomber.

24 September 2012

The 351st Bombardment Group was part of the second wave of B-17 groups to join the Eighth Air Force, and took part in the daylight strategic bombing campaign over Germany.

The 379th Bombardment Group was part of the second wave of B-17 Groups to join the Eighth Air Force and took part in the daylight strategic bombing campaign over Germany.

19 September 2012

The Aichi Experimental Three-seat Reconnaissance Seaplane (HD-28) was the third of three Heinkel designs imported into Japan in 1926, and was tested for use as a long range reconnaissance aircraft.

The Aichi Experimental Type 15-Ko Reconnaissance Seaplane (Mi-go) was designed to replace the Type Hansa Reconnaisance Seaplane but wasn't a success and didn't enter production.

18 September 2012

The 305th Bombardment Group was a B-17 Flying Fortress group of the Eighth Air Force and took part in the daylight strategic bombing campaign over Europe.

The 306th Bombardment Group was an early B-17 group within the Eighth Air Force and took part in the daylight strategic bombing offensive from its early stages in 1942 until the end of the war in Europe.

17 September 2012

The combat of Hof (6 February 1807) was a rearguard action fought between the Russian rearguard under Barclay de Tolly and the advancing French during the Russian retreat before the battle of Eylau.

The battle of Eylau (8 February 1807) was the first major setback suffered by Napoleon on the battlefield and was a costly inconclusive battle fought in the snow in East Prussia.

13 September 2012

The 301st Bombardment Group was a B-17 group that entered combat with the Eighth Air Force in Britain but was soon moved to the Mediterreanean, where it operated from North Africa and then Italy.

The 303rd Bombardment Group was a B-17 Flying Fortress group that took part in the Eighth Air Force's strategic bombing campaign from 1942 until the end of the war in Europe.

12 September 2012

The 92nd Bombardment Group was a B-17 Flying Fortress group that formed part of the US Eighth Air Force and took part in the strategic bombing campaign as well as supporting the D-Day invasions, Operation Market Garden, the crossing of the Rhine and taking part in the Battle of the Bulge.

The 97th Bombardment Group took part in the first Eighth Air Force heavy bomber mission of the Second World War, but soon afterwards was transfered to the Mediterranean, where it spent the rest of the war, ending up in Italy

11 September 2012

The combat of Mohrungen (25 January 1807) saw Bernadotte's corps defeat part of a Russian army that was attempting to attack the isolated left wing of Napoleon's army in Poland in the winter of 1806-7.

The battle of Jonkowo (3 February 1807) was an inconclusive battle that allowed the Russians to escape from a trap set for them by Napoleon after the Russians attempted to attack the left flank of the French army in Prussia.

10 September 2012

The Mitsubishi Navy Type 10 Carrier Torpedo Aircraft (1MT1N) was the only triplane to enter military service in Japan, and was produced in small numbers before being replaced by the Mitsubishi Type 13 Carrier Attack Aircraft.

The Mitsubishi Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft (2MR1-2MR4, 2MRT1-2MRT3A) was a successful reconnaissance aircraft designed by Herbert Smith that had a second career as in intermediate trainer.

7 September 2012

Marshal Pierre-François-Charles Augereau (1757-1816) was a successful Revolutionary general and one of Napoleon's best generals in Italy in 1796 but his later military career was undistinguished, and his actions in 1814 and 1815 cost him his reputation and his titles.

The Treaty of Potsdam (3 November 1805) was an agreement between Prussia and Russia in which the Prussians agreed to join the Third Coalition if Napoleon didn't agree to peace terms.

6 September 2012

The 1st Bombardment Wing formed part of the US Eighth Air Force's strategic bomber force and took part in the daylight bombing campaign over Germany and occupied Europe from 1942 until the end of the Second World War.

The 91st Bombardment Group was a heavy bomber group equipped with the B-17 and that formed part of the Eighth Air Force's strategic bomber force from November 1942 until the end of the Second War World.

4 September 2012

The Mitsubishi Navy Type 10 Carrier Fighter (1MF1 to 1MF5) was the first purpose-built carrier fighter in the world and was designed for Mitsubishi by a British team led by Herbert Smith, previously a senior engineer at Sopwith.

The Mitsubishi Experimental Taka-type Carrier Fighter (1MF9) was the first carrier fighter to be designed by a Japanese engineer, but failed to gain a production order.

3 September 2012

The battle of Pultusk (26 December 1806) was one of two inconclusive battles fought on the same day between French and Russian forces, and was one of the first hints that the Russians might be a difficult opponent for Napoleon.

The battle of Golymin (26 December 1806) was one of two inconclusive battles fought between French and Russian armies in the Prussian partition of Poland on the same night.

31 August 2012

The Aichi AB-2 Experimental Catapult-Launched Reconnaissance Seaplane was the first aircraft of its type to have been designed in Japan without any foreign assistance, but the aircraft wasn't a success and only two prototypes were built.

The Aichi AB-3 Experimental Single-Seat Reconnaissance Seaplane was designed for use on a Chinese light cruiser, but despite being a successful design wasn't accepted by the Chinese.

30 August 2012

The combat of Czarnowo (23 December 1806) saw the French establish a bridgehead on the east bank of the River Ukra, at the point where it flows into the River Bug (War of the Fourth Coalition).

The combat of Biezun (23 December 1806) saw the defeat of a Prussian attempt to recapture Biezun on the Ukra River, a key position that connected the Prussians to their Russian allies.

29 August 2012

No.33 Squadron (RAAF) was a transport squadron that served in the south-west Pacific from 1942 until the end of the Second World War.

No.87 Squadron, RAAF, was a photographic reconnaissance squadron that operated over the Dutch East Indies, Timor, Java, Borneo and even the Philippines.

No.94 Squadron, RAAF, was a Mosquito fighter-bomber squadron formed in Australian in May 1945 but that never saw action.

28 August 2012

The battle of the Himera River (446 BC) was a clash between the Greek cities of Syracuse and Akragas, triggered by the return to Sicily of the Sicel leader Ducetius

The siege of Trinacie (c.440 BC) was one of the final stages in the Greek conquest of the Sicels, the native inhabitants of eastern Sicily.

24 August 2012

The Mitsubishi Army Type 87 Light Bomber (2MB1) was a version of the Navy Type 13 Carrier Attack Aircraft that saw service with the Japanese army early in the conflict in Manchuria.

The Mitsubishi Army Type 92 Reconnaissance Aircraft (2MR8) was a parasol wing aircraft that became the first Japanese military aircraft to use an engine entirely designed and built in Japan.

23 August 2012

No.4 Squadron, RAAF, was an army cooperation squadron that used Commonwealth Wirraway and Boomerang aircraft in support of the troops fighting on New Guinea and Borneo.

No.5 Squadron, RAAF, was an army cooperation squadron that served on Bougainville, New Britain and New Guinea from late in 1944 until the end of the Second World War.

No.24 (City of Adelaide) Squadron, RAAF, took part in the defence of Rabaul in 1941-42, where it suffered heavy losses of aircraft. After escaping to Australia the reinforced squadron took part in the fighting on New Guinea. It was then reformed as a heavy bomber squadron in Australia and taking part in the campaigns on New Guinea, in the Dutch East Indies and on Borneo.

21 August 2012

The battle of Halle (17 October 1806) was a French victory over the intact Prussian reserve army in the aftermath of the battles of Jena and Auerstädt.

The siege of Magdeburg (20 October-11 November 1806) came in the aftermath of the twin French victories at Jena and Auerstädt, and the surrender of the city marked the end of significant Prussian resistance in 1806.

20 August 2012

The siege of Motyum (451 BC) was the first known attempt by the Sicel leader Ducetius to conquer an area held by one of the major Greek powers of Sicily, and led to his greatest victory over the Greeks at the battle of Motyum.

The battle of Motyum (451 BC) was the most important battlefield victory won by the Sicel leader Ducetius, but he was defeated at Nomae in the following year and forced into exile.

17 August 2012

No.450 Squadron, RAAF, was a fighter squadron during the fighting in Syria in 1941 and in North Africa before becoming a fighter-bomber squadron for the campaigns in Sicily and Italy.

No.451 Squadron, RAAF, was a fighter squadron that provided air cover over Syria, Cyprus and the Nile Delta in 1942-43, and took part in the invasion of Southern France before moving to the UK where it spent 1945 flying a mix of bomber-escort and fighter-bomber missions.

No.452 Squadron, RAAF, was formed in the United Kingdom where it served as a fighter squadron during 1941 and the first part of 1942. It then moved to Australia to face the Japanese, before taking part in the re-conquest of the Dutch East Indies and Borneo.

16 August 2012

The battle of Saalfeld (10 October 1806) was the first major clash during the War of the Fourth Coalition and saw a French column defeat a smaller Prussian force under Prince Louis Ferdinand

The battle of Jena (14 October 1806) was one of two simultaneous battles won by the French on the same day and saw Napoleon with most of the Grand Armée defeat the Prussian flank guard at Jena while Marshal Davout defeated the main Prussian force further north at Auerstädt.

14 August 2012

No.1 Squadron (RAAF) first saw action during the Second World War as a Lockheed Hudson squadron that was destroyed during the fighting in Malaya, Sumatra and Java. It was then reformed in Australia, and attacked Japanese targets first from Northern Austrian and then from Borneo.

No.2 Squadron (RAAF) fought against the Japanese from 1941 until the end of the war, taking part in the desperate fighting on Timor in late 1941 and early 1942. It then took part in the defence of northern Australia, before going onto the offensive and carrying out a mix of reconnaissance missions and attack missions across the Dutch East Indies

No.3 Squadron (RAAF) was originally a reconnaissance unit, but in 1941 it became a fighter squadron and served in that role in North Africa, Sicily and Italy, ending the war as a ground attack unit.

13 August 2012

The battle of Schleiz (9 October 1806) was a minor clash early in the War of the Fourth Coalition and saw the French defeat an isolated detachment on the left of the Prussian army.

The battle of Auerstädt (14 October 1806) was the most important of two simultaneous French victories over the Prussians and saw Marshal Davoût with a single corps defeat the main body of the Prussian army while further south Napoleon with most of the Grand Armée defeated the smaller Prussian flank guard at Jena.

10 August 2012

The Mitsubishi Ki-20 Army Type 92 Heavy Bomber was based on the Junkers G 38 passenger aircraft, and was an unsuccessful design that never saw combat.

The Mitsubishi Ki-39 was a design for a twin-engined heavy fighter.

9 August 2012

No.9 Squadron (RAAF) was responsible for the amphibious aircraft carried on the cruisers of the Royal Australian Navy. It was formed in January 1939 and was equipped with the Walrus.

No.10 Squadron, RAAF, flew with RAF Coastal Command for the entire duration of the Second World War, sinking six U-boats during that period.

No.15 Squadron, RAAF, was a Beaufort squadron that served as an anti-submarine and convoy escort unit from its formation in 1944 as well as sending a detachment to support the fighting on New Guinea.

7 August 2012

General Charles Etienne Gudin de la Sablonniere (1768-1812) was a French general who played a major part in the French victory at Auerstädt, fought at Eylau, Eckmühl and Wagram and was killed during the French invasion of Russia in 1812.

General Honoré-Théodore-Maxime Gazan, comte de la Peyrière (1765-1845) was a French general who fought in Austria in 1805, Prussia in 1806 and Poland in 1806-7, before being sent to Spain where he remained to the end of the Peninsula War.

6 August 2012

The Aichi E3A1 Navy Type 90-1 Reconnaissance Seaplane (HD 56) was a Heinkel-designed single engined ship-borne reconnaissance aircraft that was produced in small numbers in Japan by Aichi.

The Aichi Experimental Type-H Carrier Fighter (HD-23) was the first single-seat fighter designed by Heinkel, and was a generally unsuccessful design that failed to win a production contract in Japan.

2 August 2012

General Paul Freiherr Kray von Krajova (1735-1804) was a relatively successful Austrian general who fought in Germany and Italy, but who was removed from command after suffering a series of defeats in Germany in 1800

Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia (1773-1808) was a promising Prussian general who was killed at the battle of Saalfeld in 1806.

Freidrich Tauenzein, Graf von Wittenburg (1760-1824) was a Prussian general who served through the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, fighting at Jena, Grossbeeren and Dennewitz.

1 August 2012

The Aichi Navy Type 2 Two-seat Reconnaissance Seaplane (HD-25) was an advanced biplane designed by Heinkel and produced by Aichi for the Japanese Navy.

The Aichi Navy Type 2 Single-seat Reconnaissance Seaplane (HD-26) was a Heinkel design imported into Japan by Aichi for use as a ship-borne reconnaissance aircraft, but that didn’t enter service.

31 July 2012

Ducetius, king of the Sicels (fl.461-440 BC) was a Sicilian leader who created a short-lived Sicel league that threatened Greek control of the interior of the island.

The battle of Nomae (450 BC) was a defeat that reduced the power of Ducetius, king of the Sicels, and that eventually forced him into exile.

27 July 2012

The Syracusan Revolution of 466 BC ended a period of tyrannical rule in the city and ushered in a prolonged period of democracy and prosperity.

The naval battle of Cumae (or Cyme) of 474 BC saw a combined fleet from Syracuse and Cumae defeat an Etruscan fleet in a battle fought in the bay of Naples.

26 July 2012

The Albatros G.I was an unsuccessful four-engined bomber, developed during 1915-1916.

The Albatros G.II was a twin engined bomber that served as the prototype for the similar Albatros G.III, which was produced in small numbers.

The Albatros G.III was a two engined bomber that was produced in small numbers starting late in 1916.

25 July 2012

The battle of Akragas (c.472-1 BC) was a clash between Heiro, tyrant of Syracuse and Thrasydaeus, tyrant of Akragas, that ended in victory for Heiro.

The battle of Crastus (c.465 BC) took place in the period between the removal of several Tyrants on Sicily and the establishment of a period of peace, and was fought between Akragas on one side and the inhabitants of the town of Crastus and their allies from Himera and Gela on the other.

23 July 2012

The Albatros Dr.I was one of a large number of triplane fighters designed in Germany during 1917, but didn't enter production.

The Albatros Dr.II was the second triplane design produced by Albatros, and like the Dr.I didn't enter production.

20 July 2012

The Mitsubishi Ki-1 Army Type 93 Heavy Bomber was an unsuccessful attempt to produce a heavy bomber based on the Junkers K 37, and was an unpopular aircraft in service.

The Mitsubishi Ki-2 was the most successful of a series of early Mitsubishi aircraft based on Junkers originals and was a light bomber based on the Junkers K 37.

19 July 2012

No.100 Squadron, RAAF, was the first Australian squadron to be equipped with Australian built Beaufort torpedo bombers, and fought in the defence of Australia and during the Allied campaigns on New Guinea.

No.102 Squadron, RAAF, was formed as a heavy bomber squadron but the war ended before it entered combat, and it saw limited use as a transport unit.

No.107 Squadron, RAAF, was an anti-submarine warfare squadron that used the Vought-Sikorsky Kingfisher to fly anti-submarine patrols off the east coast of Australia.

17 July 2012

The Morane-Saulnier Mörkö was the designation given to M.S.406s and M.S.410s in Finnish service after they had been given the Klimov M-105P engine.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.316 was the designation given to a single M.S.315 basic trainer that was powered by a Regnier inverted V engine.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.317 was a post Second World War designation given to forty M.S.315 primary trainers that were given new engines in the 1960s.

16 July 2012

The siege of Himera (480 BC) was the first military action of the Carthaginian invasion of Sicily of 480, and was ended by the dramatic Carthaginian defeat at the battle of Himera.

The battle of Himera (autumn 480 BC) was a famous victory won by the Greeks of Syracuse over an invading Carthaginian army.

13 July 2012

The Albatros D.XI was the first Albatros fighter to be powered by a rotary engine, but like the other Albatros fighter designs of 1918 didn't enter production.

The Albatros D.XII was one of a series of unsuccessful Albatros fighter designs produced during 1918.

11 July 2012

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.300 was the first in a series of prototypes that led to the successful M.S.316 primary trainer.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.301 was the second in the series of prototypes that led to the successful M.S.315 trainer.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.302 was an intermediate step between the M.S.300 of 1930 and the M.S.315 of 1932.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.315 was a parasol wing two-seat primary trainer that was produced in significant numbers and served with the Armée de l'Air and the Aéronavale.

10 July 2012

The Carthaginian Invasion of Greek Sicily of 481-480 BC took place at the same time as Xerxes's invasion of Greece and ended with a Greek victory at the battle of Himera.

Gelon, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse (fl.491-477 BC) is best known for the defeat of a Carthaginian army at the battle of Himera in 480 BC.

6 July 2012

Phalaris of Akragas (fl.c.571-554 BC) was one of the first Sicilian tyrants about whom we have any substantial information. He appears to have been a successful military leader, famous for his cruelty and who was overthrown by his own people after ruling for sixteen years.

Hippocrates, Tyrant of Gela (fl.498-491 BC) created a short-lived empire in eastern Sicily and was one of the first Sicilian Tyrants known to have been a major military leader.

The battle of the Helorus River (c.493 BC) saw Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela, defeat the army of Syracuse, but he was unable to capitalise on his victory by capturing the city.

5 July 2012

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.140S was a biplane air ambulance designed to carry a single stretcher patient.

The Morane-Saulnier MS.141S was an improved version of the MS.140S air ambulance, with a more powerful engine.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.152 was a two-seat fighter reconnaissance aircraft produced in small numbers in the late 1920s.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.341/3 was the only entry in the M.S.340 to M.S.345 series of aircraft to see military service, and was produced in small numbers for the Armée de l'Air.

3 July 2012

The Albatros D.VII was an experimental single seat fighter produced during 1917.

The Albatros D.IX was an attempt to produce a fighter that was easier to produce than earlier models, but its performance was poor and only one was built.

The Albatros D.X was developed for the second D type Competition, of June 1918, but wasn't accepted for production.

2 July 2012

Pentathlus' Expedition to Sicily of c.580 was probably one of the first clashes between the Greeks and the Phoenician inhabitants of western Sicily, and ended with a victory for the Phoenicians and their local allies.

Dorieus' Expedition to Sicily (c.510 BC) was an unsuccessful attempt by a band of Greek adventurers to capture the town of Eryx in western Sicily and use it as the basis of a new Greek city.

28 June 2012

The Albatros B.I was a large three-bay biplane designed before the First World War and that was taken into German service after the outbreak of war.

The Albatros B.II was a wartime development of the Albatros B.I and was an unarmed biplane scout that performed well until the Allies began to arm their aircraft.

The Albatros B.III was the last of the company's unarmed two-seater scouts and was a precursor to the most important of their armed scouts, the C.III.

27 June 2012

No.692 (Fellowship of the Bellows) Squadron was part of the light night striking force of Bomber Command and was the first Mosquito squadron to use 4,000lb bombs operationally.

No.695 Squadron was an anti-aircraft co-operation squadron that was based in East Anglia from its formation in 1943 until being disbanded in 1949.

No.1435 Squadron was formed as a defensive fighter squadron on Malta, before becoming a fighter-bomber squadron operating over Italy and the Balkans.

25 June 2012

The USS Massachusetts BB59 was a South Dakota class battleship that first saw combat during Operation Torch late in 1942 before spending the rest of the Second World War serving in the Pacific.

The USS Alabama BB60 was a South Dakota class battleship that entered service with the British Home Fleet in 1943 but that spent most of the war operating in the Pacific, where she provided cover for the fast carriers and performed some shore bombardments.

22 June 2012

No.683 Squadron was a photographic reconnaissance that operated from Malta during 1943 before moving to Italy, where it spent the rest of the war.

No.684 Squadron was a photographic reconnaissance squadron that carried out long range missions over South-East Asia.

No.691 Squadron was an anti-aircraft co-operation squadron that served in the south-west of England from its formation late in 1943 until it was disbanded in 1949.

21 June 2012

The Albatros D.III was the most successful in the series of Albatros biplane fighters, and helped the Germans win control of the air over the Western Front in the first part of 1917.

The Albatros D.IV was an unsuccessful entry in the series of Albatros biplane fighters that dominated over the Western Front during 1917, and was doomed by the failure of its engine.

The Albatros D.V was produced in an attempt to improve on the successful D.III but suffered from structural failures that reduced its effectiveness. It was followed by the stronger D.IIIa, which played a major part in the fighting in the first part of 1918.

20 June 2012

No.680 Squadron was a photographic reconnaissance squadron that served in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans from its formation in 1943 until early in 1945 when it was withdrawn to Egypt for mapping duties.

No.681 Squadron was a photographic reconnaissance squadron operating in the Far East that mainly focused on Burma but that also ranged further afield.

No.682 Squadron was a photographic reconnaissance unit that operated in the western and central Mediterranean during 1943 before moving to Italy where it remained for the rest of the war.

19 June 2012

USS South Dakota BB57 was the name ship of the second South Dakota class of battleships and served in the Pacific late in 1942, with the British Home Fleet during 1943 and in the Pacific again from 1944-45, serving as Admiral Nimitz's flagship during the surrender ceremonies in Tokyo Bay.

The USS Indiana BB58 was a South Dakota class battleship that spent her entire active career in the Pacific, serving from late in 1942 until the end of the war.

18 June 2012

The Albatros D.I was the first in a series of biplane fighters that helped the Germans gain control of the air over the Western Front early in 1917, but it was only produced in small numbers and was soon replaced by the Albatros D.II and Albatros D.III.

The Albatros D.II was the first version of the Albatros biplane fighter to be produced in significant numbers, and alongside the later D.III helped the Germans to gain air supremacy early in 1917.

15 June 2012

The USS Washington BB56 was a North Carolina class battleship that became the only one of the ten fast battleships in the US Navy to sink a Japanese capital ship.

The second South Dakota class battleships were built to produce a ship with the same characteristics as the previous North Carolina class, but with armour that was effective against 16in guns.

14 June 2012

No.671 Squadron was an airborne operations squadron formed in South East Asia late in 1944 but that was never used in combat.

No.672 Squadron was an airborne operations squadron formed in South East Asia late in 1944 but that was never used in combat.

No.673 Squadron was an airborne operations squadron formed in South East Asia late in 1944 but that was never used in combat.

No.679 Squadron was an anti-aircraft co-operation squadron that served in East Anglia from 1943 until 1945.

13 June 2012

The two North Carolina class battleships were the first new American battleships to be built after the 'building holiday' agreed in the Washington Naval Treaty.

The USS North Carolina BB55 was the name ship of the North Carolina class of battleships and served in the Pacific taking part in many of the island invasions of 1943-45 as well as the battle of the Philippine Sea and the bombardments of Japan.

11 June 2012

No.667 Squadron performed target towing and gun-laying duties from Gosport. The squadron was formed on 1 December 1943 from Nos.1631 and 1662 Flights, and was initially equipped with the Boulton-Paul Defiant.

No.668 Squadron was an airborne operations squadron formed in South East Asia late in 1944 but that was never used in combat.

No.669 Squadron was an airborne operations squadron formed in South East Asia late in 1944 but that was never used in combat.

No.670 Squadron was an airborne operations squadron formed in South East Asia late in 1944 but that was never used in combat.

1 June 2012

Admiral Soemu Toyoda (1885-1957) was the commander-in-chief of the Japanese Combined Fleet during the crushing defeats in the battles of the Philippine Sea and Leyte Gulf (both 1944), where his desire for a 'decisive battle' played a part in both defeats.

Jessie Oldendorf (1887-1972) was an American admiral best known as the victor at the battle of the Surigao Strait (25 October 1944), the last naval battle to be fought between two forces of battleships.

31 May 2012

The first South Dakota class of battleships was designed to provide the US Navy with larger fast battleships to counter rumoured Japanese fast battleships, but the entire class was cancelled under the terms of the Washington Naval Conference.

The Lexington class battlecruisers were the first American battlecruisers to reach the construction stage, but were cancelled before being completed.

No.661 Squadron was an Air Observation Post squadron that served in north-western Europe from August 1944 until the end of the Second World War.

No.662 Squadron was an Air Observation Post squadron that served in north-western Europe from June 1944 until the end of the Second World War.

No.663 Squadron was a Polish-manned Air Observation Post that supported the Polish Army Corps during the last phase of the war in Italy.

No.664 Squadron was a Canadian manned Air Observation Post squadron that supported the First Canadian Army during the last few weeks of the fighting in north-western Europe in 1945.

No.665 Squadron was a Canadian manned Air Observation Post squadron that supported the First Canadian Army during the last few weeks of the fighting in north-western Europe in 1945.

No.666 Squadron was a third Canadian-manned Air Observation Post squadron but it was formed too late to see action and didn't reach the continent until after the German surrender.

28 May 2012

Rear Admiral Clifton 'Ziggy' Sprague was an American carrier admiral most famous for his role in the battle of Samar, part of the wider battle of Leyte Gulf, where his group of six escort carriers managed to avoid destruction at the hands of the main Japanese battle fleet, preventing the Japanese from reaching the vulnerable invasion shipping in Leyte Gulf.

Admiral Thomas Sprague (1894-1972) was an American carrier admiral who had overall command of the escort carriers engaged in the battle of Leyte Gulf, although his namesake Clifton 'Ziggy' Sprague played the more famous role in the battle.

18 May 2012

The P 40 Heavy Tank was the only heavy tank to be produced in Italy during the Second World War and would have been the best tank to be used by the Italian Army if more than one had been completed before the Italian armistice of September 1943.

The P 43 Heavy Tank (or P 30/43) was a design for a heavy tank based on the Italian P 40, but armed with a 90mm gun in place of the 75mm gun used on the P 40.

17 May 2012

The Semovente da 105/25 was the best Italian armoured vehicle of the Second World War, but it was only just entering service at the time of the Italian armistice.

The Carro Armato Celere Sahariano (Quick Tank for the Sahara) was an Italian copy of the British Crusader cruiser tank that reached the prototype stage.

15 May 2012

No.656 Squadron was an Air Observation Post squadron that served on the Burma Front.

No.657 Squadron was an Air Observation Post squadron that served in Italy from August 1943 until the spring 1945 before being transferred to the Netherlands for the last few weeks of the war in Europe.

No.658 Squadron was an Air Observation Post squadron that served in Normandy and northern Europe before moving to India after the end of the war.

No.659 Squadron was an Air Observation Post squadron that landing in Normandy soon after D-Day and that supported the Allied armies until the end of the war in Europe.

No.660 Squadron was an Air Observation Post squadron that supported the Second Army in north-western Europe from July 1944 until the end of the Second World War.

14 May 2012

Admiral Thomas Kinkaid (1888-1972) was an American admiral who commanded the 7th Fleet, cooperating with MacArthur during the liberation of the Philippines and who played a major part in the American victory at Leyte Gulf in October 1944.

Admiral Marc Mitscher (1887-1947) was an American admiral best known as the command of the fast carrier task force in the Pacific during the battles of the Philippine Sea, Leyte Gulf, Iwo Jima and Okinawa.

11 May 2012

No.651 Squadron was the first of fifteen Air Observation Post squadrons formed to provide light aircraft for artillery officers who would observe and correct the accuracy of their own guns.

No.652 Squadron was an Air Observation Post that landed in Normandy on the day after D-Day and supported the Second Army in Europe for the rest of the war.

No.653 Squadron was an Air Observation Post that landed in Normandy towards the end of June 1944 and that supported army in Europe for the rest of the war.

No.654 Squadron was an Air Observation Post squadron that supported the First Army in North Africa and the Eighth Army in Sicily and Italy.

No.655 Squadron was an Air Observation Post squadron that served in Italy from the summer of 1943 until the end of the Second World War.

10 May 2012

The Semovente da 75/34 was the second main entry in the series of self-propelled guns based on the M-13/ M-14/ M-15 series of Italian tanks and differed from the Semovente da 75/18 mainly by having a longer L/34 gun.

The Semovente da 75/46 was a self-propelled gun that was produced in tiny numbers by Ansaldo at Genoa during 1944.

The Semoventi da 90/53 was a self-propelled gun designed to form part of the divisional artillery regiments in the Italy army.

8 May 2012

Admiral Takeo Kurita (1889-1977) was a senior Japanese admiral who took was present at Midway, the fighting around Guadalcanal and the Battle of the Philippine Sea, but who is best remembered for his failure to take advantage of a potentially good position during the battle of Leyte Gulf.

Admiral Jisaburo Ozawa (1886-1966) was a Japanese admiral who took part in the early successes in Malaya, Sumatra and Java but who is best known for suffering a crushing defeat at the battle of the Philippine Sea and commanding a decoy carrier group at Leyte Gulf.

7 May 2012

The battle of the Surigao Straits (25 October 1944) was the last clash between battleships and saw a force of older American battleships crush a Japanese squadron attempting to break into Leyte Gulf.

The battle of Samar (25 October 1944) was the nearest the Japanese came to success during the battle of Leyte Gulf and saw a powerful Japanese battleship force come close to destroying a force of American escort carriers.

4 May 2012

No.628 Squadron was formed as a special duties squadron but spent most of its brief existence flying a mix of meteorological flights and air-sea rescue missions in the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean.

No.630 Squadron was part of Bomber Command and took part in the strategic bombing campaign from its formation late in 1943 until the end of the Second World War.

No.631 Squadron was a target-towing and gun laying training squadron that was based in Wales from its formation 1943 until the end of the Second World War.

No.635 Squadron was formed as part of the pathfinder force of Bomber Command and carried out that role from its formation in March 1944 until the end of the Second World War.

No.639 Squadron was an anti-aircraft co-operation squadron that served in Cornwall from its formation in December 1943 until being disbanded in April 1945.

No.650 Squadron was a target-towing and gun-laying practice squadron that served on the eastern side of the Irish Sea from its formation in December until the end of the Second World War.

3 May 2012

The battle of the Sibuyan Sea (23-24 October 1944) was the opening phase of the battle of Leyte Gulf and saw American submarines and carrier aircraft attack Admiral Kurita's I Striking Force, sinking the massive battleship Musashi.

The battle of Cape Engano (25 October 1944) was a one-sided American victory that saw Admiral Halsey's 3rd Fleet sink four Japanese aircraft carriers, but at the same time exposing the invasion shipping in Leyte Gulf to a possible Japanese attack.

1 May 2012

No.623 Squadron was a short-lived heavy bomber squadron that took part in Bomber Command's strategic bombing offensive for three months.

No.625 Squadron was part of Bomber Command's main force from its formation in October 1943 until the end of the Second World War.

No.626 Squadron was a heavy bomber squadron that formed part of Bomber Command's main force from its formation in November 1943 until the end of the war.

No.627 Squadron was formed on 12 November 1943 as a Mosquito squadron within No.8 Group, where it served with the Night Light Striking Force.

30 April 2012

The Semovente da 75/18 was the first in a series of Italian self-propelled guns to be based on the chassis of the M 13/ M 14 and M 15 Medium Tanks, and mounted a more powerful gun than the medium tank it was based on.

The Semovente da 75/32 was a self-propelled gun that was produced in small numbers before being abandoned in favour of the more powerful Semovente de 75/34.

27 April 2012

USS Maryland (BB 46) was a Colorado class battleship that suffered only minor damage at Pearl Harbor and was in service for almost the entire Pacific War, taking part in the invasions of the Gilbert Islands, Marshall Islands, Marianas Islands, the Palaus, the Philippines and Okinawa.

USS Washington (BB 47) was a member of the Colorado Class of battleships, but work on her was abandoned after the Washington Naval Treaty was signed and she was instead used as a gunnery target.

USS West Virginia (BB 48) was a Colorado Class battleship that was the most seriously damaged of the ships sunk at Pearl Harbor to return to combat duties, taking part in the last year of the war in the Pacific.

26 April 2012

The battle off Formosa (12-16 October 1944) was an air battle between Japanese naval aircraft based on Formosa and the aircraft of the US 3rd Fleet that ended with an overwhelming American victory that crippled Japanese naval air power just days before the battle of Leyte Gulf (23-26 October 1944).

The battle of Leyte Gulf (22-26 October 1944) was one of the largest and most complex naval battles in history and ended as a massive American victory that effectively destroying the fighting capability of the Japanese navy.

25 April 2012

The M 15-42 was the final Italian medium tank of the Second World War, but was only just entering service at the Italian Armistice in September 1943.

The Semovente da 47/32 was a self-propelled light tank destroyer based on the chassis of the L 6-40 light tank.

24 April 2012

No.620 Squadron was formed in 1943 as a heavy bomber squadron, but after 61 missions became a transport and airborne forces squadron, flying a mix of glider towing, paratrooper and air supply missions.

No.621 Squadron was a general reconnaissance squadron that spend 1943-45 engaged in anti-submarine warfare and general maritime patrols in the seas off East Africa and in the Red Sea.

No.622 Squadron was a heavy bomber squadron that formed part of Bomber Command's main force from the summer of 1943 until the end of 1945.

20 April 2012

The Colorado class battleships were the last class of 'old' battleships completed for the US Navy, and were a repeat of the previous Tennessee class but with twin 16in gun turrets replacing the triple 14in turrets of the older ships.

USS Colorado (BB 45) was the name ship of the Colorado class of battleships, the last US battleships built before the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. She was undergoing a refit when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor and thus escaped damage. She took part in the invasions of Tarawa, the Marshall Islands, Saipan, Guam and Tinian, the landings at Leyte Gulf and the invasion of Okinawa

19 April 2012

The Tennessee class battleships were modified versions of the earlier New Mexico class ships, with an improved system of anti-torpedo protection and turbo-electric engines.

USS Tennessee (BB 43) was the name-ship of the Tennessee class of battleships. She survived Pearl Harbor with only minor damage and was present at many of the battles during the American advance across the Pacific towards Japan, from the Aleutians to Okinawa.

USS California (BB 44) was the second Tennessee class battleship and despite being sunk at Pearl Harbor was repaired in time to take part in the last year of fighting in the Pacific.

18 April 2012

The M 13-40 Medium Tank was the most important Italian tank of the Second World War, and due to the slow development of better medium tanks and the P 40 Heavy Tank had to bear the brunt of the fighting in North Africa despite being under-gunned and under-armoured by 1941-42.

The M 14-41 Medium Tank was an improved version of the M 13-40, with a more powerful engine and better desert equipment.

17 April 2012

The L 6-40 Light Tank was the first Italian light tank to be equipped with a fully traversing turret.

The M 11-39 Medium Tank was the first in a series of medium tanks that provided the main equipment of the Italian Armoured Divisions during the Second World War, but the M 11 itself was outdated by 1940 and most were lost in the first British offensive in the Western Desert.

13 April 2012

No.617 Squadron is undoubtedly the most famous RAF squadron of the Second World War, earning that fame on its very first operational sortie, the famous dams raid of 16/17 May 1943. The 'dambusters' went on to become a highly accurate precision bombing squadron, reserved for special targets – either small scale, difficult to hit or that required the use of Barnes Wallis's other special bombs of the Second World War, the Tallboy and Grand Slam.

No.618 Squadron was formed to use a scaled down version of Barnes Wallis' 'bouncing bomb' as an anti-shipping weapon, but despite a great deal of effort and a transfer to the Far East the squadron never carried out an attack with its new weapon.

No.619 Squadron was a heavy bomber squadron that formed part of Bomber Command's main force from 1943 until the end of the Second World War.

12 April 2012

The L 3-35 Light Tank was an improved version of the earlier L 3-33, with better armour and an improved engine.

The L 3-38 Light Tank was the last entry in the series of Italian light tanks that had started with the CV.29 and that played a part in Italian military successes of the 1930s.

11 April 2012

The Carro Veloce 29 Tankette (CV.29) was the designation given to an Italian version of the British Carden-Loyd Mk VI tankette (a two man tracked vehicle with an open crew compartment)

The L 3-33 Light Tank was the first in a series of three-ton light tanks that were still in Italian service during the Second World War.

10 April 2012

The Fiat 2000 was the first tank to be built in Italy, and was a private venture paid for by Fiat.

The Fiat 3000 was the first tank to be mass-produced in Italy and was an improved version of the French Renault FT.

9 April 2012

General Alexander Mikhailovich Korsakov (or Rimsky-Korsakov), 1753-1840, was a Russian general best known for his defeat at the Second battle of Zurich in September 1799, but who went on to serve as governor of Lithuania for thirty years.

The Grand Duke Constantine (1779-1831) was the younger brother of Tsar Alexander I and was his heir until he chose to marry Johanna Grudzinska, a Polish lady.

6 April 2012

No.613 (City of Manchester) Squadron had a very varied wartime career, beginning as an army cooperation squadron and flying coastal patrols, air-sea rescue missions, tactical reconnaissance and fighter-bomber missions before ending the war as a night intruder squadron.

No.615 (County of Surrey) Squadron was a fighter squadron that took part in the Battle of Britain and the early sweeps over France before moving to Burma, where it performed a mix of offensive and defensive duties for the rest of the war.

No.616 (South Yorkshire) Squadron was a fighter squadron that became the first operational squadron to use a jet aircraft when it was equipped with the Gloster Meteor during 1944.

4 April 2012

No.610 (County of Chester) Squadron was a fighter squadron that took part in the Battle of Britain, before taking part in fighter sweeps,  shipping reconnaissance duties and the anti flying-bomb campaign

No.611 (West Lancashire) Squadron was a fighter squadron that flew a mix of offensive and defensive missions, ending the war as an escort squadron.

No.612 (County of Aberdeen) Squadron served with Coastal Command throughout the Second World War, spending most of the war operating from the UK but for the first half of 1942 it was based on Iceland.

2 April 2012

No.607 (County of Durham) Squadron was a fighter squadron that took part in the fighting in France in May 1940 and the Battle of Britain before moving to the Far East where it operated over Burma from 1942 until the end of the war.

No.608 (North Riding) Squadron went through two incarnations during the Second World War, the first with Coastal Command and the second as the only Auxiliary Air Force squadron to join Bomber Command.

No.609 (West Riding) Squadron began the Second World War as a fighter squadron, taking part in the Battle of Britain, before moving onto intruder operations, eventually joining Second Tactical Air Force.

30 March 2012

No.603 (City of Edinburgh) Squadron was a fighter squadron responsible for the first German aircraft to be shot down over Britain during the Second World War. It then went on to fight in the Battle of Britain and the offensive sweeps over France before moving to the Middle East where flew a mix of convoy protection, escort missions and anti-shipping strikes. Finally it returned to the UK to serve as a fighter-bomber squadron for the last months of the war in Europe.

No.604 (County of Middlesex) Squadron spent most of the Second World War as a night fighter squadron, flying a mix of defensive and offensive duties.

No.605 (County of Warwick) Squadron went through two incarnations during the Second World War, first as a fighter squadron that took part in the Battle of Britain before being destroyed during the early part of the war in the Pacific in 1942 and second as a home-based intruder squadron.

29 March 2012

The battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805), or the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of Napoleon's most impressive victories and saw him inflict a crushing defeat on an Austro-Russian army, in the process knocking Austrian out of the War of the Third Coalition.

28 March 2012

No.600 'City of London' Squadron was an Auxiliary Air Force squadron that spent most of the Second World War serving as a night fighter unit, first from the UK and later in the Mediterranean.

No.601 'County of London' Squadron was a fighter squadron that took part in the fighting in France in 1940, the Battle of Britain, then moved to the Mediterranean, where it fought in North Africa, Sicily and Italy.

No.602 'City of Glasgow' Squadron was a fighter squadron that took part in the Battle of Britain before going on the offensive with 2nd Tactical Air Force. It was later withdrawn to the UK to counter the V-2 rocket.

26 March 2012

The battle of Durnstein (11 November 1805) saw an isolated French force north of the Danube come close to being destroyed by a much larger Austro-Russian Army, before French reinforcements saved the day.

The combat of Hollabrunn (15-16 November 1805) was a delaying action fought by the Russian that helped prevent Napoleon from trapping Kutuzov's army before it could join up with another Russian army approaching from the north.

23 March 2012

The Cruiser Tank A31 was a Rolls Royce design for a version of the Cromwell cruiser tank but with heavier armour.

The Cruiser Tank A32 was the third of a series of Rolls-Royce designs for versions of the Cromwell tank with heavier armour.

The Cruiser Tank Comet (A34) was probably the best British tank of the Second World War and was a reliable cruiser tank armed with a high velocity 77mm gun.

The Cruiser Tank A35 was the last and heaviest in a series of Rolls Royce designs for up-armoured versions of the Cromwell tank.

22 March 2012

Field Marshal Friedrich Wilhelm, Count Buxhowden (1750-1811) was one of the less able Russian generals of the Napoleonic Wars, and was prominent in the Austro-Russian defeat at Austerlitz.

Admiral Pavel Chichagov (1767-1849) was an important Russian naval reformer who is best known for letting Napoleon slip past his blockading forces in 1812, and who spent the last thirty years of his life in exile.

21 March 2012

No.582 Squadron was a Lancaster-equipped Pathfinder squadron that served with Bomber Command's main force from April 1944 until the end of the Second World War.

No.587 Squadron was an anti-aircraft co-operation unit that served in the south-west of England and southern Wales from late in 1943 until the end of the war.

No.595 Squadron was an anti-aircraft co-operation squadron that operated in Wales from its formation late in 1943 until early in 1949.

No.597 Squadron was formed as a transport squadron on 10 January 1944, but no aircraft were received, and the new squadron was disbanded on 1 March 1944.

No.598 Squadron was an anti-aircraft co-operation squadron that served in the north of Scotland from the end of 1943 until the spring of 1945.

20 March 2012

The battle of Elchingen (14 October 1805) saw the French fight their way from the south to the north bank of the Danube, making up for a misjudgement on Napoleon's part and also thwarting an Austrian attempt to escape from Ulm.

The combat of Michelberg (16 October 1805) saw the French push the Austrians out of a key position outside Ulm, making the surrender at Ulm of 20 October almost inevitable.

The battle of Amstetten (5 November 1805) was one of a number of rearguard actions fought as General Kutuzov attempted to elude Napoleon in the aftermath of the Austrian surrender at Ulm.

15 March 2012

The Cruiser Tank A26 was a design for a cruiser tank that would have been based on the Infantry Tank Mk IV Churchill, but made significantly lighter

The Cruiser Tank A28 was one of a number of proposals for improved versions of the A27M Cromwell.

The Cruiser Tank A29 was a Rolls Royce design for a 45 ton cruiser tank that would have carried the excellent 17pdr gun.

The Cruiser Tank Challenger (A30) was designed in an attempt to mount the 17pdr gun in a cruiser tank. It wasn't an entirely satisfactory design, but it did enter combat in north-western Europe late in 1944 where the 17pdr gun was a welcome improvement in firepower.

14 March 2012

Mikhail Andreas Barclay de Tolly (1761-1818) was a Russian general who played a major part in the defeat of Napoleon in 1812 but whose career suffered because of his 'foreign' origins.

General Levin August Theophil, Count Bennigsen (1745-1826) was a Russian officer of Hanoverian origin who held high command in the campaigns of 1806-7, 1812 and 1813, despite a lack of genuine command ability at the highest levels.

13 March 2012

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.250 was an advanced trainer designed for observers. It was similar in appearance to the M.S.230 intermediate trainer, with a swept-back parasol wing, but that had a new tail.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.251 was a more developed version of the M.S.250 advanced observer trainer.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.330 was a parasol wing trainer designed to replace the M.S.230 in French service, but that failed to live up to expectations and didn't enter production.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.331 was the designation given to a version of the unsuccessful M.S.330 trainer with a different engine

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.332 was the designation given to a version of the unsuccessful M.S.330 trainer given a Hispano-Suiza 9Qa radial engine

12 March 2012

No.575 Squadron was an airborne forces squadron that took part in the D-Day landings, the battle of Arnhem and the crossing of the Rhine.

No.576 Squadron was a Lancaster bomber squadron that served with No.1 Group from its formation late in 1943 until the end of the Second World War.

No.577 Squadron was an anti-aircraft co-operation squadron that worked with the army and navy from its formation in December 1943 until being disbanded in June 1946.

9 March 2012

The combat of Wertingen (8 October 1805) was the first significant fighting of the Ulm campaign, and saw part of the French advance guard defeat an Austrian column ten miles to the south of the Danube.

The combat of Gunzburg (9 October 1805) saw a French corps under Marshal Ney capture the bridge over the Danube at Gunzburg, tightening the French noose around Mack's Austrian army at Ulm and also delaying a planned Austrian offensive north of the river.

The battle of Albeck (11 October 1805) saw a badly outnumbered French force hold its own against an Austrian column attempting to escape from Ulm (War of the Third Coalition).

8 March 2012

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.233 was a version of the M.S.230 parasol wing intermediate trainer produced under licence in Portugal.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.234 was the designation given to three civil versions of the M.S.230 parasol wing trainer.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.235 was a version of the M.S.230 parasol wing intermediate trainer that was powered by a 300hp Gnome-Rhône 7Kb engine

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.236 was a version of the M.S.230 parasol wing intermediate trainer produced under licence by SABCA in Belgium.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.237 was the designation given to five aircraft based on the M.S.230 intermediate parasol wing trainer that were sold into private hands.

7 March 2012

The Cruiser Tank Mk VIII Centaur (A27L) was a version of the Cromwell tank powered by a Liberty engine. It was not a great success itself, but many Centaurs were converted into or completed as Cromwells and in that configuration used in combat in north-western Europe.

The Cruiser Tank Mk VIII Cromwell (A27M) was the most important British produced tank during the campaign in north-western Europe in 1944-45 by which time it had evolved into a reliable if somewhat under-gunned tank that performed well in the 'great swan' across France.

6 March 2012

General Peter Bagration (1765-1812) was one of the most popular and aggressive Russian generals of the Napoleonic Wars, best known for his role in the 1812 campaign and his death at Borodino.

General Karl Federovich Baggovut (1761-1812) was a Russian general who fought in the campaigns of 1805-1807 and 1812 and who was killed in battle outside Moscow. His name is also spelt at Baggovout or Bagavut.

2 March 2012

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.229 was a version of the M.S.230 two-seat intermediate trainer that was produced for Switzerland during 1931.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.230 was the most important French intermediate training aircraft of the interwar period, and was a two-seat swept-back parasol wing trainer.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.231 was the designation given to six M.S.230 intermediate trainers that were powered by 240hp Lorraine 7Mb engines

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.232 was an experimental version of the M.S.230 intermediate trainer that was powered by a 200hp Clerget 9Ca diesel engine

1 March 2012

The Cruiser Tank Mk VIII Cavalier (A24) was a heavy cruiser tank based on the Crusader but with thicker armour and a 6pdr gun.

The Cruiser Tank Mk VI Crusader (A15) was the main British-built tank used in the Western Desert from 1941 until late in 1942. It earned a justified reputation for being unreliable, and was eventually replaced by the American M3s and M4s.

29 February 2012

General Freidrich, Freiherr Bianchi, duke of Casalanza (1768-1855) was an Austrian general who fought in the campaign of 1809, at Dresden and Leipzig and who defeated Murat at Tolentino during the Hundred Days.

Ferdinand Bubna Graf von Litic (1768-1826) was an Austrian general who served as adjutant-general for much of the Napoleonic Wars before getting a field command in 1813, fighting at Dresden, Leipzig and in Savoy.

28 February 2012

Heinrich, Graf Bellegarde (1756-1845), was a capable Austrian general who commanded against the French from 1799 until 1815.

General Johann Peter, Freiherr von Beaulieu (1725-1819) was an Austrian general who was defeated by Napoleon during his first campaign in Italy in 1796.

27 February 2012

No.550 Squadron was a Lancaster squadron that formed part of Bomber Command's main force from his formation in November 1943 until the end of the war.

No.567 Squadron was an anti-aircraft co-operation squadron that served in the south-east of England from its formation late in 1943 until the end of the Second World War.

No.569 Squadron was a transport squadron that was never completely activated.

No.570 Squadron was an airborne forces squadron that took part in every major airborne operation from D-Day to the crossing of the Rhine, supported SOE operations in Europe and also served as a tactical bomber squadron during 1945.

No.571 Squadron was a mosquito bomber squadron that formed part of the Light Night Striking Force from its formation in April 1944 until the end of the Second World War.

24 February 2012

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.147 was a trainer produced by matching the faired fuselage and landing gear of the M.S.130 and the swept back parasol wing of the M.S.138.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.148 was the designation given to one M.S.147 swept parasol wing trainer that was powered by a 95hp Salmson 7Ac engine

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.149 was a parasol wing basic trainer that was used by the French Navy during the first half of the 1930s.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.200 was a parasol wing intermediate trainer produced in 1929 and tested but not adopted by the French navy.

23 February 2012

The Cruiser Tank Mk III (A13) was the first in a long series of British cruiser tanks to feature Christie suspension, giving it much better performance than the A9 and A10 cruiser tanks that it replaced.

The Cruiser Tank Mk IV (A13 Mk II) was an up-armoured version of the Cruiser Tank Mk III (A13 Mk I) and was produced in much larger numbers than the earlier tank.

The A13 Mk III Cruiser Tank Mk V Covenanter was the worst British tank of the Second World War, and due to chronic unreliability was never used in combat despite being produced in large numbers.

22 February 2012

The Medium Tank Mk III followed on from the Medium Tank A6 and was designed to replace the earlier Medium Tanks Mk I and Mk II, but like the A6 it was considered to be too expensive and was abandoned in favour of the lighter A9, which became known as the Cruiser Tank Mk I.

The Medium Tank A7 was developed at the same time as the Vickers A6 and Medium Tank Mk III, but was produced 'in-house', with the design being led by the Chief Superintendent of Design.

The Medium Tank A8 was a design for a 17.5 ton medium tank that would have been powered by two Rolls-Royce Phantom engines.

21 February 2012

No.544 Squadron was a photographic reconnaissance squadron that was split between bases in the UK at on Gibraltar when first formed, before concentrating in the UK in October 1943.

No.547 Squadron was an anti-shipping and anti-submarine warfare squadron that largely operated over the Bay of Biscay from late 1942 until the autumn of 1944, and then off the coast of Norway from then until the end of the war.

No.548 Squadron was a fighter squadron created to defend northern Australia against any Japanese air raids from the north.

No.549 Squadron was a Spitfire squadron formed to provide fighter cover in northern Australia, an area that remained within range of Japanese aircraft until surprisingly late in the Second World War.

20 February 2012

The Vickers Medium Tank Mk I was the first tank with a fully traversable turret to enter service with the British Army, and alongside the similar Medium Tank Mk II was the standard equipment of British tank units in the late 1920s and early 1930s.

The Vickers Medium Tank Mk II was the mainstay of the British tank force during the late 1920s and early 1930s (alongside the Mk I), but was totally obsolete by the start of the Second World War.

The Medium Tank A6 was designed in an attempt to replace the existing Vickers Medium Tanks Mk I and Mk II but was abandoned because of expense.

17 February 2012

No.540 Squadron was a long range reconnaissance unit that was formed from part of the Photographic Reconnaissance Unit, and that provided cover over most of occupied Europe.

No.541 Squadron was a photographic reconnaissance unit that was formed from part of the Photographic Reconnaissance Unit in 1942, and spent the rest of the war based at Benson and operating over occupied Europe.

No.542 Squadron was a photographic reconnaissance unit that operated the Spitfire over northern Europe from its formation in 1942 until the end of the war.

No.543 Squadron was a short-lived photographic reconnaissance unit that was disbanded in October 1943, one day short of a year after being formed.

16 February 2012

The Cruiser Tank A14 was a design for a heavy cruiser or medium tank that was built by the LMS to a design created by the Chief Superintendent of Tank Design.

The Cruiser Tank A16 was a design for a heavy cruiser or medium tank using Christie suspension designed and produced by Nuffields.

The Cruiser Tank A23 was an unsuccessful design for a heavy cruiser tank produced by Vauxhall in 1940-41.

15 February 2012

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.137 was a version of the parasol wing M.S.138 trainer that was powered by a 120hp Salmson 9Ac radial engine

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.138 was a two-seat parasol primary trainer, used by the French Air Force in the first half of the 1930s.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.139 was a version of the M.S.138 parasol wing two-seat primary trainer that was powered by a Clerget engine

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.191 was a version of the M.S.138 two-seat primary trainer that had a slightly reduced wingspan.

14 February 2012

The battle of Guling (203 BC) was the last victory won by Xiang Yu during the Chi-Han Contention, and saw him defeat the isolated Han army of Liu Bang.

The battle of Gaixia (January 202 BC) was the decisive battle of the Chu-Han Contention and saw Liu Bang inflict a major defeat on Xiang Yu of Chu, who committed suicide soon after the battle.

10 February 2012

The Cruiser Tank Mk I (A9) was designed to replace the Medium Mk III that had been cancelled due to its high cost, and saw limited service in the first years of the Second World War.

The Cruiser Tank Mk II (A10) was a more heavily armoured version of the Cruiser Tank Mk I (A9), originally designed to work with infantry. By the time it entered service it was judged to be too lightly armoured to serve in that role, and instead was classified as a 'heavy cruiser' tank.

9 February 2012

Zhang Han (pinyin)/ Chang Han (Wade-Giles) (d.205 BC) was an able Qin general who survived the fall of that dynasty, becoming king of Yong, but was then defeated by Liu Bang, the founder of the Han dynasty, and committed suicide.

The battle of the Si River (203 BC) was a major victory won by Liu Bang over a Chu army that had been defending the city of Chenggao.

The treaty of the Hong Canal (203 BC) was a short-lived peace treaty agreed between Liu Bang of Han and Xiang Yu of Chu, in which they agreed to split the old Qin Empire between them.

8 February 2012

No.530 Squadron was one of ten Turbinlite squadrons formed in September 1942, just before the entire programme was abandoned.

No.531 Squadron was one of ten Turbinlite squadrons formed on 2 September 1942 to operate a mix of searchlight-equipped Havocs and Hurricane fighters.

No.532 Squadron was one of ten Turbinlite squadrons formed on 2 September 1942 to operate a mix of searchlight-equipped Havocs and Hurricane fighters.

No.533 Squadron was one of ten Turbinlite squadrons formed on 2 September 1942 to operate a mix of searchlight-equipped Havocs and Hurricane fighters.

No.534 Squadron was one of ten Turbinlite squadrons formed on 2 September 1942 to operate a mix of searchlight-equipped Havocs and Hurricane fighters.

No.535 Squadron was one of ten Turbinlite squadrons formed on 2 September 1942 to operate a mix of searchlight-equipped Havocs and Hurricane fighters.

No.536 Squadron was one of ten Turbinlite squadrons formed on 2 September 1942 to operate a mix of searchlight-equipped Havocs and Hurricane fighters.

No.537 Squadron was one of ten Turbinlite squadrons formed on 2 September 1942 to operate a mix of searchlight-equipped Havocs and Hurricane fighters.

No.538 Squadron was one of ten Turbinlite squadrons formed on 2 September 1942 to operate a mix of searchlight-equipped Havocs and Hurricane fighters.

No.539 Squadron was one of ten Turbinlite squadrons formed on 2 September 1942 to operate a mix of searchlight-equipped Havocs and Hurricane fighters.

6 February 2012

Liu Bang (c.256-195 BC) was the winner in the civil wars that followed the collapse of the first Imperial dynasty in China, the Qin Dynasty, and was the founder of the Han Dynasty, which ruled with a short break for four centuries and established many features of Chinese life that lasted until the revolutions of the twentieth century

Xiang Yu (232-202 BC) was the most important leader of the rebellion that toppled the Qin Dynasty, but was unable to secure his own power and was defeated by Liu Bang in the Chu-Han Contention

3 February 2012

No.526 Squadron was a radar calibration squadron that served in northern Scotland.

No.527 Squadron was a radar calibration squadron formed to serve in the south of England and East Anglia, but whose area of operations eventually extended up to the north of Scotland.

No.528 Squadron was a radar calibration squadron that was formed in the south-west, before moving to Lincolnshire.

No.529 Squadron was a radar calibration squadron that was formed in Cheshire, but later moved to Henley-on-Thames, where it would become the first RAF squadron to use a helicopter operationally.

2 February 2012

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.130 was a parasol wing trainer that saw most use with the French navy.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.131 was the designation given to a single M.S.130 parasol wing trainer that was fitted with a 230hp Lorraine engine

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.132 was the designation given to a single M.S.130 parasol wing trainer that was converted to use a 120hp Salmson 7Ab radial engine

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.133 was the designation given to four existing parasol wing trainers that were converted to use the 270hp Gnome-Rhone 5Kc radial.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.134 was the designation given to a version of the M.S.130 swept parasol wing trainer that was powered by an 80hp Clerget 9B rotary engine

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.136 was the designation given to a version of the M.S.130 swept parasol wing trainer that was powered by an 120hp Salmson 9Ac radial engine

1 February 2012

No.516 Squadron was a short-lived unit that was involved in Combined Operations training in western Scotland from 1943 until the end of 1944.

No.519 Squadron was a meteorological squadron that operated over the North Sea and into the Atlantic.

No.521 Squadron went through two incarnations during the Second World War, in both cases as meteorological squadrons.

No.524 Squadron went through two incarnations during the Second World War, first testing the Martin Mariner flying boat and then operating against E-boats off the French coast.

No.525 Squadron was a transport squadron that flew between the UK and bases across Europe.

30 January 2012

The Chu-Han Contention (206-202 BC) was a civil war that followed the collapse of the Qin Dynasty, and that saw Liu Bang, the founder of the Han dynasty, defeat Xiang Yu, the leader of the revolt that had overthrown the Qin.

Peng Yue (d.196 BC) was a Chinese warlord who took part in the overthrow of the Qin Dynasty and the Chu-Han Contention, where he sided with Liu Bang and was rewarded by being made King of Liang

26 January 2012

The battle of Hsia-p’ei (204 BC) was a defeat suffered by the armies of Chu that forced Xiang Yu to abandon his campaign against Liu Bang around Xingyang, giving the Han leader time to recover from his narrow escape from that city.

The siege of Chenggao (204 BC) was the second occasion during the same year in which Liu Bang, the eventual founder of the Han Dynasty, was forced to flee from a besieged city with a handful of supporters (Chu-Han Contention).

25 January 2012

The battle of Lixia (October 204 BC) was a controversial victory won by a Han army commanded by Han Xin over an army of the Kingdom of Qi that came after Qi had decided to ally with Han.

The battle of the Wei River (November 204 BC) was a major victory that saw the Han general Han Xin defeat a Chu army that had been sent to defend the kingdom of Qi, allowing the Han to occupy the kingdom of Qi, a strategically important location to the north of the Chu heartland.

The battle of Ying (203 BC) was a victory won by a Han army over a Qi army, fought in the aftermath of the major Han victory on the Wei River (November 204 BC).

24 January 2012

The battle of Jingzing (205) BC was one of a number of unusual victories won by Han Xin, one of the most able supporters of Liu Bang, the founder the Han Dynasty (Chu-Han Contention).

The battle of Chenggao (204 BC) was a minor victory won by Liu Bang while the main Chu armies under Xiang Yu were distracted by a defeat suffered by one of his other armies at Hsia-p’ei.

23 January 2012

The battle of Pengcheng (205 BC) was a major defeat suffered by Liu Bang, the founder of the Han Dynasty, after he occupied the capital of his main rival Xiang Yu.

The siege of Xingyang (204 BC) was a victory won by Xiang Yu during his struggle against Liu Bang, the founder of the Han dynasty. Liu Bang was trapped in the besieged city, but managed to escape thus avoiding capture when the city fell.

20 January 2012

The battle of Julu (207 BC) was a key victory for rebels against the tottering Qin Dynasty, and resulted in the surrender of Zhang Han, their most able general.

The battle of Lantian (207 BC) saw a rebel army led by Liu Bang defeat one of the last Qin armies, a defeat that exposed the Qin heartland to conquest and ended the short-lived Qin dynasty.

19 January 2012

The battle of Linji (208 BC) saw two of the many rebels against the failing Qin dynasty defeated and killed by Zhang Han, one of the most successful Qin generals (Fall of the Qin Dynasty)

The battle of Dingtao (208 BC) saw the Qin army of Zhang Han defeat and Xiang Liang, king of Chu, the third rebel leader to fall to his armies during the course of 208 BC (Fall of the Qin Dynasty).

18 January 2012

The siege of Tiruvadi (14 January-5 May 1753) saw a French force pin down most of the British troops in southern India, preventing them from intervening in the early stages of the second siege of Trichinopoly (Second Carnatic War).

The third battle of Trichinopoly or battle of Sugar Loaf Rock, 2 October 1753 was a major British success during the siege of Trichinopoly of 1753-54 that still failed to raise the siege.

17 January 2012

The battle of Ch'ents'ang (206 BC) was the first victory won by Liu Bang, the founder of the Han dynasty, in the civil war that followed the fall of the Qin dynasty.

The battle of Haochih (206 BC) was the second victory in Liu Bang’s (founder of the Han dynasty) invasion of the kingdom of Yong, the first step in the civil war between Liu Bang and Xiang Yu.

The siege of Fei-ch'iu (206-205 BC) was the final stage in Liu Bang’s conquest of the kingdom of Yong, the first stage in his eventual creation of the Han dynasty.

16 January 2012

The short siege of Covelung (16-19 September 1752) was part of what Robert Clive called his ‘Glorious Campaign’ and saw him capture a French-held fort with a small army made up of raw recruits

The siege of Chingleput (9-13 October 1752) was the second of two victories won by Robert Clive during what he described as his ‘Glorious Campaign’, and saw him take the strong fort at Chingleput after a bombardment of four days

13 January 2012

The battle of Gingee (6 August 1752) was the first setback suffered by the British after their successes at Trichinopoly and Srirangam had appeared to give them the advantage over their French rivals in southern India (Second Carnatic War).

The battle of Bahur (6 September 1752) was a British victory over a French army that had been threatening Fort St. David, but one that had little long term impact.

12 January 2012

The siege of Trichinopoly (July 1751-10 April 1752) saw Chanda Sahib, the French supported Nawab of the Carnatic, attempt and fail to capture the city, which contained his main rival for the post, Muhammed Ali, as well as most of the British troops in southern India.

The siege of Srirangam (12 April-13 June 1752) saw the British turn the tables on a French army that had been besieging Trichinopoly, eventually forcing them to surrender.

11 January 2012

The siege of Conjeveram (16-18 December 1751) was the third victory won by Robert Clive in a short period, following his successful capture and defence of Arcot (September-November 1751) and the battle of Arni (3 December 1751), and saw him capture a strongly fortified temple at Conjeveram and rescue it's recently captured British garrison.

The battle of Kaveripak (28 February 1752) was a major victory won by Robert Clive, despite his being outnumbered and ambushed by his French and Indian opponents (Second Carnatic War).

10 January 2012

No.512 Squadron was a transport squadron formed in 1943 and that spent the first half of 1944 working with the airborne forces, and took part in the D-Day landings.

No.513 Squadron was a heavy bomber squadron that was formed and disbanded during 1943, never becoming operational.

No.514 Squadron was a Lancaster bomber squadron that formed part of Bomber Command from its formation late in 1943 until the end of the Second World War.

No.515 Squadron began its existence as an experimental electronic counter-measures squadron, before joining No.100 Group and ending the war as a Mosquito intruder squadron.

9 January 2012

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.50 was a parasol-wing primary trainer produced in 1924, and that differed from the earlier M.S.35 in having an improved wing.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.51 was a version of the M.S.50 parasol wing primary trainer, but with an inline engine in place of the original aircraft's radial engine.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.53 was a parasol wing trainer that was produced in small numbers and sold to the Turkish Air Force.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.129 was developed from the M.S.53 parasol wing trainer, and differed mainly in having a more powerful engine.

5 January 2012

No.501 ‘County of Gloucester’ Squadron was a fighter squadron that was originally formed as part of the Special Reserve in 1929, and that took part in the Battle of Britain, the period of offensive sweeps over occupied Europe and the anti V-1 campaign.

No.504 ‘County of Nottingham’ Squadron was formed as a Special Reserve bomber squadron in 1928, but spent the entire Second World War serving as a fighter squadron, ending the war as one of the first Meteor jet squadrons.

No.510 Squadron was a home-based transport squadron that provided communications flights in Britain from 1942 until the spring of 1944.

4 January 2012

No.357 Squadron was a Special Duties squadron used to support guerrilla fighters and Allied agents operating behind Japanese lines in Burma, Malaya and Sumatra.

No.358 Squadron was a special duties squadron that served in the Far East from early in 1945.

No.500 ‘County of Kent’ Squadron was a pre-war Special Reserve unit that served with Coastal Command for most of the Second World War before being reformed as a bomber squadron in 1944.

3 January 2012

No.354 Squadron was an anti-submarine and anti-shipping squadron that served in the Far East from its formation in 1943 until it was disbanded in May 1945.

No.355 Squadron was a heavy bomber squadron that operated over South-East Asia.

No.356 Squadron was a heavy bomber squadron that operated over South East Asia and that took part in the last bombing raid of the Second World War.

2 January 2012

No.351 Squadron was a Yugoslav-manned fighter squadron that carried out ground attack missions in support of the Yugoslavian partisans.

No.352 Squadron was the first Yugoslav-manned fighter squadron formed in the Mediterranean and was used for fighter escort and ground attack missions over Yugoslavia.

No.353 Squadron was formed in India in 1942 as a reconnaissance squadron, but spent most of the war serving as a transport unit.

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