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The 329th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a training unit that served with the US Fourth Air Force from 1942 to 1944.
The 332nd Fighter Group (USAAF) served in Italy in 1944-45, and spent most of that time escorting the heavy bombers of the Fifteenth Air Force.
The 337th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a training group that served with the Third Air Force in the south-east of the United States from 1942 until 1944.
The combat of Albeyda (15 March 1813) was a minor British success in eastern Spain, and was meant to be followed by an amphibious attack on Valencia which was cancelled before it began.
The combat of Yecla (11 April 1813) was a French success at the start of the Castalla campaign that saw Suchet’s Army of Valencia split the Allied army facing them on the Xucar, giving Suchet a chance of inflicting a serious defeat on Murray’s army of Alicante.
The siege of Corfinium (early 49 BC) was the first military action of the Great Roman Civil War and saw Caesar quickly overwhelm an attempt to defend the city against him.
The siege of Brundisium (49 BC) saw a brief confrontation between Pompey and Caesar at the start of the Great Roman Civil War, before Pompey escaped to Epirus.
The battle of the Moro River (4-26 December 1943) was part of the Eighth Army attack on the Gustav Line, the main German defensive position south of Rome, and came after the British had broken through the main Gustav line position in the east of Italy, behind the Sangro River.
The battle of Ortona (20-27 December 1943) saw the Canadians capture a key part of the Adriatic section of the Gustav Line in the first major urban battle of the Italian campaign, but by the time it ended the Eighth Army was in no condition to carry out further offensive operations.
The Lockheed T-33 was a two-seat training version of the P-80 Shooting Star, originally developed using Lockheed’s own funds, but soon adopted by the USAF and was produced in impressively large numbers.
The Lockheed F-94 was an all weather fighter produced to fill a gap in the USAF’s post-war arsenal. It entered service late in 1949 and remained in service for a decade, seeing some service in Korea.
The 76.2mm Divisional Gun Model 00/02 was the standard Russian field gun during the First World War, and a modified version was still in use in large numbers at the start of the Second World War.
The 76.22mm Divisional Gun Model 02/30 was an updated of the First World War era Model 00/02, and was still in service in large numbers during the Second World War.
USS Graham (DD-192) was a Clemson class destroyer that had a short active career with the US Navy before being sold for scrap in 1922.
USS Abel P Upshur (DD-193) was a Clemson class destroyer that served with the US Coast Guard and the Neutrality Patrol before being transferred to the Royal Navy, where she served as HMS Clare.
The 326th Fighter Group was a training unit that served with the First Air Force from 1942 until 1944.
The 327th Fighter Group was a training group that served with the First Air Force in the US from 1942 until 1944.
The 328th Fighter Group was a training unit based in the US South-West from 1942 until 1944.
The combat of Roncal (12-13 May 1813) was a partly successful French attempt to defeat the successful guerrilla leader Francisco Espoz y Mina by attacking his magazines, depots and hospitals.
The combat of Lequeitio (30 May 1813) was a rare success for the French in the north of Spain during their attempts to capture or destroy the Spanish guerrilla bands.
The Great Roman Civil War (50-44 BC) was triggered by the rivalry between Julius Caesar and his conservative opposition in the Senate, and saw Caesar defeat all of his enemies in battles scattered around the Roman world, before famously being assassinated in Rome on the Ides of March, triggering yet another round of civil wars.
The battle of the Sangro (20 November- 4 December 1943) was the first part of the Eighth Army contribution to the attack on the Gustav Line, the main German defensive position south of Rome.
The 17cm S.K. L/40 ‘Samuel’ in Raderlafette auf Eisenbahnwagen (wheeled carriage on railway wagon) was a fairly simple railway mounting for 17cm fast loading guns taken from German naval stocks.
The lange 21cm Kanone in Schiessgerüst (long 21cm gun in firing platform) or Paris Gun was a very long range railway gun that was just about able to hit Paris from positions behind the German lines, and caused a brief panic when it first entered combat in 1918.
USS Satterlee (DD-190) was a Clemson class destroyer that had a short US career before being transferred to the Royal Navy, where she served as USS Belmont before being sunk by U-81.
USS Mason (DD-191) was a Clemson class destroyer that had a limited US career, and then served in the North Atlantic with the Royal Navy as HMS Broadwater, before being sunk by U-101.
The 318th Fighter Group spent two and a half years based on Hawaii, before moving to the front in June 1944 to take part in the invasion of the Marianas and the air attack on Japan.
The 324th Fighter Group fought in Tunisia, Sicily, Italy, the south of France and the final advance into Germany, mainly operating as a close support unit.
The 325th Fighter Group fought in Tunisia, Pantelleria, Sicily and mainland Italy, then became a escort unit supporting the Italian based heavy bombers on their raids across Germany and occupied Europe.
The combats of Guernica (2 and 5 April 1813) saw a French column force the Spanish guerrillas to abandon their HQ in Biscay, but the majority of the Spanish troops were able to escape, reducing the value of the success.
The combat of Bilbao (10 April 1813) was an unsuccessful Spanish attempt to capture the city while it was weakly defended, but failed after one of the key forces failed to arrive in time to support the initial attack.
The battle of the Trigno (27 October-4 November 1943) saw the Eighth Army overcome the second of a series of German defensive positions on the Adriatic coast of Italy, in the aftermath of the initial landings in the south.
The battle of the Bernhardt Line (5 November-17 December 1943) saw the Allies capture the mountains that guarded the ‘Mignano Gap’, on the approaches to the main Gustav line positions behind the Garigliano and Rapido Rivers after a series of costly infantry assaults.
The Lockheed R3O was the designation for two versions of the Model 10 Electra used by the US Navy, one purchased for the Navy and one impressed during the Second World War
The Lockheed R5O was the US Navy’s designation for the Model 18 Lodestar transport, of which nearly 100 were used during the Second World War.
The 28cm K(E) ‘neue Bruno’ was the last of four models of railway gun produced by mounting old naval guns on railway carriages. It was an attempt to produce a weapon that was more powerful than the ‘short’, ‘long’ and ‘heavy’ Brunos,
The 80cm Kanone (Eisenbahn) was the largest artillery gun ever built, and was a vanity project that consumed far more resources than its limited impact could possibly justify.
USS Goldsborough (DD-188/ AVP-18/ AVD-5/ APD-32) was a Clemson class destroyer that spent much of the Second World War supporting amphibious aircraft, before being converted into a fast transport to take part in the invasions of Saipan, the Philippines, Iwo Jima and Okinawa.
USS Semmes (DD-189) was a Clemson class destroyer that served with the US Coast Guard in the interwar period and carried out a mix of experimental, training and escort work during the Second World War.
The 85th Fighter Group was a training group that served with the Second and Third Air Forces in the United States in 1942-44.
The 86th Fighter Group was mainly used as a close support unit, and took part in the invasions of Sicily, mainland Italy and the south of France, before ending the war operating over Germany.
The 87th Fighter Group was a short lived replacement training unit for P-47s.
The battle of the Biferno (1-7 October 1943) saw the British Eighth Army break through the eastern flank of the first German defensive line in Italy, the Volturno Line.
The battle of the Barbara Line (31 October-4 November 1943) saw the Allies break through the outlining defences of the ‘Winter Line’, a hastily constructed line of outposts between the Volturno and the more strongly defended Bernhardt and Gustav Lines.
The Lockheed F-80 Shooting Star was the first jet fighter to enter US service, but despite an impressively quick development didn’t arrive in time for the Second World War. It saw extensive service early in the Korean War, before being replaced by the F-86 Sabre.
The Lockheed XF-90 was a design for a penetration fighter, capable of escorting bombers and carrying out ground attack missions, but never got beyond the prototype stage.
The 28cm lange Bruno Kanone (Eisenbahn) was the second of four models of railway gun loosely based on a First World War original, and carried a L/45 gun.
The 28cm ‘Schwere Bruno’ (Heavy Bruno) was the third of four models of railway gun loosely modelled on the First World War 28cm ‘Bruno’ railway guns.
USS Clemson (DD-186/ AVP-17/ AVD-4/ APD-31) was the name ship of the Clemson class of destroyers. She entered service too late for the First World War, but had a varied career during the Second World War, serving as aircraft tender, a destroyer with an anti-submarine group and a fast transport.
USS Dalhgren (DD-187) was a Clemson class destroyer that was used on experimental and sonar training duties during the Second World War.
Operation Giant III, (14-15 September 1943) was an unsuccessful American airborne operation carried out to the north of the Salerno beachhead in an attempt to reduce the flow of German reinforcements from the north.
The battle of the Volturno Line (9-19 October 1943) saw the Germans under Kesselring delay the Allied advance north from Naples for over a week, winning crucial time for the construction of defences further to the north.
The Lockheed XP-49 was a design for a more powerful fighter to be based on the P-38 Lightning, but it never got beyond the prototype stage, and by the time the prototype was ready, it was outclassed by existing P-38s.
The Lockheed XP-58 Chain Lighting was a two-man version of the P-38 that suffered from repeated changes of purpose, and that never entered production.
The 28cm Kanone 5 (Eisenbahn) (schlanke Bertha or slim Bertha), was one of the most effective railway guns ever produced, and was large enough to have a major impact on the fighting, without being so large that it became too cumbersome to be used effectively.
The 28cm kurze Bruno Kanone (Eisenbahn) was the first of four models of railway artillery loosely based on a First World War original, and carried a L/40 gun.
The Clemson Class Destroyers were the second class of standardized flushdecker deck destroyers produced for the US Navy during the First World War, but none of them were completed in time to see service. Instead they formed the backbone of the inter-war destroyer force, were used for a large number of specialised modifications, and performed valuable service during the Second World War.
The 84th Fighter Group (USAAF) served as a training unit from 1942-1944.
The 407th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a home based training unit that also saw limited active service in Alaska.
The 408th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a home based training unit that was active from October 1943 to April 1944.
Operation Giant I (Revised), 13-14 September 1943, was the first of two successful attempts to reinforce the Salerno beachhead from the air.
Operation Giant IV, 14-15 September 1943 was the second of two successful attempts to reinforce the Salerno beachhead from the air.
The Lockheed XR2O was a single example of the Lockheed Electra that went to the US Navy in 1936.
The Detroit Lockheed YP-24 was a prototype for a two seat monoplane fighter that was purchased by the USAAC, but not placed into production. However it did lead to the later Lockheed P-30, which was produced in small numbers.
The Lockheed-Vega XB-38 was a prototype for an improved version of the Flying Fortress using inline liquid cooled engines to guard against any shortage of the standard R-1820s used on the B-17.
The Lockheed C-66 was the designation given to a single Twin Wasp powered Model 18 Lodestars that was impressed by the USAAF during the Second World War.
The 24cm Kanone 3 was a very heavy cannon designed as a long range counterbattery weapon, but that was only produced in very small numbers and used by a single unit in Normandy and on the Eastern Front.
The 35.5cm Haubitz M.1 was a massive siege howitzer that was used at the siege of Sevastopol.
The 20.3cm Kanone (Eisenbahn) was a German railway gun produced used spare barrels originally built for heavy cruisers.
The 21cm Kanone 12 (Eisenbahn) was a vanity project produced by the German Army, and consumed a vast amount of effort and resources without having any significant military value.
USS Thomas (DD-182) was a Wickes class destroyer that operated on convoy escort duties with the Norwegian Navy in exile as HMS St. Albans in 1942-43 and ended her career with the Soviet navy.
USS Haraden (DD-183) was a Wickes class destroyer that had a short career with the US Navy before become HMCS Columbia and serving on convoy escort duties in the Atlantic.
USS Abbot (DD-184) was a Wickes class destroyer that had a short career with the US Navy, then served as HMS Charleston with the Royal navy, mainly operating in British home waters.
USS Bagley (DD-185)/ USS Doran/ HMS St. Marys was a Wickes class destroyer that had a brief US career before being transferred to the Royal Navy, where she supported minelaying operations and carried out escort duties.
The 57th Fighter Group supported the British Eighth Army from El Alamein to Tunisia and onto Sicily and Italy, where it took part in the long campaign in Italy and the invasion of the south of France.
The 58th Fighter Group took part in the long New Guinea campaign, the invasion of the Philippines and attacked targets in Korea and on Kyushu.
The 59th Fighter Group went through two incarnations during the Second World War, first as an observation group and then as a training group.
The 78th Fighter Group served with the Eighth Air Force from 1943 until the end of the war, supporting the campaign in north-western Europe and the advance into Germany.
The 79th Fighter Group supported the British Eighth Army from 1942 until early in 1944, then fought at Anzio, in the south of France and in northern Italy, where it once again operated with the Eighth Army.
The 83rd Fighter Group was a training unit that served with the First Air Force.
Louis Marie Joseph Maximilien Caffarelli (1756-99) was an engineer who became one of Napoleon’s closest friends during the Egyptian Campaign, but who died after his arm was amputated during the siege of Acre.
Marie-Francois Caffarelli (1766-1849) was a French general who rose to command the Army of the North in Spain during the Peninsular War, but without great success.
Maximilien Sebastien Foy (1775-1825) was one of Napoleon’s most able divisional commanders, and performed well during the Peninsular War before fighting in the Waterloo campaign.
Philibert Guillaume Duhesme (1768-1815) was a French general who fought on the Rhine, in Spain and at Waterloo, where he was killed while commanding the Young Guard.
The siege of Pallantia (74 BC) was a rare success for Sertorius in the later stages of the Sertorian War and saw him prevent Pompey from capture the town of Pallantia, in his Celtiberian heartland.
Perpenna’s Defeat (72 BC) was the final battle of the Sertorian War, and saw Sertorius’s assassin defeated by Pompey after several days of skirmishing.
Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo (d.87 BC) was a successful but unpopular Roman general of the Social war and Sulla's First Civil War. He was the father of Pompey the Great, one of the greatest of all Roman generals.
Operation Speedwell (7 September 1943 onwards) was an SAS operation in the north-west of Italy that did significant damage to the rail links supplying the western end of the Gothic Line.
Operation Slapstick, 9 September 1943, was an amphibious operation that saw the British 1st Airborne Division capture Taranto without any resistance, giving the Eighth Army a second foothold in Italy and allowing them to gain control of the Adriatic coast around Bari and Brindisi.
Operation Avalanche, or the battle of Salerno (9-18 September 1943) was the main part of the Allied invasion of the Italian mainland, and saw a joint Anglo-American force land in the Gulf of Salerno, where it had to fight off a severe German counterattack before the position was fully secured.
The Lockheed C-56 was the designation given to a mix of Cyclone and Hornet powered Model 18 Lodestars that were impressed by the USAAF during the Second World War.
The Lockheed C-57 was the designation given to Twin Wasp powered Model 18 Lodestars that were used by the USAAF during the Second World War.
The Lockheed C-59 was the designation given to Hornet powered Model 18 Lodestars originally produced for Britain, some of which were impressed by the USAAF during the Second World War.
The Lockheed C-60 was the designation given to a mix of impressed Model 18 Lodestars and versions of the aircraft that were ordered specifically for the USAAF, and was by far the most numerous military version of the Lodestar.
The 28cm Küstenhaubitz was a naval version of the German army's 28-cm howitzer and was originally produced for coastal defence, although it ended up being used on the Western Front during the First World War.
The 28cm Haubitze L/12 was one of the heaviest guns in regular use with the German army during the First World War, but was an obsolete and almost immobile design that didn’t really justify the amount of effort it took to move it along the front.
The Long Barrel 21cm Morser L/14.6 was an improved version of the 21cm Morser L/12, the standard German heavy mortar at the start of the First World War, and was produced in somewhat larger numbers.
The 18.5cm V haubitz L/22 (Krupp) was an experimental weapon produced to provide a howitzer with the same range as the 21cm mortar.
Karl Philipp Furst zu Schwarzenberg (1771-1820) was an Austrian general and diplomat most famous for service as Allied supreme commander during the autumn campaign of 1813 and the invasion of France of 1814.
The Treaty of Vervins (2 May 1598) ended the fighting between France and Spain in the Ninth War of Religion, and effectively ended the long series of wars of religion that had divided France since 1562.
USS Stansbury (DD-180/ DMS-8) was a Wickes class destroyer that performed convoy escort duties in the Atlantic and took part in Operation Torch and the invasion of the Marshalls and Marianas.
USS Hopewell (DD-181) was a Wickes class destroyer that was sunk by U-204 while serving in the Royal Norwegian Navy as HMS Bath.
The battle of Saguntum or the Turia (75 BC) was a drawn battle during the Sertorian War, and saw Sertorius initially gain the upper hand before being forced to retreat.
The siege of Clunia (75 BC) saw Sertorius rebuild his army while being besieged by Pompey and Metellus, and then escape to join his new army.
Operation Baytown (3 September 1943) was the first stage in the Allied invasion of Italy, and saw Montgomery’s Eighth Army cross from Sicily to nearby Calabria.
Operation Hooker (8 September 1943) was an outflanking attack carried out by the Eighth Army in order to speed up their advance up Calabria.
The siege of Castro-Urdiales (22 March-12 May 1813) saw the French recapture a port that had fallen to a joint Anglo-Spanish force in the summer of 1812, but only after suffering a series of setbacks largely caused by underestimating the difficulty of the task.
The combat of San Pelayo (24 March 1813) saw the Spanish under Mendizabal attempt to defeat the French forces preparing to besiege Castro-Urdiales, but ended as a costly draw.
Defence Logistics in Military History (4 of 4) – An Analysis: placing the development of logistics into its proper historical context: Part 4 focuses on the later Cold War and post Cold War periods.
The battle of Valentia (75 BC) saw Pompey defeat two of Sertorius’s subordinates and capture the city of Valentia, giving him a successful start to the campaign of 75 BC that he wasn’t able to turn into a successful conclusion to the war.
The battle of the Sucro (75 BC) was an inconclusive clash between Pompey and Sertorius, but Sertorius was forced to retreat on the following day after Roman reinforcements arrived.
The Italian Campaign (3 September 1943-2 May 1945) was one of the hardest fought and most controversial offensives carried out by the Western Allies during the Second World War, and saw the Germans fight a skilful delaying action that lasted from September 1943 until the end of the war in the spring of 1945.
The Lockheed C-85 was the designation given to a single Model 9 Orion that was impressed into the USAAF in 1942-44.
The Lockheed C-101 ‘Vega’ was the designation given to a single example of the Lockheed Vega that was impressed by the USAAF in 1942
The 15cm Kanone (Eisenbahn) was the smallest calibre railway gun produced by the German Army during the period of rearmament in the 1930s, but only a handful were produced because it wasn’t a powerful enough weapon to be worth the effort.
The 17cm Kanone (Eisenbahn) was a slightly larger version of the 15cm K (E), but wasn’t powerful enough to be worth the effort required to produce it, and only a handful were ever built.
USS Hogan (DD-178/ DMS-6) was a Wickes class destroyer that took part in Operation Torch, and the invasions of the Marshalls, Mariannas, Luzon and Iwo Jima.
USS Howard (DD-179/ DMS-7) was a Wickes class destroyer that served as a minesweeper during Operation Torch, on convoy escort duties in 1943 and in the campaigns in the Pacific in 1944-45.
The 52nd Fighter Group was one of the first units to join the Eighth Air Force in Britain, before moving to North Africa for Operation Torch. It then spent the rest of the war operating in the Mediterranean theatre.
The 53rd Fighter Group served in the Panama Canal Zone and as a training unit, before being disbanded in 1944.
The 54th Fighter Group was mainly used as a training unit in the US, but also took briefly took part in the campaign in the Aleutian Islands in 1942.
The siege of Amiens (April-25 September 1597) was the last major campaign of the Ninth War of Religion, and saw Henry IV recapture the city after it had fallen to a Spanish ruse earlier in the year.
The edict of Nantes (13 April 1598) was the final religious settlement that came Henry IV’s victory in the Ninth War of Religion, and gave the Huguenots a series of political, social and religious rights and produced a period of comparative religious peace that lasted for almost a century.
The capture of Fuenterrabia (11 March 1813) was a daring exploit carried out by a force of Spanish guerrillas and saw them capture and destroy the castle at Fuenterrabia, within sight of France.
The combat of Lerin (30 March 1813) was a major victory for the Spanish troops of Mina, and gave Mina control of large parts of Navarre for almost a month.
Defence Logistics in Military History (3 of 4) – An Analysis: placing the development of logistics into its proper historical context: Part 3 focuses on the Second World War and Cold War.
The battle of Italica Hispalis (76 BC) was the first of two recorded victories won by Metellus Pius over Sertorius’s able lieutenant Hirtuleius, and came while Sertorius himself was campaigning in eastern Spain.
The battle of Segovia (75 BC) was one of the most significant battles of the Sertorian War, and saw Metellus Pius defeat and kill Sertorius’s most able lieutenant Hirtuleius.
Operation Husky No.2 (11-12 July 1943) was an almost disastrous attempt to fly reinforcements to the US paratroops dropped on Sicily in Operation Husky No.1.
Operation Fustian (13-14 July 1943) was an airborne assault on the Primosole Bridge, a key point on the coastal road to Catania, that didn’t go entirely to plan, and triggered a three day long battle to secure a bridgehead across the river.
The Lockheed C-111 Super Electra was the designation given to four Lockheed Model 14-WF62s that were impressed by the USAAF after they reached Australia after escaping from the Dutch East Indies.
The Lockheed XR4O was the designation given to a single example of the Lockheed Super Electra that was used by the US Navy.
The 17cm Kanone 18 was one of two parallel Krupp designs to use the same double recoil system, and soon replaced the 21cm mortar variant as the main production version.
The 21cm Mörser 18 was one of two parallel Krupp designs using a double recoil system, and was phased out in 1942 in favour of the longer ranged 17cm Kanone 18.
USS Renshaw (DD-176) was a Wickes class destroyer that had a very brief active career at the start of the 1920s.
USS O'Bannon (DD-177) was a Wickes class destroyer that had a very short service career at the start of the 1920s.
The 48th Fighter Group served as a replacement training unit, before joining the Ninth Air Force in Britain in the spring of 1944 and taking part in the campaign to liberate Europe.
The 49th Fighter Group took part in the defence of Australia, the long campaign on New Guinea, the return to the Philippines and raids against Formosa and the China coast.
The 50th Fighter Group served with various training commands in the US, before moving to Britain to take part in the liberation of Europe in 1944-45.
The siege of La Fère (November 1595-16 May 1596) saw Henry IV capture the last Spanish outpost south of the Somme, but while he was engaged in the siege the Spanish were able to capture Calais.
The fall of Amiens (11 March 1597) saw the city fall to the Spanish after they used a trick to get through the city gates.
The combat of Tiebas (9 February 1813) saw the Spanish guerrilla leader Mina defeat a French force that was attempting to lift the siege of Tafalla (to 12 February 1813), and was quickly followed by the fall of the town.
The combat of Poza de la Sal (10-11 February 1813) saw the Spanish guerrillas of Longa ambush the headquarters of Palombini’s division, which held out until reinforcements arrived and forced the Spanish to retreat.
Defence Logistics in Military History (2 of 4) – An Analysis: placing the development of logistics into its proper historical context
The siege of Lacobriga (78 BC) saw Sertorius outwit Metellus and foil his attempt to capture the chief city of one of Sertorius’s Spanish allies.
The siege of Lauro or Lauron (76 BC) saw Sertorius outwit Pompey and force him to watch helpless while the city fell to him and was destroyed (Sertorian War).
Operation Narcissus (10 July 1943) was an SAS raid carried out to support the Eighth Army landings on Sicily.
Operation Chestnut (12-19 July 1943) was an unsuccessful attempt by the SAS to disrupt Axis communications in northern Sicily, to support the Allied invasion of Sicily.
The Lockheed JO was the US Navy’s designation for the Lockheed 12 Electra Junior, a small twin engine transport aircraft.
The Lockheed XRO was the designation given to one Lockheed Altair, which became the first aircraft with a fully retractable undercarriage to be used by the US Navy.
The 21cm Versuchs Morser L/15 was Rheinmetall's attempt to produce a 21mm with barrel recoil and a range of over 9,000m, but was rejected favour of its Krupp rival.
The 21cm Morser L/12 was the standard German army heavy mortar at the start of the First World War.
USS Rizal (DD-174/ DM-14) was a Wickes class destroyer that was funded by the Philippine legislature and spent her active career in Philippine or Asiatic waters.
USS Mackenzie (DD-175) was a Wickes class destroyer that served with the Royal Canadian Navy as HMCS Annapolis.
The battle of Fontaine-Française (6 June 1595) was a minor clash between Henry IV and a Spanish army that was attempting to secure Dijon for the Catholic League.
The siege of Cambrai (11 August-7 October 1595) saw a Spanish army under the count of Fuentes recapture Cambrai, which had been in French hands since 1581.
The siege of Tafalla (to 11 February 1813) was a success for the Spanish guerrilla leader Mina, and saw him force the surrender of the French garrison, after defeating a relief effort.
The combat of Bejar (20 February 1813) was the only direct clash between Wellington’s army and the French during the winter of 1813 and saw an attempt to surprise the British 50th Regiment fail.
Defence Logistics in Military History (1 of 4) – An Analysis: placing the development of logistics into its proper historical context
The battle of the Baetis (80 BC) was one of Sertorius’s first victories in Spain after his return from Africa and marked the start of the long Sertorian War.
The battle of the River Ana (79 BC) saw Sertorius’s legate L. Hirtuleius defeat and kill M. Domitius Calvinus, the governor of Nearer Spain, somewhere on the River Ana (Sertorian War).
The invasion of Sicily (10 July-17 August 1943) was the first successful Allied invasion of one of the Axis partners, and helped secure Allied control of the Mediterranean as well as helping to trigger the fall of Mussolini.
The Lockheed C-37 was a single example of the Lockheed 10-A Electra that served with the National Guard Bureau.
The Lockheed C-40 was the Army designation for the Lockheed 12 Electra Junior, and covered a mix of aircraft that had been purchased by the Air Corps and aircraft that were impressed during the Second World War.
The 21cm Versuchs Morser L/10 (Krupp) was an early attempt to produce a mortar with barrel recoil, but was rejected because it lacked the required range.
The 21cm Versuchs Morser L/12 (Rheinmetall) was an attempt to produce a heavy mortar with barrel recoil, but it was rejected due to a lack of range.
USS Anthony (DD-172/ DM-12) was a Wickes class destroyer that served as a light minelayer from 1920 to 1922, before being decommissioned.
USS Sproston (DD-173/ DM-13) was a Wickes class destroyer that served as a light minelayer at Hawaii from 1920-22 before being decommissioned.
The siege of Rouen (11 November 1591-20 April 1592) was an unsuccessful attempt by Henry IV to gain control of Normandy and the Seine below Paris.
The action of Aumale or of the Bresle (3 February 1592) was a minor skirmish during the duke of Parma’s successful attempt to raise the siege of Rouen, notable as the only time Henry IV of France was wounded during his military career.
The combat of Alba de Tormes (10-11 November 1812) saw the British repel an attempt by Soult to capture the bridge over the Tormes at Alba de Tormes, and forced the French to cross the Tormes further from Wellington's position north of Salamanca.
The combat of San Munoz (17 November 1812) was a rearguard action towards the end of Wellington's retreat from Burgos back to Portugal.
The Sertorian War (80-72 BC) was the last stand of the Marian faction after their defeat in Italy during Sulla’s Second Civil War and saw Quintus Sertorius hold out in Spain for over a decade before finally being defeated by Pompey and Metellus Pius.
Operation Husky No.1 (9 July 1943) was an American airborne operation designed to occupy key areas of high ground inland from the American beaches on Sicily.
Operation Ladbroke (9-10 July 1943) was a British airborne operation which captured the Ponte Grande bridge on the southern approach to Syracuse, despite a rather scattered landing.
The Lockheed XC-35 'Electra' was an experimental aircraft used for tests with pressurized cabins.
The Lockheed C-36 was the military designation for the Lockheed 10 Electra, and covered three aircraft ordered by the Army Air Corps and more aircraft impressed by the USAAF during the Second World War.
The 9cm Feldkanone C/73/91 was an obsolete field gun that saw use with replacement and reserve field artillery battalions during the First World War.
The 21cm Morser (M1899) was the first modern steel mortar to see service with the German Army and was still in use at the outbreak of the First World War.
USS Kalk (DD-170) was a Wickes class destroyer that served with the Royal Navy and Royal Canadian Navy as HMS Hamilton.
USS Burns (DD-171/ DM-11) was a Wickes class destroyer that was converted into a light minelayer and was based at Pearl Harbor during her ten year long service career.
The battle of Ivry (14 March 1590) was Henry IV’s second battlefield victory over the forces of the Catholic League, and allowed Henry to launch his second and longest siege of Paris (Ninth War of Religion).
The siege of Paris (7 May-30 August 1590) was Henry IV’s most serious attempt to capture his capital, but had to be lifted after a Spanish relief army approached under the duke of Parma (Ninth War of Religion).
The combat of Villa Muriel (25 October 1812) saw the French cross the Carrion River at Villa Muriel and Palencia, ending Wellington's attempt to hold the river and forcing him to resume the retreat from Burgos.
The combat of Puente Larga (30 October 1812) was a rearguard action during Hill's retreat from Madrid, and helped win time for the Allies to evacuate Madrid and escape across the mountains to the north-west without difficulty.
Gaius Marcius Censorinus (d.82 BC) was a supporter of the Marian cause during Sulla's civil wars, and was executed after the battle of the Colline Gate.
Lucius Cornelius Cinna (d.84 BC) was a leader of the opposition to Sulla, and helped overthrow Sulla's supporters after Sulla's first march on Rome, but was killed just before Sulla returned to Italy at the start of Sulla's Second Civil War.
Operation Mincemeat was the most famous part of the deception plan to support the invasion of Sicily, and saw the British drop the body of a vagrant dressed in naval uniform into the sea off the coast of Spain, in the hope that the Spanish would pass on the ‘confidential’ documents in his possession to the Germans.
Operation Barclay was the deception plan to support the invasion of Sicily, and was intended to convince the Germans that the Allies might be about to attack Corsica, Sardinia or Greece rather than Sicily.
The Lockheed XB-30 was a bomber version of the C-69/ C-121/ Constellation, developed in response to the same specifications that produced the B-29 Superfortress.
The 15cm Kanone 18 was a long range but awkward artillery piece that was only produced in small numbers, and wasn’t popular with the German Army.
The 15cm Kanone 39 was originally produced for Turkey but entered German service in small numbers in 1939 and was mainly used as a coastal defence gun.
USS Foote (DD-169) was a Wickes class destroyer that served on convoy escort duties with the Royal Navy as HMS Roxborough.
The siege of Paris (November 1589) was a short lived attempt by Henry IV to capture Paris and secure his position as King of France (Ninth War of Religion).
The combat of Venta del Pozo and Villadrigo (23 October 1812) was a rearguard action during the retreat that followed the failure of the siege of Burgos, and saw the French fail to take advantage of their superior numbers.
Gnaeus Papirius Carbo (d.81 BC) was the main leader of the Marian faction during Sulla's Second Civil War, and was killed after fleeing into exile in Africa as his cause began to collapse.
Gaius Carinnas (d.82 BC) was a senior commander on the Marian side during Sulla's Second Civil War, but he was defeated in all of his recorded battles, and was executed after the battle of the Colline Gate.
Operation Beggar or Turkey Buzzard (3 June-7 July 1943) was a series of long distance flights to tow Horsa gliders from Britain to North Africa, where they were to take part in the invasion of Sicily.
Operation Corkscrew or the invasion of Pantelleria (11 June 1943) saw the British occupy this fortified Italian island without a shot being fired, after the garrison was subjected to a heavy aerial bombardment.
The 15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 18/40 or 15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 42 was a compromise design for a heavy howitzer, combining the barrel from the sFH 40 and the carriage from the sFH 18.
The 15cm Kanone 16 (Krupp) was an important German heavy gun during the second half of the First World War, and had longer range than its direct Allied equivalents, making it a more flexible weapon.
USS Cowell (DD-167) was a Wickes class destroyer that was transferred to the Royal Navy as part of the destroyers for bases deal where she served as HMS Brighton.
USS Maddox (DD-168) was a Wickes class destroyer that served with the Royal Navy as HMS Georgetown and then in the Soviet Navy.
The Ninth War of Religion (1589-98) was the last stage of the long series of religious wars that had divided France since 1562, and was fought over the succession of Henry of Navarre as Henry IV.
The second combat of Bilbao (27-29 August 1812) saw the French recapture the Basque capital only two weeks after it had been captured by a joint Anglo-Spanish force.
The siege of Burgos (19 September-22 October 1812) was the disastrous end to otherwise successful Salamanca campaign, and his failure outside Burgos forced Wellington to retreat back to the Portuguese border, ending the year almost where he had started it.
The battle of Vercellae or the Raudian Plain (30 July 101 BC) was the final battle of the Cimbric War and saw Marius destroy the Cimbri at an uncertain location in northern Italy.
L. Junius Brutus Damasippus (d.82 BC) was a supporter of the Marians during Sulla's Second Civil War, and is most famous for carrying out the murder of four of the younger Marius's enemies.
The invasion of Tinian (24 July-1 August 1944) took place three days after the start of the invasion of Guam, and after a week the island had been secured by the Americans.
The Lockheed R7O/ R7V was a US navy transport aircraft based on the Lockheed Super Constellation airliner, a stretched version of the earlier Constellation.
The Lockheed XFV-1 was an experimental VTOL aircraft that never made a vertical take off or landing, but that did fly with a temporary conventional undercarriage.
The 15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 36 L/23 was a lightweight howitzer designed to towed by a single team of horses.
The 15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 40 was designed to provide longer range than the standard sFH 18, but a lack of production capability meant that it never entered full production, although a compromise version, the sFH 18/40, was produced in small numbers
USS Meredith (DD-165) was a Wickes class destroyer that had a short active career just after the First World War then spent fourteen years out of commission before being scrapped.
USS Bush (DD-166) was a Wickes class destroyer that had a very short active career after the First World War then spent fourteen years out of commission before being scrapped.
The siege of Paris (30 July-c.5/6 August 1589) saw the combined armies of Henry III and Henry of Navarre besiege Paris, which was held by the Catholic League, but the besieging army fell apart after the assassination of Henry III and the siege soon had to be lifted (Eighth War of Religion).
The battle of Arques (21 September 1589) was a victory for Henry IV early in the Ninth French War of Religion, and saw him defeat the duke of Mayenne, the new leader of the Catholic League.
The siege of the Retiro (13-14 August 1812) was the only French attempt to defend Madrid in the aftermath of the battle of Salamanca, and saw the British storm the outer line of defences before the defenders surrendered.
The first combat of Bilbao (13-14 August 1812) saw a joint Anglo-Spanish force capture the Basque capital, but it was recaptured by the French only two weeks later.
The battle of Arausio (6 October 105 BC) was the most serious Roman defeat during the Cimbric Wars and saw the defeat and destruction of two Roman armies, apparently leaving Rome open to attack.
The battle of Aquae Sextiae (102 BC) was the first of Marius's great victories during the Cimbric War and saw him destroy the Teutones and the Ambrones, two of the smaller tribes involved in the great invasion of Italy
The battle of Saipan (15 June-9 July 1944) was the first invasion of the Marianas campaign, and it took nearly a month for US forces to secure the fairly small island.
The battle of Guam (21 July-9 August 1944) saw the Americans reconquer an island that had been in their hands before the war after three weeks of fighting, completing the conquest of the Mariana Islands.
The Lockheed PO-1W was an airborne early warning system based on the Lockheed Constellation airliner.
The Lockheed PO-2W/ WV-2 was an early warning aircraft based on the Super Constellation airliner.
The 15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 18 was the standard German heavy howitzer during the Second World War, and combined a Krupp carriage and a Rheinmetall barrel.
The 15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 37 (t) was a Czech designed heavy howitzer that entered production just in time to be taken over by the Germans after their occupation of Czechoslovakia.
USS Walker (DD-163/ YW-57/ DCH-1/ IX-44) was a Wickes class destroyer that had a very short career and was later considered for a variety of alternative roles, before being scrapped without performing any of them.
USS Crosby (DD-164/ APD-17) was a Wickes class destroyer that served with the Neutrality Patrol on the US west coast before becoming a fast transport and serving in the Pacific from 1943 until the summer of 1945.
The Edict of Union (16 July 1588) saw Henry III of France capitulate to the Catholic League and give in to their demands, having already lost control of Paris to the League (Eighth War of Religion).
The Treaty of Tours (30 April 1589) saw a dramatic reversal of the alliances during the Eighth War of Religion, after Henry III of France was forced into an alliance with his former foe, the Huguenot leader Henry of Navarre.
The combat of Garcia Hernandez (23 July 1812) was a rearguard action that came in the aftermath of the battle of Salamanca, and saw one of the most impressive achievements of Wellington's cavalry.
The combat of Majalahonda (11 August 1812) was the only significant fighting during Wellington's advance on Madrid in the aftermath of the battle of Salamanca, and saw his leading cavalry force come under attack by a French force that had been sent out to discover if Wellington was indeed on his way.
Cassius Longinus's defeat (107 BC) saw a Roman army defeated and humiliated by the Tigurini, a Helvetian tribe that was raiding across southern Gaul.
The siege of Tolosa (106 BC) is the only recorded fighting in that year during the Cimbric War, and saw the Romans recapture an allied city that had revolted against them.
The 1941 battle of Guam (10 December 1941) saw the Japanese overwhelm a small American garrison after three hours of fighting.
The Marianas Campaign (14 June-10 August 1944) was a key stage in the Pacific War, triggering the battle of the Philippine Sea at which the Japanese naval aviation forces were almost destroyed, and bringing Japan within range of B-29 bombers based on the islands.
The Lockheed C-69 Constellation was developed as a civil airline, but all early production was taken over by the USAAF after the US entry into the Second World War.
The Lockheed C-121 Constellation was the military version of the Model 749 Constellation, designed for use as an intercontinental airliner and of the later Super Constellation, with a higher cargo capacity. It was used for an impressively wide range of functions, and in many different versions.
The 15cm lange schwere Feldhaubitz 13/02 combined the long barrel of the 15-cm lange schwere Feldhaubitz 13 with the chassis of the earlier 15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 02.
The 15cm versuchs haubitz L/30 was a Rheinmetall design for a howitzer with much longer range than the standard 15cm lange schwere Feldhaubitz 13.
USS Palmer (DD-161/ DMS-5) was a Wickes class destroyer that served as a mine sweeper during the Second World War, taking part in Operation Torch then in the Pacific where she was sunk by a Japanese bomber.
USS Thatcher (DD-162) was a Wickes class destroyer that formed part of the 'destroyers for bases' deal and served on convoy escort duty as HMCS Niagara
The battle of Auneau (24 November 1587) was the second defeat suffered by a force of Germans that had invaded France in support of the Huguenots and helped convince the survivors to accept an offer of safe conduct out of France (Eighth War of Religion).
The siege of the Ile de Marans (24-28 June 1588) was a minor success won by Henry of Navarre and saw him reoccupy an inland island close to La Rochelle (Eighth War of Religion).
The first battle of Castalla (21 July 1812) was a French victory over the Spanish Army of Murcia, largely caused by the over-complex Spanish plan.
The siege of Santander (22 July-3 August 1812) was a key Anglo-Spanish success on the north coast of Spain, and gave Wellington access to a key supply base during the campaign of 1813.
The battle of Noreia (113 BC) was the first battle of the Cimbric War, and saw a migrating Cimbric army defeat the Roman consul Papirius Carbo after he attempted to ambush them as they were withdrawing from Noricum.
Silanus's defeat (109-108 BC) was perhaps the most obscure Roman defeat during the Cimbric War with both its location and date in doubt, and even one source making it a Roman victory!
The battle of Eniwetok (18-21 February 1944) was the second phase in the American conquest of Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands (Operation Catchpole).
The battle of Parry Island (22 February 1944) was the final stage of the American invasion of Eniwetok Atoll (Operation Catchpole), and despite the stronger Japanese garrison went more smoothly than the invasion of Eniwetok Island itself.
The Lockheed Y1C-23 ‘Altair’ was the designation given to the sole DL-2 Altair after it was purchased by the USAAC.
The Lockheed Y1C-25 'Altair' was the designation given to the first Lockheed Altair when it was purchased by the USAAC.
The 15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 13 was the newest heavy howitzer in service with the German army at the outbreak of the First World War, and was a significant improvement on the earlier schwere Feldhaubitz 02.
The 15cm lange schwere Feldhaubitz 13 was an improved version of the Feldhaubitz 13, the newest heavy field howitzer in German service at the outbreak of the First World War.
USS Schenck (DD-159/ AG-82) was a Wickes class destroyer that served on convoy escort duties in the Atlantic and in a hunter-killer group, taking part in the sinking of U-645.
USS Herbert (DD-160/ APD-22) was a Wickes class destroyer that served on convoy escort duties in the Atlantic, before becoming a fast transport, taking part in the last phase of the New Guinea campaign, the return to the Philippines and the invasions of Iwo Jima and Okinawa.
The battle of Courtras (20 October 1587) was the first major Huguenot battlefield victory during the Wars of Religion, but Henry of Navarre failed to take advantage of his success (Eighth War of Religion).
The battle of Vimory (26 October 1587) was the first of two defeats that helped break up a sizable German and Swiss army that had invaded France to support the Huguenot cause (Eighth War of Religion).
The battle of Salamanca (22 July 1812) was one of the most important of Wellington's victories during the Peninsular War, and forced the French to abandon Madrid and temporarily withdraw towards the French border.
The second battle of Cirta (winter 106-105 BC) was the final major battle of the Jugurthine War, and saw the Romans repulse a second attack on their army in four days, convincing Jugurtha's ally Bocchus to change sides.
The Cimbric War (113-101 BC) saw the Romans suffer a series of serious defeats at the hands of the Cimbri, Teutons and other tribes, before the consul Marius won a series of victories that ended the threat to Italy.
Operation Catchpole (17-22 February 1944) saw the Americans conquer Eniwetok Atoll in the north-western corner of the Marshall Islands, giving them a good base for the advance into the Marianas Islands.
The battle of Engebi (17-18 February 1944) was the first stage in the American conquest of Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands (Operation Catchpole).
The Lockheed Y1C-12 was a single example of a DL-1 'Vega' that was purchased for evacuation by the USAAC.
The Lockheed Y1C-17 'Speed Vega' was a single example of the DL-1B Vega purchased by the USAAC, and was lost in 1931 during an attempt to break a transcontinental speed record.
The 15cm schwere Feldhaubitze 02 was the first artillery gun with barrel recoil to enter service with the German Army, and was still in service in large numbers at the outbreak of the First World War.
The 15cm schwere Versuchs-Haubitzen L/13 was an experimental howitzer produced by Ehrhardt in response to a request from the German War Ministry.
USS Dickerson (DD-157/ APD-21) was a Wickes class destroyer that served on convoy escort duties until 1943 when she was converted into a fast transport. In 1945 she was struck by two kamikazes and suffered such heavy damage that she was sunk by US gunfire two days later.
USS Leary (DD-158) was a Wickes class destroyer that served in the Atlantic and Caribbean, before being sunk by U-boats on 24 December 1943.
The Eighth War of Religion or War of the Three Henrys (1585-89) was fought after the Protestant Henry of Navarre became heir to the throne of France, and merged into the Ninth War after Henry III died, leaving Navarre as king.
The treaty of Nemours (7 July 1585) saw Henry III of France give in to pressure from the Catholic League and agree to attempt to eliminate Protestantism in France, turning a Catholic revolt against his authority into the Eighth War of Religion.
The combat of Castrejon (18 July 1812) was a rearguard action that came after Marmont outmanoeuvred Wellington on the River Douro, early in the campaign that ended at Salamanca.
The combat of Castrillo (18 July 1812) was the second of two combats on the same day, and came after Marmont outmanoeuvred Wellington on the Douro and briefly threatened to cut off his rearguard.
The siege near the Muluccha River (106 BC) saw Marius besiege and capture one of Jugurtha's last fortresses, almost at the western border of Numidia.
The first battle of Cirta (winter 106-105 BC) saw a Roman army under Marius narrowly escape from an ambush led by Jugurtha and his ally Bocchus (Jugurthine War).
The battle of Roi (1 February 1944) saw the US marines captured the main Japanese airbase in Kwajalein Atoll in a single day, after the Japanese defences were almost destroyed by the pre-invasion bombardment.
The battle of Namur (1-2 February 1944) saw the US Marines capture the most strongly defended island in the northern part of Kwajalein Atoll, completing the conquest of the northern part of the Atoll.
The Douglas C-132 was a design for a two-deck turboprop powered transport aircraft that never got beyond the mock-up stage.
The Douglas C-133 Cargomaster was the largest turboprop transport to be built for the USAF, and was designed to carry ICBM missiles around the United States.
The 15cm schwere Feldhaubitz M1893 was the first German heavy howitzer to be light enough to serve with the field armies. It was obsolete at the outbreak of the First World War, but still saw service.
The 15cm Versuchs-Haubitzen 99 was an experimental weapon that played a part in the development of the 15cm schwere Feldhaubitz 02.
USS Cole (DD-155) was a Wickes class destroyer that served in the Atlantic and Mediterranean theatres during the Second World War, supporting Operation Torch and the invasions of Sicily and mainland Italy.
USS J. Fred Talbott (DD-156/ AG-81) was a Wickes class destroyer that spent most of the Second World War on convoy escort duties in the Western Atlantic and Caribbean.
The peace of Fleix (November 1580) ended the short Seventh War of Religion, and largely repeated the terms of earlier treaties.
The Treaty of Joinville (31 December 1584) was an agreement between Philip II of Spain and the more radical French Catholics, led by Henry, duke of Guise, aimed at preventing the Protestant Henry of Navarre coming to the French throne.
The combat of Castro Urdiales (6-8 July 1812) was the second of a series of joint Anglo-Spanish successes that weakened the French hold on the coast of northern Spain.
The combat of Portugalete (11 July 1812) was an unsuccessful Anglo-Spanish attack on a fortified village at the mouth of the Bilbao River.
The siege of Thala (108 BC) saw the Romans under Metellus capture the site of one of Jugurtha's treasuries, but without capturing the King or securing much of the treasure (Jugurthine War)
The siege of Capsa (107 BC) was Marius's first major military success in Numidia, but although it helped him conquer the south-east of the kingdom it failed to bring an end to the war any nearer (Jugurthine War).
The occupation of Allen Island (Ennubirr), 31 January 1944, was one of two simultaneous landings that formed the second stage in the invasion of Roi and Namur in Kwajelein Atoll.
The occupation of Abraham (Ennugarret) Island, 31 January 1944, was the last of a series of preliminary operations that came before the invasions of Roi and Namur in Kwajalein Atoll.
The Douglas C-118 Liftmaster/ Douglas R6D was the military version of the DC-6, and most were based on the improved DC-6A model.
The Douglas C-124 Globemaster II was the main USAF heavy strategic cargo transport during the 1950s and 1960s, until it was replaced by the Lockheed C-5.
The 10cm Kanone 17 was an improved version of the earlier 10cm Kanone 14, with a longer barrel to improve range.
The schwere 10cm Kanone 18 (heavy 10cm cannon 18) was the standard equipment of German medium artillery units in the late 1930s but wasn't a terribly successful design, and was eventually relegated to the coastal defence role.
USS Bernadou (DD-153) was a Wickes class destroyer that spent most of the Second World War performing various escort duties in the Atlantic theatre, as well as taking part in Operation Torch, the invasion of Sicily and the Salerno landing.
USS Ellis (DD-154) was a Wickes class destroyer that mainly performed escort duties in the Atlantic theatre during the Second World War.
The Seventh War of Religion (1580) was the least significant of the nine wars of religion, and saw Henry of Navarre expand his influence in the south-west of France.
The siege of Cahors (28-31 May 1580) was the main military action of the Seventh War of Religion, and saw Henry of Navarre capture a city that had been promised to him as part of his wife’s dowry.
The siege of Astorga (2 July-18 August 1812) saw the Spanish attack the isolated French garrison of Astorga, in an attempt to support Wellington's advance to Salamanca.
The combat of Lequeitio (21-11 June 1812) was the first of a series of successes for a joint British and Spanish force operating in northern Spain.
The siege of Zama (109 BC) was a Roman attempt to force Jugurtha to accept battle that backfired and had to be abandoned after Jugurtha carried out a series of costly attacks on the Roman camp.
The revolt of Vaga (108 BC) saw this Numidian city massacre a Roman garrison, before almost immediately being recaptured by the Romans, at the same time opening up a feud between the Roman commanders Metellus and Marius.
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