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24 April 2017

Themistocles (c.524-460 BC) was a great Athenian naval leader who played a vital role in the defeat of Xerxes I's invasion of Greece in 480, but who like so many Athenian leaders ended his life in exile.

Epaminondas (410-362 BC) was a Theban general and statesman who was responsible for a series of battlefield victories that smashed the power of Sparta, ending a short period of Spartan dominance in Greece.

21 April 2017

The battle of Alam Halfa (31 August-7 September 1942) was Rommel's last offensive in Egypt, and Montgomery's first victory after taking command of the Eighth Army, and was a British victory that removed any chance of Rommel reaching Alexandria or the Suez Canal.

Operation Bertram (1942) was the tactical element of the deception plan for the second battle of El Alamein, and focused on convincing the Germans both that the offensive wouldn't begin until some time in November and that the main attack would come on the southern end of the front line.

20 April 2017

The Boulton Paul P.109 was a design for an advanced trainer powered by a Bristol Perseus engine.

The Boulton Paul P.111 was an experimental delta winged jet aircraft used for research into the performance of delta wings at high speed.

19 April 2017

The T92 240mm Howitzer Motor Carriage was one of two attempts to mount very heavy artillery pieces on the chassis of the M26 Pershing tank.

The T93 8in Gun Motor Carriage was one of a series of attempts to mount heavy artillery on the chassis of the M26 Pershing tank.

18 April 2017

USS Bell (DD-95) was a Wickes class destroyer that escorted convoys across the Atlantic late in the First World War, but entered the reserve in 1922 and was never recommissioned.

USS Stribling (DD-96) was a Wickes class destroyer that saw limited service late in the First World War, was based in the Adriatic in 1919, and briefly served as a minelayer after her return to the United States.

17 April 2017

The combat of Hoyerswerda (27 May 1813) was a French victory that encouraged Marshal Oudinot to advance towards Berlin, after a Prussian attack on his positions was repulsed.

The combat of Luckau (6 June 1813) was a French defeat during Marshal Oudinot's first attempt to threaten Berlin, but came after an armistice had already ended the fighting in the spring campaign in Germany.

14 April 2017

Mentor of Rhodes (385-340 BC) was a Greek mercenary who fought for and against Artaxerxes III and played a part in the final major Persian military success, the reconquest of Egypt of 343 BC.

Memnon of Rhodes (d.334 BC) was one of the few successful Persian commanders during the wars against Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, despite have started his military career as a rebel against Artaxerxes III.

13 April 2017

The first battle of El Alamein (1-27 July 1942) was a series of engagements in the area south of El Alamein in which Rommel's run of victories in 1942 was finally brought to an end. A series of British counterattacks also achieved little, and the battle ended as a stalemate.

12 April 2017

The Supermarine Nanok (Polar Bear)/ Solant was designed as a torpedo bomber for the Danish Navy, but was rejected and ended up being used as a pleasure craft by the Guinness family.

The Supermarine S.4, S.5, S.6 and S.6B were a series of Schneider Trophy winning floatplanes that were designed by R.J. Mitchell, and that played a part in the design of the Supermarine Spitfire by giving him experience of designing high speed stressed skin monoplanes.

11 April 2017

The T58 155mm gun tank was designed to fire HEAT and HESH shells and used an oscillating turret in an attempt to save weight.

The T84 8in Howitzer Motor Carriage was the first attempt to mount a heavy artillery gun on the chassis of the M26 Pershing tank, but only two pilots were ever built.

10 April 2017

USS Fairfax (DD-93)/ HMS Richmond was a Wickes class destroyer that operated in the western Atlantic in 1918, as a training ship between the wars, then with the Royal Navy as HMS Richmond and the Soviet Navy as the Zhivuchi during the Second World War.

USS Taylor (DD-94) was a Wickes class destroyer that served with the US Atlantic Fleet late in the First World War, but that had been reduced to a hulk by the outbreak of the Second World War. Later her bow was used to repair USS Blakeley, after that destroyer was damaged by a U-boat.

7 April 2017

The combat of Hainau (26 May 1813) was a rare Allied success during their retreat after the battle of Bautzen, and saw a Prussian cavalry force ambush an isolated French division east of Hainau.

The combat of Sprottau (27 May 1813) was a minor French success during their pursuit of the Russians and Prussians in the aftermath of the battle of Bautzen.

6 April 2017

Xerxes II (r.425-424 BC) was a very short lived ruler of the Persian Empire, who was killed by the son of one of his father's concubines after a reign of only 45 days.

Darius II (r.423-404 BC) Ochus was the Persian Emperor during the second half of the Great Peloponnesian War, and his money played a major part in the eventual Spartan victory.

5 April 2017

Operation Sentinel (1942) was a deception plan used to try and mislead Rommel in believing that Egypt was more strongly defended than it really was during his advance into Egypt after the battle of Gazala.

Operation Cascade (1942) was a deception plan used to convince Rommel that the British army in Egypt was much larger than it really was.

4 April 2017

The Boulton Paul P.107 was the company's last wartime design for a land based fighter. It was a two-seat long range escort fighter, powered by a Bristol Centaurus CE12SM engine.

The Boulton Paul P.108 Balliol was designed as a turboprop powered trainer but saw limited service as a standard piston engine powered trainer with the RAF and Fleet Air Arm.

3 April 2017

The M51 Heavy Recovery Vehicle was produced in the early 1950s to replace earlier recovery vehicles based on the Medium tank M4 Sherman.

The T57 120mm gun tank was designed in an attempt to produce a tank that was lighter than the Heavy Tank T34 or 120mm gun combat tank M103, taking advantage of an oscillating turret to reduce weight.

31 March 2017

USS Harding (DD-91) was a Wickes class destroyer that had a brief interwar career, mainly as a seaplane tender, before being decommissioned on 1922.

USS Gridley (DD-92) was a Wickes class destroyer that had a brief career after the First World War, most notably supporting the first successful transatlantic flight during 1919.

30 March 2017

The combat of Reichenbach (22 May 1813) was a rearguard action during the Allied retreat after their defeat at Bautzen, most notable for the death of one of Napoleon's closest friends, the Grand Marshal Duroc.

The combat of Görlitz (23 May 1813) saw the French force their way across the River Neisse, on the border between Saxony and Silesia, in the aftermath of their victory at Bautzen (20-21 May 1813).

29 March 2017

Darius I the Great (r.522-486) was the third Persian emperor of the Achaemenid dynasty, and was a successful leader, despite being best known in the west for the failure of his invasion of Greece.

Xerxes I (r.486-465 BC) was a Persian emperor most famous for the defeat of his massive invasion of Greece of 480-479 BC.

28 March 2017

The siege of Tobruk (17-21 June 1942) was one of the more embarrassing British defeats in North Africa, and helped to reduce Churchill's confidence in General Auchinleck's abilities as a commander.

The battle of Mersa Matruh (26-28 June 1942) was Rommel's last victory against the Eighth Army, and saw him brush aside a British attempt to defend the Mersa Matruh position

27 March 2017

The Supermarine Sheldrake was an amphibian aircraft produced for the British Air Ministry, but only one was ever built.

The Supermarine Swan was designed as a civilian airline, but the sole example was completed as a military reconnaissance aircraft.

24 March 2017

The Heavy Tank T32 was an attempt to quickly produce a heavy tank based on the T26E3 version of the Pershing, and was the first of several contemporary designs for heavy tanks to reach the pilot stage.

The Heavy Tank T34 was based on the Heavy Tank T29 and Heavy Tank T30, and was armed with a modified 120mm anti-aircraft gun. It didn’t enter production, but the post-war Heavy Tank M103 was largely based on it.

23 March 2017

USS Ringgold (DD-89) was a Wickes class destroyer that was commissioned too late to see service in the First World War, but that served with the Royal Navy in the Second World War as HMS Newark.

USS McKean (DD-90/ APD-5) was a Wickes class destroyer that entered service too late for the First World War, but that served in the Solomon Islands campaign of the Second World War as a fast transport, before being sunk off Bougainville.

22 March 2017

The battle of Bautzen (20-21 May 1813) was the second major battle of the Spring Campaign of 1813, and saw Napoleon come close to winning the descisive victory he needed to knock at least one of his opponents out of the war.

21 March 2017

The battle of Abae (c.352 BC) was one of a series of setbacks suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus, and came after a unsuccessful invasion of Boeotia and a failure to capture the city of Naryx (Third Sacred War).

The battle of Coroneia (c.352) was the second in a series of defeats suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus during a failed invasion of Boeotia (Third Sacred War).

20 March 2017

Rommel's Second Offensive (21 January-4 February 1942) was an unexpected counterattack that forced the British to retreat 350 miles, from the western border of Cyrenaica to the Gazala Line, and set the scene for Rommel's advance into Egypt later in the year

The battle of Gazala (26 May-14 June 1942) was Rommel's most impressive victory in North Africa, and saw him force the British to abandon the defences of the Gazala Line and retreat back towards the Egyptian frontier. In the aftermath of the battle he was also able to capture Tobruk, which had held out for eight months in 1941, but fell after the first serious attack in 1942.

17 March 2017

The Boulton Paul P.105 was a design for a multi-use naval attack aircraft.

The Boulton Paul P.106 was a design for an elementary training aircraft, but that lost out to the Percival Prentice.

16 March 2017

The Heavy Tank T28/ 105mm Gun Motor carriage T95 was a heavily armoured vehicle that was designed to attack fortified positions.

The Heavy Tank T30 was developed in response to the appearance of heavier German tanks in 1943-44, and was armed with a 155mm gun.

15 March 2017

USS McKee (DD-87) was a Wickes class destroyer that carried out one mission to the Azores during the First World War, and had a limited post-war career before being decommissioned in 1922.

USS Robinson (DD-88) was a Wickes class destroyer that was commissioned too late to see service during the First World War, but that served in the Royal Navy as HMS Newmarket during the Second World War.

14 March 2017

The combat of Colditz (5 May 1813) was a rearguard action during the Allied retreat after their defeat at Lutzen three days earlier.

The combat of Konigswartha (19 May 1813) took place on the day before the battle of Bautzen (20-21 May 1813) and saw the French defeat an Allied force that had been sent out to attack Lauriston's corps (War of Liberation).

13 March 2017

The Fourth Sacred War or Amphissean War (339-339 BC) was the final step in Philip II of Macedon's rise to a position of dominance in Greece, and ended with the defeat of the joint Athenian and Theban army at the battle of Chaeronea.

10 March 2017

Operation Battleaxe (15-17 June 1941) was an unsuccessful British offensive in North Africa, carried out in an attempt to raise the siege of Tobruk

Operation Crusader (18 November-20 December 1941) was Rommel's first defeat in North Africa, and was a confused battle, won in part by a combination of Auchinleck's determination and Rommel's rash 'dash to the wire'.

9 March 2017

The Supermarine Scarab was an amphibian reconnaissance and bombing aircraft, produced in 1924 for the Spanish Navy.

The Supermarine Scylla was a flying boat originally designed to replace the Felixstowe F.5, but that was eventually used for taxing trials only.

8 March 2017

The Heavy Tank M6 (Heavy Tank T1) was the first American heavy tank to come close to production during the Second World War, but was rejected by the Armored Force and only a handful were ever completed.

The Heavy Tank M45 was a howitzer armed version of the M26 Pershing tank, originally developed as the T26E2

7 March 2017

USS Colhoun (DD-85/ APD-2) was a Wickes class destroyer that saw limited service towards the end of the First World War, and was later converted into a fast transport and sunk in a Japanese air attack off Guadalcanal.

USS Stevens (DD-86) was a Wickes class destroyer that served from Queenstown during the First World War, and supported the first successful transatlantic flight in 1919.

6 March 2017

The action of Poserna (1 May 1813) was a French victory on the road to Lützen, but one that cost them Marshal Bessières, who was killed by a cannon shot during the battle.

The battle of Lützen (2 May 1813) was Napoleon's first victory during the Spring campaign of 1813 (War of Liberation), but he was unable to take full advantage of his victory, and the Prussians and Russians were able to escape east with their armies largely intact.

3 March 2017

The battle of Orchomenus (c.352 BC) was the first in a series of defeats suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus during a failed invasion of Boeotia (Third Sacred War).

The battle of the Cephisus River (c.352) was the second in a series of defeats suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus during a failed invasion of Boeotia (Third Sacred War).

2 March 2017

The North African Campaign (1940-1943) produced some of the British army's most iconic moments of the Second World War, and the Allied and Axis armies repeated advance back and forward across Libya, before the Allied victories of El Alamein and Operation Torch forced the Axis forces back into an increasingly small bridgehead in Tunisia.

1 March 2017

The Boulton Paul P.103 was a design for a naval fighter based on the Defiant turret fighter.

The Boulton Paul P.104 was a design for a pusher naval fighter produced in response to Specification N.7/43.

28 February 2017

The Heavy Tank Mark VIII (Liberty Tank or International) was originally meant to be a joint Anglo-American-French tank that would have been used in large numbers if the war had continued into 1919, but that was eventually built in small numbers in British and American versions.

The Heavy Tank T29 was developed in response to the appearance of heavy German tanks in the European theatre, and carried a 105mm gun on a chassis similar to that used on the M26 Pershing.

27 February 2017

USS Stringham (DD-83/ APD-6) was a Wickes class destroyer that saw limited service towards the end of the First World War, before serving throughout most of the Pacific Campaign of the Second World War as a fast transport.

USS Dyer (DD-84) was a Wickes class destroyer that operated from Gibraltar late in the First World War and then served as flagship of the US naval forces in the Eastern Mediterranean in 1919.

24 February 2017

The battle of Möckern (5 April 1813) was the last significant fighting during the Spring Campaign of 1813 before Napoleon arrived at the front to take over command in person.

The combat of Weissenfels (29 April 1813) was one of the first clashes between Napoleon's new army of 1813 and the advancing Prussian and Russian forces, which by late April had reached the Saale River in Saxony.

23 February 2017

The battle of Neon (354 BC) was a battle of the Third Sacred War, and was notable for the death of the Phocian leader Philomelus.

The battle of Hermeum (354 or 353 BC) was a Phocian victory over the Boeotians (Third Sacred War), which followed a brief Phocian intervention in Thessaly that saw them inflict two rare battlefield defeats on Philip II

22 February 2017

The siege of Tobruk (10 April-16/17 December 1941) saw a beleaguered Allied garrison hold out for eight months against German and Italian attacks, and helped prevent Rommel taking full advantage of his victory in his first offensive, which had seen him conquer Cyrenaica only a few weeks after it had fallen to the British

Operation Brevity (15-16 May 1941) was a short-lived British offensive carried out to see if the German position east of Tobruk was fragile enough for the siege to be lifted without a major battle.

21 February 2017

The Supermarine Sea King was an amphibian scout and fighter aircraft that was produced in two variants, but didn't receive any orders. It did become the basis for the Sea Lion racing aircraft, and as the Sea Lion II won the 1922 Schneider Trophy.

The Supermarine Sea Lion was a racing version of the Sea King scout plane. Three versions were produced and were entered in the Schneider Trophy Races of 1919, 1922 and 1923, winning in 1922.

20 February 2017

USS Sigourney (DD-81) was a Wickes class destroyer that operated from Brest during the First World War, and served with the Royal Norwegian Navy and Royal Navy as HMS Newport during the Second World War.

USS Gregory (DD-82/ APD-3) was a Wickes class destroyer that saw service late in the First World War, and was then converted into a fast transport. She was sunk while carrying out her new role off Guadalcanal in September 1942.

17 February 2017

The Convention of Kalisch (28 February 1813) was signed between Russia and Prussia, and committed Prussia to rejoined the war against Napoleon, setting the stage for the War of Liberation of 1813.

The siege of Glogau (15 March-27 May 1813) was a rare example of a successful French defense of one of the isolated fortresses left behind by the retreat from Poland and eastern Germany at the start of 1813, and saw a sizable garrison hold out for three months before the siege was lifted in the aftermath of the battle of Bautzen.

16 February 2017

The T53 90mm Gun Motor Carriage was a design for a combined tank destroyer and self propelled anti-aircraft gun that was rejected after extensive development work had been carried out.

The 20mm quad AA Tank, Skink, was the most successful attempt to mount an anti-aircraft gun on the chassis of a Sherman tank, but only a handful were produced, and their main use was against ground targets.

15 February 2017

The siege of Byzantium (340-339 BC) was an unsuccessful attempt by Philip II to defeat a former ally, and was begun after his siege of nearby Perinthus ran into difficulties. Both sieges came in the build-up to the Fourth Sacred War.  

The battle of Chaeronea (August 338 BC) was the final major battle in the career of Philip II of Macedon, and saw him defeat a Greek alliance led by Thebes and Athens, in the process establishing his dominance over the states of central and southern Greece

14 February 2017

Operation Sonnenblume (Sunflower) (February-March 1941) was the codename for the initial movement of German troops to North Africa, after the Italians had been forced out of Cyrenaica and appeared to be struggling to hold on to Tripolitania.

Rommel's First Offensive (24 March-30 May 1941) saw him push a weakened British army out of Cyrenaica, and all the way to the Egyptian border, undoing all of the British conquests at the start of 1941 and setting a pattern for the desert war that would last until the second battle of El Alamein late in 1942.

3 February 2017

The Boulton Paul P.101 was a radical design for a staggered biplane fighter, produced in response to an Air Ministry specification for a manoeuvrable fighter with a high rate of climb.

The Boulton Paul P.102 was a project to fit a jet engine in an existing aircraft, but it suffered from high level indecision and was eventually cancelled.

10 February 2017

USS Little (DD-79) was a Wickes class destroyer that was used as a fast transport during the Second World War, and was sunk off Gualalcanal in September 1942.

USS Kimberly (DD-80) was a Wickes class destroyer that served in European waters during the First World War, but that was scrapped soon after the end of the war.

9 February 2017

The combat of Zirke (11-12 February 1813) was one of the first clashes during the War of Liberation, and came during the French retreat from the Vistula to the Oder.

The combat of Kalisch (18 February 1813) was one of the first clashes of the War of Liberation of 1813 and played a part in forcing the French to abandon any attempt to defend eastern Germany.

8 February 2017

The T36 40mm Gun Motor Carriage was an unsuccessful attempt to mount a Bofors anti-aircraft gun on the chassis of the Medium Tank M3.

The T52 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage was a failed design for a self propelled anti-aircraft vehicle armed with one 40mm Bofors gun and two machine guns.

7 February 2017

The battle of the Crocus Field or of Pagasae (353 BC) was a significant victory for Philip II of Macedon and saw him defeat and kill Onomarchus, the Phocian leader, a victory that helped to secure Philip's dominance over Thessaly.

The siege of Perinthus (340-339 BC) was an unsuccessful attempt by Philip II of Macedon to defeat a wavering ally, and was conducted alongside an equally unsuccessful siege of Byzantium. Both sieges took place in the period just before the Fourth Sacred War.

6 February 2017

The Supermarine N.1B was a single-seat scout designed to escort the RNAS's patrol flying boats.

The Supermarine Seal was an amphibian reconnaissance and fleeting spotting aircraft that served as the prototype for the successful Supermarine Seagull, which was itself the basis of the more famous Supermarine Walrus.

3 February 2017

USS Woolsey (DD-77) was a Wickes class destroyer that sank in 1921 after being cut in half in a collision with a merchant ship.

USS Evans (DD-78) was a Wickes class destroyer that entered US service just after the First World War, briefly took part in the Neutrality Patrl and then entered British service as HMS Mansfield

2 February 2017

The Convention of Tauroggen (30 December 1812) was an agreement that made General Yorck's Russian corps neutral, marking the start of a break between Prussia and France (War of Liberation).

The second siege of Danzig (24 January-29 November 1813) saw General Rapp defend the city against the Russians for most of 1813, but without any genuine hope of being rescued (War of Liberation).

1 February 2017

The T24 3in Gun Motor Carriage was an early attempt to produce a tank destroyer by mounting a 3in anti-aircraft gun on the chassis of the Medium Tank M3.

The T26 75mm Gun Motor Carriage was an unsuccessful design for a self propelled anti-aircraft that failed because of problems with the gun.

27 January 2017

The siege of Halus (346 BC) was carried out as the same time as peace negotiations between Philip II of Macedon and Athens, and may have been part of Philip's wider plan for a campaign in central Greece (Third Sacred War).

The Peace of Philocrates (346 BC) ended the ten year long War of Amphipolis between Athens and Macedon, and helped establish Philip II of Macedon as a power in central and southern Greece

26 January 2017

The Boulton Paul P.99 was a design for a twin-boom fighter produced in response to an Air Ministry specification for a manoeuvrable fighter.

The Boulton Paul P.100 was a design for a tail first fighter produced in response to an Air Ministry specification for a manoeuvrable fighter.

25 January 2017

USS Wickes (DD-75) was the name ship of the Wickes class of destroyers. After a brief spell of service late in the First World War she took part in the US Neutrality Patrol in 1939-40, before being transferred to the Royal Navy, where she served as HMS Montgomery.

USS Philip (DD-76) was a Wickes class destroyer that entered service just before the end of the First World War, and saw more service in the Second World War as HMS Lancaster.

20 January 2017

The War of Liberation of 1813 was Napoleon's last campaign in Germany, and although he won three major battles it ended with the final defeat of his armies in Germany at the massive battle of Leipzig.

18 January 2017

The Cruiser Tank Sherman VC Firefly was a British modification to the Medium Tank M4 that armed it with the excellent British 17 pounder antitank gun, making it one of the most effective Allied tanks available in 1944-45.

The Tracked Self-Propelled 25 pounder, Sexton, was a self propelled artillery gun based on the Canadian Ram medium tank.

17 January 2017

The siege of Zeira (349 BC) came at the start of Philip II of Macedon's campaign against Olynthus and Chalcidice, and saw him capture and destroy the city.

The siege of Olynthus (348 BC) saw Philip II of Macedon complete his conquest of the Chalcidic League, one of his more powerful immediate neighbours, and an ally for several years.

13 January 2017

The Boulton Paul P.97 was a design for a twin engined night fighter produced after the Air Ministry decided that its F.18/40 specification couldn't be filled by a single engined fighter.

The Boulton Paul P.98 was a design for an advanced pusher fighter, produced in response to an Air Ministry specification for a manoeuvrable fighter with a high rate of climb.

12 January 2017

USS Manley (DD-74/ AG­28/ APD­1) was a Caldwell class destroyer that survived a massive explosion during the First World War, and served as a fast transport during the Second World War, taking part in a series of invasions in the Pacific.

The Wickes Class Destroyers were the first of the famous mass produced flush-deckers of the First World War, and the only type to see active service during that war. Along with the Clemson class they provided the bulk of the US destroyer force during the inter-war years, and many survived to play varied roles during the Second World War.

9 January 2017

The Cruiser Tank, Grizzly Mk I, was the designation given to the Medium Tank M4A1/ Sherman II, when produced in Canada.

The Assault Tank M4A3E2 'Jumbo' was a more heavily armoured version of the Sherman produced to lead attacks during the invasion of Europe.

6 January 2017

The siege of Potidaea (356 BC) saw Philip II of Macedon capture the strongly fortified city at the head of the Pallene peninsula, but then hand it over to Olynthus in order to secure an alliance with that city.

The siege of Methone (late 355 BC - early 354 BC) saw Philip II of Macedon capture the last potential Athenian base on the Macedonian coast.

4 January 2017

The Boulton Paul P.95 was a design for a two man close support bomber that never progressed beyond the design stage.

The Boulton Paul P.96 was a series of designs for a night fighter produced in response to Air Ministry Specification F.18/40, for a two-seat aircraft armed with six 20mm cannon.

3 January 2017

USS Conner (DD-72) was a Caldwell class destroyer that served with the US Navy in the First World War, and with the Royal Navy (as HMS Leeds) during the Second World War.

USS Stockton (DD-73) was a Caldwell class destroyer that served in the First World War with the US Navy and in the Second World War as HMS Ludlow, after taking part in the Destroyers for Bases deal.

30 December 2016

General Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst (1755-1813) was the most important of a group of military reformers who revived the Prussian army after the disasters of 1806 and turned it into an effective weapon during the War of Liberation of 1813 and the campaigns of 1813 and 1814.

Field Marshal Hans David Ludwig Yorck, Graf von Wartenburg (1759-1830) was a senior Prussian commander during the campaigns of 1813 and 1814, but his most important contribution to the defeat of Napoleon came late in 1812 when he agreed to make his corps, then operating with the French in Russia, neutral, a move that helped trigger the War of Liberation in Germany,

29 December 2016

The Medium Tank M4A3(105) was a version of the Sherman tank armed with a 105mm howitzer and that used the US Army's preferred Ford GAA V-8 engine.

The Assault Tank T14 was a more heavily armoured version of the Sherman, designed to lead attacks.

28 December 2016

Philip II of Macedon (r.359-336 BC) was one of the great conquerors of Greek history, inheriting his kingdom in the aftermath of a dangerous defeat in which his predecessor was killed, and ending his reign as the dominant power in Greece, with an empire that including Thessaly and large parts of Thrace.

27 December 2016

The Boulton Paul P.92 was a design for a turret fighter armed with 20mm cannon, produced in response to a rather ambitious Air Ministry Specification.

The Boulton Paul P.94 was a version of the Defiant turret fighter, modified to be a conventional single seater armed with fixed forward firing machine guns or cannon.

23 December 2016

USS Craven (DD-70) was a Caldwell class destroyer that entered service too late for the First World War, but entered Royal Navy service as HMS Lewes in 1940, serving in British Home Waters, from South Africa and in the Far East.

USS Gwin (DD-71) was a Caldwell class destroyer that had a limited career between the World Wars.

20 December 2016

Freidrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf (1762-1823) was a successful Prussian corps commander during the War of Liberation of 1813 and the invasion of France of 1814.

General Adolf Wilhelm, Freiherr von Lützow, 1782-1834, was a Prussian general famous for raising a Freikorps during the War of Liberation of 1813.

19 December 2016

The Medium Tank M4E5 was the designation given to two pilot vehicles for the 105mm armed version of the M4 Sherman.

The Medium Tank M4 (105) was a version of the Sherman tank that carried a 105mm howitzer, and was powered by the Wright-Continental R975 engine.

16 December 2016

The battle of Erigon Valley or the Lyncus Plain (358 BC) was the first major battle during the reign of Philip II of Macedon, and saw him defeat the Illyrian king Bardyllis.

The siege of Amphipolis (357 BC) was an early victory for Philip II of Macedon, and saw him capture a key foothold in Thrace, although at the cost of permanently damaging his relationship with Athens.

15 December 2016

The Boulton Paul P.90 was a heavy bomber designed to the same specification as the Short Stirling.

The Boulton Paul P.91 was a design for a heavy bomber that was produced to the specification that eventually produced the Handley Page Halifax and Avro Manchester and Lancaster.

14 December 2016

The Caldwell Class Destroyers were the first of the famous 'flush-deckers' and were partly experimental ships that tested out the new design and a variety of power plants.

The USS Caldwell (DD-69) was the name ship of the Caldwell class of destroyers, and served at Queenstown and on experimental work during the First World War.

9 December 2016

Freidrich von Gentz (1764-1832) was a Prussian writer who was consistently hostile to Revolutionary and Napoleonic France and ended up working for the Austrians after his attitudes made his position in Prussia too difficult.

Field Marshal August Wilhelm Anton, Graf Neithardt von Gneisenau (1760-1831) was one of the main Prussian military reformers after the disasters of 1806, but is most famous for his role as Blücher's chief of staff in the campaigns in 1813, 1814 and 1815.

8 December 2016

The Medium Tank M4A3(76)W HVSS was the first production version of the Sherman to use a Horizontal Volute Spring Suspension system, which improved both the ground pressure of the tank and made the suspension more reliable.

The Medium Tank M4A4E1 was the first prototype for the 105mm howitzer armed versions of the M4 Sherman.

7 December 2016

The Boulton Paul P.88 was a design for a cannon armed fighter, designed in response to the increased speed of bomber aircraft in the mid 1930s.

The Boulton Paul P.89 was a design for a twin engined cannon armed fighter, designed in response to Air Ministry Specification F.37/35.

2 December 2016

USS Wilkes (DD-67) was a Sampson class destroyer that served from Queenstown after America entered the First World War, and helped support the first trans-Atlantic flight in 1919.

USS Shaw (DD-68) was a Sampson class destroyer that survived having 90 feet cut off her bow in a collision late in 1918 while serving in European waters.

1 December 2016

General Freidrich Wilhelm Graf Bülow von Dennewitz (16 February 1755-25 February 1816) was a Prussian commander who played a major part in the campaigns of 1813, 1814 and 1815, winning the first Prussian victory since the disasters of 1806 at Grossbeeren in 1813, and playing a major part in the Allied victory at Waterloo.

General Karl Philipp Gottlieb von Clausewitz (1780-1831) was a Prussian general, most famous for his studies of military theory, largely published after his death in 1831.

28 November 2016

The Medium Tank M4A2(76)W combined the welded hull and General Motors engine of the earlier M4A2 with the new 76mm gun and wet shell storage introduced across the Sherman range in 1944.

The Medium Tank M4A3(76)W/ Sherman IVA was the US Army's preferred version of the tank, and combined the welded hull and Ford engine of the standard M4A3 with the new 76mm gun and wet shell storage system introduced during 1944.

25 November 2016

The battle of Chios (357 or 356 BC) was the first fighting during the Social War, and saw the rebels defeat an Athenian land and sea attack on the island.

The siege of Samos (356 BC) saw the rebels against Athens besiege one of the loyal members of the Athenian League (Social War).

23 November 2016

USS Davis (DD-65) was a Sampson class destroyer that served from Queenstown in 1917-18, taking part in a significant number of attacks on U-boats as well as rescuing the survivors from U-103, sunk after she was rammed by the Titanic's sister ship Olympic

USS Allen (DD-66) was a Sampson class destroyer that served from Queenstown during the First World War, carrying out ten attacks on possible U-boats. She then survived to be the only one of the 1,000 tonner destroyers to see service during the Second World War.

21 November 2016

Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick (1735-1806), was an experienced military leader who proved to be unable to cope with the armies of both Revolutionary and Napoleonic France, suffering key defeats at Valmy in 1792 and Auerstädt in 1806

Frederick William, duke of Brunswick (1771-1815), was one of the most implacable enemies of Napoleonic France, and became known as the 'Black Duke'.

18 November 2016

The Medium Tank M4(76)W was the designation given to a version of the M4 that would have been armed with a 76mm gun, but that was cancelled before any production vehicles were built.

The Medium Tank M4A1(76)W/ Sherman IIA was the first 76mm armed version of the Sherman to enter production, and had a cast hull, wet shell storage and a Continental R975 engine.

17 November 2016

The Social War (357-355 BC) was a conflict between Athens and a number of key members of the Athenian League. The war significantly weakened Athens, and also meant that she was unable to intervene as Philip II of Macedon expanded his kingdom.

The Third Sacred War (355-346 BC) began as a dispute between Thebes and their neighbours in Phocis over the cultivation of sacred land, but expanded to include most of the Greek powers and was ended by the intervention of Philip II of Macedon, helping to confirm his status as a major power in Greece.

15 November 2016

The Boulton Paul P.80 Superstrand was a design for an improved version of the P.75 Overstrand, but it was already obsolete by the time it was suggested, and didn't enter production.

The Boulton Paul P.85 was a design for a naval version of the P.82 Defiant turret fighter, but was rejected in favour of the Blackburn Roc.

14 November 2016

USS Sampson (DD-63) was the name ship of the Sampson class of destroyers, and operated from Queenstown during the First World War, before helping support the first successful transatlantic flight after the war.

USS Rowan (DD-64) was a Sampson class destroyer that served in European waters in 1917-18, and took part in at least one attack on a suspected U-boat, but without success.

11 November 2016

The Medium Tank M4A1 (76M1) was the first attempt to fit a more powerful gun in the Sherman tank, but was abandoned after objections by the Armored Force.

The Medium Tank M4E6 was the second attempt to install a 76mm gun on a Sherman tank, and saw the introduction of a number of features that made their way into production tanks.

8 November 2016

The battle of Phaedriades (355 BC) was a Phocian victory early in the Third Sacred War, fought on the slopes of Mount Parnassus.

The battle of Argolas (Spring 354 BC) was a Phocian victory over a Thessalian army early in the Third Sacred War, fought at an otherwise unknown hill somewhere in Locris

7 November 2016

The Boulton Paul P.75 Overstrand was the first RAF aircraft to have an enclosed powered gun turret, and was developed from the earlier Boulton & Paul Sidestrand. It was also the last biplane bomber to enter service with the RAF.

The Boulton Paul P.79 was a design for a bomber that was produced to the same specification that resulted in the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley.

1 November 2016

USS Wainwright (DD-62) was a Tucker class destroyer that served from Queenstown in 1917-18 and from Brest in 1918, and had a series of possible encounters with U-boats, but without any successes.

The Sampson Class Destroyers were the final batch of '1,000 tonner' destroyers produced for the US Navy, and were the first to be built with anti-aircraft guns.

31 October 2016

Gebhard Lebrecht Fürst Blücher von Wahlstatt was the most famous Prussian commander of the Napoleonic Wars and played an important part in the revival of Prussian military power in 1813-1815 and in the campaigns in Germany, France and of Waterloo.

27 October 2016

The Medium Tank M4A2E1 was a version of the Sherman tank that was powered by a General Motors engine developed from a marine diesel engine.

The Medium Tank M4E3 was an experimental version of the Sherman that was powered by a Chrysler A65 engine.

26 October 2016

The Boulton & Paul P.70 was a design for a bomber, based on the earlier P.64 mail carrier and P.69 bomber-transport design, and was the first Boulton & Paul design to be produced with power operated gun turrets from the start.

The Boulton Paul P.74 was the company's first design for a turret fighter, and was a twin engined design that would have carried two turrets.

21 October 2016

The 404th Fighter Group (USAAF) served with the Ninth Air Force and took part in the D-Day invasion, the advance across France, the battle of the Bulge, the crossing of the Rhine and the invasion of Germany.

The 405th Fighter Group (USSAF) served with the Ninth Air Force and took part in the D-Day landings, the advance across France, the battle of the Bulge, the crossing of the Rhine and the invasion of Germany.

The 406th Fighter Group (USAAF) served with the Ninth Air Force and took part in the D-Day landings, the break out from Normandy, the sieges of St Malo and Brest, the advance across France, the Battle of the Bulge and the advance into Germany.

18 October 2016

USS Wadsworth (DD-60) was a Tucker class destroyer that operated from Queenstown and then Brest during the American involvement in the First World war, carrying out a large number of attacks on possible U-boats without recorded success.

USS Jacob Jones (DD-61) was a Tucker class destroyer that became the only US destroyer lost to enemy action during the First World War, when she was sunk by U-53.

17 October 2016

Frederick William II of Prussia (1744-1797, r.1786-1797) was the king of Prussia at the start of the French Revolutionary Wars, and led Prussia into the War of the First Coalition, before losing interest and taking his country out of the war early in 1795.

Frederick William III (1770-1840, r.1797-1840) was king of Prussia during the Napoleonic Wars, and led Prussia during one of the most disastrous periods in her history in 1806-7 and during her revival in 1813-15.

13 October 2016

The Medium Tank M4E1 was an experimental version of the Sherman that used a diesel version of the Wright G200 Cyclone air-cooled radial engine.

The Medium Tank M4A6 was the final production version of the Sherman, and used the composite hull introduced late in the production of the M4 and a modified version of the Wright Cyclone engine that could use diesel fuel.

10 October 2016

Philomelus (d.354) was the leader of the Phocians at the start of the Third Sacred War. After a series of early victories he committed suicide to avoid capture after suffering a heavy defeat at the battle of Neon (354 BC).

Ptolemy Alorites (or Ptolemy of Aloros) was a Macedonian who attempted to seize the throne from Alexander II, then acted a regent for Alexander's brother Perdiccas III before being assassinated by Perdiccas, who seized power in his own name.

6 October 2016

The Boulton & Paul P.67 was a design for a monoplane fighter produced to satisfy Air Ministry Specification F.7/30.

The Boulton & Paul P.69 was a design for a bomber/ transport aircraft, based on the earlier P.64 mail carrier

5 October 2016

The Medium Tank M4A3/ Sherman IV had a welded hull and Ford V-8 engine, and was one of the main US service versions. It was also the version chosen for use after the end of the Second World War.

The Medium Tank M4A4/ Sherman V had a welded hull and used the Chrysler multibank engine. The engine was rejected for use by the US Army, but proved to be very reliable in Britain, where over 7,000 tanks were received

30 September 2016

Artaphernes the Elder (fl.500-492 BC) was the Persian satrap of Sardis during the Ionian Revolt, and a half brother of the Emperor Darius I.

Artaphernes the Younger was one of the defeated Persian commanders at the battle of Marathon (490 BC).

29 September 2016

The Boulton & Paul P.63 Streamline was a design for a high performance interceptor that came at the end of a family of similar designs.

The Boulton & Paul P.66 was a design for a general purpose aircraft, to replace the numerous Westland Wapati and Fairey Gordon biplanes.

28 September 2016

USS Conyngham (DD-58) was a Tucker class destroyer that served from Queenstown in 1917-18 then with the US Coast Guard from 1924-1933.

USS Porter (DD-59) was a Tucker class destroyer that served from Queenstown in 1917-18, damaging U-108 in April 1918, and then from Brest later 1918.

26 September 2016

Marshal Bon Adrien Jeannot de Moncey, duc de Congeliano (1754-1842) was a Napoleonic marshal who took part in three separate wars against Spain, successfully in the first and last, but suffering a loss of reputation during the second.

Marshal Dominique-Catherine, marquis de Pérignon (1734-1818) combined military and political careers, with his main military achievements coming against Spain during the War of the First Coalition.

16 September 2016

The Medium Tank M4A1/ Sherman II was the second version of the Medium Tank M4 to be standardized but the first to enter production. It combined a cast upper hull and a Wright radial engine, and was used by US and UK forces.

The Medium Tank M4A2/ Sherman III was the third version of the tank to be standardized, but the second to enter production. It used the welded hull of the M4 and a General Motors diesel engine, and was mainly used for Lend Lease, with most going to the UK and others to the Soviet Union.

14 September 2016

Artaxerxes II (r.404-359 BC) was a Persian Emperor whose long reign was marred by a series of rebellions, most of which failed, although Egypt managed to win its independence in 405 and defeated all of Artaxerxes's attempts to restore Persian control.

Artaxerxes III (r.359-338 BC) was the third-from-last Persian emperor of the Achaemenid dynasty, and restored Persian control of Egypt after just over sixty years of independence. Before he came to the throne he was called Ochus, but he took his father's name after becoming Emperor.

13 September 2016

The Boulton & Paul P.37 Streamline was a design for a sesquiplane day bomber that was the first in a series of similar designs, none of which entered production.

The Boulton & Paul P.58 was the designation given to a series of designs for a fleet spotter, produced in response to Specification S.9/30.

7 September 2016

The Tucker Class Destroyers were an improved version of the previous O'Brien class, and were the first US destroyers that had the ability to lay mines.

USS Tucker (DD-57) was the name ship of the Tucker class of destroyers and served at Queenstown in 1917-18 and Brest from June 1918.

6 September 2016

Marshal Claude Perrin Victor, duc de Bellune (1764-1841) was a capable battlefield commander who was never part of Napoleon's inner circle, and tarnished his reputation by voting for the condemnation of Marshal Nay in 1815.

2 September 2016

The 372nd Fighter Group was a home based training unit that served with the Fourth and Third Air Forces.

The 373rd Fighter Group served with the Ninth Air Force and took part in the D-Day invasion, the advance across France, the battle of the Bulge and the invasion of Germany.

The 402nd Fighter Group went through two incarnations during the Second World War, first as a medium bomber formation in China and then as a home based fighter training unit.

1 September 2016

The Medium Tank T6 was the prototype for the Medium Tank M4 Sherman, the most important American tank of the Second World War.

The Medium Tank M4 was the first version of the M4 Sherman to be standardized, but only the third to enter production. It used a welded hull and Wright R-975 air cooled radial engine, and was used by the United States and Britain.

31 August 2016

Alexander II of Macedon (r.369-368/7 BC) was a short-lived monarch, who was murdered by Ptolemy Alorites, probably his brother in law.

Perdiccas III (r.368/7-360/59 BC) was a king of Macedon who was killed in battle against the Illyrians, leaving the throne to his brother Philip II.

26 August 2016

The Boulton & Paul P.34 was a naval version of the P.33 Partridge single seat fighter, and like the land based version didn't enter production.

The Boulton & Paul P.35 was a design for a fighter with an upwards firing Coventry Ordnance Works 37mm cannon.

25 August 2016

USS Cushing (DD-55) was an O'Brien class destroyer that served from Queenstown and later Brest during the First World War, helping to sink U-104.

USS Ericsson (DD-56) was an O'Brien class destroyer that served from Queenstown in 1917-18 and Brest in 1918, becoming the first US warship to fire a torpedo at a U-boat during the war.

24 August 2016

Marshal Adolphe Edouard Casimir Joseph Mortier, duc de Treviso (1769-1835) was one of Napoleon's more reliable marshals, and fought at Ulm, Friedland, in Spain, Germany and France.

23 August 2016

The Cruiser Tank, Ram Mk I, was a Canadian tank that combined the engine, transmission and running gear from the Medium Tank M3 with a new hull and its main gun carried in a turret.

The Cruiser Tank, Ram Mk II, was the definitive version of a medium tank based on the American M3, but produced in Canada and armed with a 6 pounder anti-tank gun in a cast turret.

19 August 2016

Artaxerxes I (r.464-425 BC) was the Persian Emperor during the last stage of the Greco-Persian War and the first part of the Great Peloponnesian War, ending the first of those wars with the Peace of Callias, in which the Athenians acknowledged Persian authority in Asia Minor. The Greeks called him Artaxerxes Macrocheir (Long hand)

Cambyses II (r.529-522 BC) was the second Achaemenid Emperor of Persia, succeeding his father and founder of the Empire, Cyrus II the Great. His most notable achievement was the conquest of Egypt, but he died under mysterious circumstances while rushing home to deal with a revolt against his authority

18 August 2016

The Boulton & Paul P.32 was a design for a heavy bomber that reached the prototype stage, but wasn't ordered into production.

The Boulton & Paul P.33 Partridge was a single seat biplane fighter designed to the same specification as the Bristol Bulldog.

15 August 2016

USS Winslow (DD-53) was an O'Brien class destroyer that served from Queenstown and Brest during the First World War, carrying out at least ten attacks on suspected U-boats.

USS McDougal (DD-54) was a O'Brien class destroyer that served from Queenstown and Brest during the First World War, then served with the US Coast Guard.

12 August 2016

Marshal Jacques Etienne Joseph Alexandre Macdonald (1765-1840) was the son of a Scottish immigrant who served under every regime from the pre-revolutionary Royal army, through the revolutionary and Napoleonic periods and on to the restored Bourbons. His career was a mix of triumph, in particular at Wagram, and defeat in Italy and Germany, and was interrupted by a spell out of favour

11 August 2016

The Tank Recovery Vehicle M31 was based on the Medium Tank M3, and over 800 were produced in 1942-45.

The Prime Mover M33 was an artillery tractor based on the M31 Tank Recovery Vehicle, itself based on the Medium Tank M3.

10 August 2016

Artabanus or Ardaban (d.465/464 BC), was a Persian minister and commander of the royal guard who murdered Xerxes I and was later killed by his son and successor Artaxerxes I.

Cyrus II the Great (c.575-530 BC) was the founder of the Persian Empire, and one of the most successful conquerors of the Ancient World, creating an empire that lasted for over two hundred years.

8 August 2016

The Boulton & Paul P.29 Sidestrand was a twin engined bomber that was the company's first military aircraft to enter production.

The Boulton & Paul P.31 Bittern was an ambitious design for a monoplane night fighter that was let down by underpowered engines.

2 August 2016

USS O'Brien (DD-51) was the name ship of the O'Brien class of destroyers. She served from Queenstown in 1917-1918 and then from Brest for the last few months of the First World War.

USS Nicholson (DD-52) was an O'Brien class destroyer that served from Queenstown and later Brest during the First World War.

1 August 2016

Marshal Joachim Murat (1767-1815) was one of Napoleon's most flamboyant and dashing cavalry commanders, but he was less impressive later in the wars, when he was promoted beyond his abilities.

28 July 2016

The Sentinel AC III was a version of the Australian Sentinel AC I cruiser tank, modified to carry a 25pdr howitzer.

The Sentinel AC IV was a version of the Australian Sentinel AC I cruiser tank, modified to carry a 17pdr high velocity anti tank gun.  

27 July 2016

The siege of Adramyttium or Assus, c.367-6 BC, saw forces loyal to Artaxerxes II besiege the rebel satrap Ariobarzanes before withdrawing after King Agesilaus of Sparta arrived to help the rebels.

The siege of Sestus (c.367-6 BC) saw forces loyal to the Persian emperor Artaxerxes II unsuccessful besiege allies of the rebel satrap Ariobarzanes, during the second stage of the Satrap's revolt.

26 July 2016

The Boulton & Paul P.25 Bugle was a further development of the P.7 Bourges and all-metal P.15 Bolton twin engined bombers, and was produced in small numbers as part of the Air Ministries attempt to keep as many aircraft companies working as possible with limited funds.

The Boulton & Paul P.27 was a further development in the company's family of twin engined bombers, and although it didn’t get built itself, it did play a part in the development of the P.29 Sidestrand.

25 July 2016

The 369th Fighter Group was a home based training unit that was active for two years from August 1943.

The 370th Fighter Group served with the Ninth Air Force and took part in the D-Day landings, the advance across France, Operation Market Garden, the Battle of the Bulge and the invasion of Germany.

The 371st Fighter Group served with the Ninth Air Force and took part in the D-Day invasion, the advance across France, the battle of the Bulge and the invasion of Germany.

22 July 2016

USS Balch (DD-50) was a Cassin class destroyer that took part in the US intervention in Mexico in 1914 then served from Queenstown in 1917-18.

The O'Brien Class Destroyers were an improved version of the Cassin class, armed with new 21in twin torpedo tubes

20 July 2016

Marshal Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont, duc de Raguse (1774-1852) was an early friend of Napoleon who later became infamous for betraying him in 1814.

19 July 2016

The Sentinel AC I cruiser tank was an Australian tank designed to help defend the country against a potential Japanese threat. Despite being a impressive technical achievement, the AC I entered production too late for its primary purpose, and instead was using as a training vehicle.

The Sentinel AC II was an Australian design for a cruiser tank that could be produced using existing truck engines and components.

18 July 2016

Xenophon (431-c.348 BC) was a Greek soldier and writer most famous for his role in the revolt of the Persian Prince Cyrus the Younger and the Anabasis, his account of that revolt and its aftermath.

The battle of Leuctra (371 BC) was the first major defeat suffered by the main Spartan hoplite army, and played a major part in the collapse of Spartan power after their triumph in the Great Peloponnesian War.

7 July 2016

The Boulton & Paul P.12 Bodmin was a large experimental multi-engined aircraft, produced to test out the possibility of mounting an aircraft's engines within the fuselage.

The Boulton & Paul P.15 Bolton was the first all-metal aircraft to be delivered to the RAF, and was largely based on the earlier Boulton & Paul P.7 Bourges fighter-bomber.

6 July 2016

USS Parker (DD-48) was a Cassin class destroyer that served from Queenstown in 1917-18 and from Plymouth from July-November 1918, winning praise for her role in rescuing survivors from the hospital ship Glenart Castle in February 1918.

USS Benham (DD-49) was a Cassin class destroyer that served from Queenstown in 1917-18 and Brest in 1918.

5 July 2016

Honoré Charles M. J. Reille (1775-1860) was a French general who rose to high command in Spain, and commanded part of the French army during the defeat at Vittoria that effectively ended any chance of maintaining French rule in Spain. He also commanded a corps at Waterloo, although without much success.

The battle of Montmartre or Paris (30 March 1814) was the last battle of the 1814 Allied invasion of north-eastern France. Although the French defenders of Paris managed to hold off the first Allied attack on the city, it was clear that they couldn't hope to hold out much longer, and early on 31 March an armistice came into effect and Allied troops entered the French capital.

4 July 2016

The Medium Tank M3A4 used a multi-bank Chrysler engine, designed to overcome a potential shortage of tank engines in 1941-42.

The Medium Tank M3A5 was the designation given to M3 medium tanks that combined the General Motors diesel engine with a riveted hull.

30 June 2016

The battle of Tegyra (Spring 375 BC) saw an outnumbered Theben defeat a force of Spartan hoplites twice its own size, an early sign that the Thebans were no longer intimidated by the impressive reputation of the Spartans (Theban-Spartan War, 379-371 BC).

The siege and battle of Corcyra (373-2 BC) saw the defeat of a Spartan attempt to seize control of the Ionian Sea, and triggered a resumption of warfare in the Theban-Spartan or Boeotian War (379-381 BC).

29 June 2016

The Boulton & Paul P.10 was the first practical all-metal aircraft to be produced in Britain.

The Boulton & Paul P.11/ Type XXI was a design for a two-seat amphibian aircraft, produced in response to RAF Specification XXI.

28 June 2016

USS Duncan (DD-46) was a Cassin class destroyer that served from Queenstown during the First World War.

USS Aylwin (DD-47) was a Cassin class destroyer that was used in experimental work in 1917 then operated from Queenstown, Portsmouth and Devonport during the First World War. She inspected German ports after the end of the war, then returned to the US for a brief post-war career.

27 June 2016

The French campaign of 1814 saw Napoleon's last great military achievements. Although the campaign ended with an Allied victory and Napoleon's first abdication, he had managed to inflict a series of defeats on the Allied armies invading France in a campaign that recalled his great achievements in Italy at the start of his career, and demonstrated that Napoleon was still very adept at leading small armies.

24 June 2016

The Medium Tank M3A2 was the first version of the tank to use a welded hull, but only a handful were built before production moved onto the M3A3.

The Medium Tank M3A3 was the main production version of the M3 to use a welded hull in place of the original riveted hull.

22 June 2016

The battle of Naxos (September 376 BC) was the first naval victory won by an official Athenian fleet since the end of the Great Peloponnesian War, and saw a fleet besieging Naxos defeat a Spartan fleet sent to lift the siege.

The battle of Alyzeia (June or July 375 BC) saw the Athenians defeat a Spartan fleet that was supporting an attempt to move troops across the Corinthian Gulf into Boeotia (Theban-Spartan or Boeotian War, 379-371 BC).

21 June 2016

The Boulton & Paul P.3 Bobolink was the company's first internally designed aircraft, and was produced in response to a competition to replace the Sopwith Camel.

The Boulton & Paul P.7 Bourges was a promising design for a fighter-bomber that was produced in 1918, and disappeared after the end of the First World War.

20 June 2016

USS Cummings (DD-44) was a Cassin class destroyer that took part in the US intervention in Mexico in 1914, operated from Queenstown in 1917-1918 and with the Coast Guard in the 1920s.

USS Downes (DD-45) was a Cassin class destroyer that was based at Queenstown during the period of American involvement in the First World War and later served with the Coast Guard.

17 June 2016

General Jean, comte Rapp (1771-1821) was one of Napoleon's aides and was famous for being wounded repeatedly during a successful military career.

Marshal Jean Lannes (1769-1809) was one of Napoleon's most able generals, and probably his closest friend amongst his marshals. His death at Aspern-Essling meant that Napoleon had to fight his later campaigns without one of his most capable subordinates.

16 June 2016

The Medium Tank M3 was the main production version of the Medium Tank M3/ Grant/ Lee, and used a riveted hull and a Wright air-cooled radial engine. It was used in North Africa in 1942, but was then largely replaced by the M4 Sherman.

The Medium Tank M3A1 was the only version of the Medium Tank M3/ Grant/ Lee to use a cast upper hull.

13 June 2016

The Theban campaign of 377 BC was the second attempt by King Agesilaus II of Sparta to force Thebes to accept Spartan control, but like his first attempt in the previous year the campaign ended in failure.

The battle of Cithaeron (376 BC) was a minor Spartan defeat that prevented them from conducting a fourth invasion of Boeotia in four years (Theban-Spartan War).

10 June 2016

The Boeing C-75 was the military designation given to five Model 307 Stratoliners that were commandeered by the USAAF in 1942.

The Watanabe K8W1 Experimental 12-Shi Primary Seaplane Trainer was designed to replace the Yokosuka K4Y1 Type 90 Seaplane Trainer, but lost out to a Kawanishi design.

9 June 2016

The Cassin Class Destroyers were the first of four classes of '1,000 ton' destroyers that weren't popular with the Destroyer community when they first appeared, but that proved their worth during the First World War.

USS Cassin (DD-43) was the name ship of the Cassin class of destroyers. She took part in the US intervention in Mexico in 1914, operated from Queenstown during the First World War and then served with the Coast Guard in the 1920s.

7 June 2016

The battle of La-Fere-Champenoise (25 March 1814) was a French defeat that signalled the failure of Napoleon's last gamble during the campaign of 1814 and saw Schwarzenberg defeat Marmont and Mortier on the road to Paris.

The battle of St. Dizier (26 March 1814) was Napoleon's last battle during the campaign of 1814, and was a meaningless French victory fought while the main Allied armies were heading for Paris.

6 June 2016

The Medium Tank M2 was the first US medium tank to be produced in reasonable numbers, but was already obsolete by the time it entered production in 1939, and was soon replaced by the M3, itself seen as an interim design while work was completed on the M4 Sherman.

The Medium Tank M3/ Grant/ Lee was the first American medium tank to carry a 75mm gun, and played a significant part in the fighting in North Africa in 1942, but it was always seen as a interim design as its main gun was carried in the right of the hull, and it had been rushed into production to fill a gap before the arrival of the Medium Tank M4 Sherman.

30 May 2016

The Theban campaign of 378 BC was the first of two unsuccessful invasions of Boeotia led by King Agesilaus II of Sparta, and ended after a standoff close to the city of Thebes.

The battle of Thespiae (378 BC) was a Theban victory that ended a period of Sparta raids from their base at Thespiae, and in which the Spartan commander Phoebidas was killed.

27 May 2016

The Aichi H9A flying boat was the only dedicated flying boat trainer to be placed into production in significant numbers during the Second World War.

The Aichi S1A Denko (Bolt of Light) was a Japanese Navy night fighter that was at an advanced stage of development before US bombing destroyed the two prototypes, effectively ending the programme.

26 May 2016

USS Jouett (DD-41) was a Monaghan class destroyer that took part in the US intervention in Mexico in 1914, then largely operated off the US coast after the American entry into the First World War. In the 1920s she was loaned to the Coast Guard.

USS Jenkins (DD-42) was a Monaghan class destroyer that took part in the US intervention in Mexico in 1914, then operated from Queenstown in Ireland during 1917-18.

25 May 2016

The battle of Arcis-sur-Aube (20-21 March 1814) was Napoleon's last major battle during the campaign of 1814 and saw him misjudge his opponents, march into a dangerous trap and then manage to extricate much of his army.

The battle of Rheims (13 March 1814) was Napoleon's last significant success during the 1814 campaign, and saw his troops recapture Rheims in a night attack, briefly causing a panic amongst the Allied commanders.

23 May 2016

The Medium Tank T4/ Medium Tank M1 was the last medium tank to use Christie style convertible running gear, and was based on the Combat Car T4, itself developed from the Christie M1931/ Medium Tank T3.

The Medium Tank T5 was the prototype for the Medium Tank M2, and was also the first in the series of designs that ended with the M4 Sherman.

20 May 2016

The Theban-Spartan War or Boeotian War (379-371 BC) was a conflict triggered by Sparta's attempts to impose her dominance over the rest of Greece, and that ended with a dramatic Spartan defeat that marked the beginning of the end for Sparta as a great power.

The Theban Hegemony (371-362) was a short period in which the battlefield victories of Epaminondas overthrew the power of Sparta, and made Thebes the most powerful state in Greece. It began with the crushing Theban victory over a Spartan army at Leuctra, and effectively ended with the death of Epaminondas at the battle of Mantinea.

19 May 2016

The Aichi B7A Ryusei (Shooting Star) 'Grace' was a large torpedo bomber designed for use on a new generation of Japanese aircraft carriers, but that only saw limited service from land after the Japanese carrier fleet was destroyed.

The Aichi D1A Diver Bomber 'Susie' was a carrier dive-bomber based on the Heinkel He 66 that saw service with the Japanese Navy during the 1930s.

17 May 2016

USS Henley (DD-39) was a Monaghan class destroyer that was used to test geared turbines, then operated along the US East Coast after the American entry into the First World War. In the 1920s she served with the Coast Guard, before being sold for scrap in 1934.

USS Beale (DD-40) was a Monaghan class destroyer that took part in the US intervention in Mexico in 1914, patrolled US waters in 1917 and operated from Queenstown during 1918. She spent part of the 1920s operating with the Coast Guard.

16 May 2016

The battle of Craonne (7 March 1814) was a rare example of a battle where both commanders misjudged the situation and was unsatisfactory for both the French and the Allies, although counts as a narrow French victory.

The battle of Laon (8-9 March 1814) was a French defeat that ended Napoleon's hope of defeating Blucher for a second time during the campaign of 1814 and forced him to retreat into a position between the two main Allied armies.

13 May 2016

The Medium Tank T1 was the final attempt to produce an effective tank on the basis of the earlier Medium Tank M1921, but although it was briefly accepted as the Medium Tank M1 it never entered production.

The Medium Tank T2 was a 15ton tank that was judged to be the best tank yet designed by the US Ordnance Department when it was tested in 1931, but that didn't enter production because of financial restrictions during the Great Depression.

10 May 2016

The battle of Apollonia (381 BC) saw Sparta's ally Derdas of Elimia defeat an Olynthian cavalry raid that had entered the territory of Apollonia.

The battle of Olynthus (381 BC) was the second battle fought by the Spartans close to the city during their expedition to Chalcidice, and ended with defeat and the death of the Spartan commander Teleutias.

9 May 2016

The Douglas RD was the Navy version of the Douglas Dolphin twin-engined amphibious aircraft, and was produced in a number of variants for the Navy and Coast Guard.

The Douglas C-29 Dolphin was the most powerful aircraft in the Dolphin series and was powered by two 550hp engines.

6 May 2016

USS Fanning (DD-37) was a Monaghan class destroyer that took part in the US intervention in Mexico in 1914, and helped sink U-58, one of only two Germans submarines sunk by US destroyers during the First World War.

USS Jarvis (DD-38) was a Monaghan class destroyer that took part in the US intervention in Mexico in 1914, then served from Queenstown and Brest during the First World War.

4 May 2016

The 366th Fighter Group served with the Ninth Air Force and took part in the D-Day invasion, the advance across France, Operation Market Garden, the Battle of the Bulge and the invasion of Germany.

The 367th Fighter Group served with the Ninth Air Force and took part on the D-Day invasion, the advance across France, the Battle of the Bulge and the invasion of Germany.

The 368th Fighter Group served with the Ninth Air Force and took part in the D-Day invasion, the siege of Cherbourg, the advance across France, the attack on Germany and the Battle of the Bulge.

2 May 2016

The battle of Montereau (18 February 1814) was Napoleon's last significant  victory over General Schwarzenberg's Army of Bohemia during the campaign of 1814, and forced Schwarzenberg to retreat east from the vicinity of Paris back towards Troyes.

The battle of Bar-sur-Aube (27 February 1814) was one of a series of defeats suffered by Napoleon's subordinates during the campaign of 1814, and saw a combined Russian and Bavarian force defeat Marshal Oudinot after an attempt to convince the Allies that Napoleon was still present in that area failed.

29 April 2016

The Medium Tank M1921 (Medium A) was the first new tank design to be built by the US Ordnance department after the First World War, and suffered from a lack of engine power.

The Medium Tank M1922 was a variant of the earlier M1921 adapted to use an experimental cable suspension system.

27 April 2016

The Olynthian-Spartan War (382-379 BC) saw the Spartans intervene in northern Greece in an attempt to limit the power of the Chalcidian League.

The battle of Olynthus (382 BC) was a near defeat for a Spartan army that had been sent north to more vigorously conduct the war against Olynthus that had begun earlier in the same year.

26 April 2016

The Ago C.VII was a modified version of the unsuccessful Ago C.IV reconnaissance aircraft, with a number of structural improvements.

The Ago C.VIII was a modified version of the unsuccessful Ago C.IV, but with a modified tail and a more powerful 260hp Mercedes D.IVa engine.

The Ago S.I was a single seat ground attack aircraft that was still under development at the end of the First World War.

25 April 2016

USS Ammen (DD-35) was a Monaghan class destroyer that took part in the US intervention in Mexico in 1914 and was then based at Queenstown, Ireland, during 1917-18. In the 1920s she served with the 'Rum Patrol', before being sold for scrap in 1934.

USS Patterson (DD-36) was a Monaghan class destroyer that took part in the US intervention in Mexico in 1914, was based at Queenstwon for almost a year from June 1917, then operated with a hunter-killed antisubmarine group off the US east coast. After the was she spent several years operating with the US Coast Guard. 

22 April 2016

The engagement of Mormant (17 February 1814) saw the French defeat part of the Allied cavalry at the start of Napoleon's most effective attack on Schwarzenberg's Army of Bohemia during the campaign of 1814.

The engagement of Valjouen (17 February 1814) was the second of two French victories on the same day that caught Schwarzenberg's Army of Bohemia just as it was preparing to retreat to avoid being caught by Napoleon.

20 April 2016

The Christie M1928 was the first armoured vehicle to use the famous 'Christie suspension', and was thus the origin of a large number of later tanks.

The Christie M1931/ Medium Tank T3/ Combat Car T1 was the first of Christie's tanks to be accepted for production by the US Army, and was used in small numbers by the infantry at the Medium Tank T3 and the cavalry as the Combat Car T1.

18 April 2016

The siege of Mantinea (385 BC) saw the Spartans take advantage of their dominant position in Greece after the end of the Corinthian War to attack one of their long standing local rivals and a half-hearted ally in the recent war.

The siege of Phlius (381-380/379 BC) saw the Spartans besiege one of their allies in order to restore the rights of a group of exiled oligarchs, one of a series of heavy handed Spartans interventions in the internal affairs of other Greek cities that came in the aftermath of the end of the Corinthian War.

15 April 2016

The Ago C.III was a smaller version of the Ago C.I twin boom pusher reconnaissance aircraft.

The Ago C.IV was an armed reconnaissance aircraft with unusual tapered wings that entered production in 1916 but that was unpopular with its crews and was only produced in small numbers.

14 April 2016

USS Trippe (DD-33) was a Monaghan class destroyer that took part in the intervention in Mexico in 1914, then operated from Queenstown during 1917-18 before finishing her active career with the Coast Guard in the late 1920s.

USS Walke (DD-34) was a Monaghan class destroyer that served during the US interventions in Mexico and the Dominican Republic, from Queenstown during 1917 and off the US East Coast during 1918.

13 April 2016

The battle of Chateau-Thierry (12 February 1814) was one of the great missed chances during Napoleon's defence of France in 1814, but was also a French victory that forced Marshal Blucher to retreat east away from Paris.

The battle of Vauchamps (14 February 1814) was the last French victory during Napoleon's 'Six Days campaign', and saw the French defeat Blucher's attempt to block their path south towards Schwarzenberg's Army of Bohemia, which was advancing on the Seine front.

12 April 2016

The Christie Medium Tank M1919 was designed in an attempt to produce a tank that could operate on wheels or tracks, in order to reduce the number of vehicles breaking down before getting into action.

The Christie Medium Tank M1921 was a greatly modified version of the earlier Christie Medium Tank M1919, and was a turretless tank designed to be operate with or without its tracks.

11 April 2016

Lysander (d.395 BC) was a Spartan general who was largely responsible for the Athenian defeat in the Great Peloponnesian War, but whose harsh rule helped to trigger a series of revolts against Spartan authority that eventually triggered the Corinthian War and played a part in the decline of Sparta. 

Pelopidas (d.364 BC) was one of the main Theban leaders during his city's brief period of dominance in Greece, after playing a major role in freeing his city from Spartan rule in 379 BC.

6 April 2016

The Ago C.I was a twin-boomed pusher observation aircraft that was the first C-type aircraft to enter service, and that was a moderate success.

The Ago C.II was a development of the successful Ago C.I twin-boom pusher, and was produced in several different versions.

5 April 2016

The Monaghan Class Destroyers were a virtual repeat of the previous Paulding class, but with Thornycroft boilers in place of the Normand boilers used in the previous class.

USS Monaghan (DD-32) was the name ship of the Monaghan class of destroyers. She served off the US East Coast and then from Europe during the First World War, and with the Coast Guard in the 1920s.

4 April 2016

The 362nd Fighter Group (USAAF) served with the Ninth Air Force, and took part in the D-Day invasion, the advance across France, the battle of the Bulge and the invasion of Germany.

The 363rd Fighter Group/ 363rd Tactical Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) served with the Ninth Air Force, changing role half way thorough the campaign in north-western Europe.

The 365th Fighter Group served with the Ninth Air Force, taking part in the D-Day campaign, the advance across France, Operation Market Garden, the battle of the Bulge and the invasion of Germany.

1 April 2016

The battle of Champaubert (10 February 1814) was the first significant French success during the campaign of 1814, and saw Napoleon defeat an isolated Russian division at the start of his impressive 'Six Day's Campaign'.

The battle of Montmirail (11 February 1814) was the second of Napoleon's victories during the Six Days Campaign, and saw him prevent the westernmost part of Marshal Blucher's fighting its way east to rejoin the main army.

31 March 2016

The Renault UE infantry vehicle was an armoured supply tractor produced to move supplies to the front line.

The Chenillette Lorraine, Type 37L was an armoured cargo carrier produced to support infantry tank units in the French Army.

30 March 2016

The battle of Lechaeum or Corinth (390 BC) was a rare defeat for Spartan hoplites at the hands of light troops, commanded by the Athenian Iphicrates (Corinthian War).

The King's Peace or Peace of Antalcidas (Spring 386 BC) ended the Corinthian War (395-386 BC) and temporarily secured Spartan dominance of mainland Greece while at the same time acknowledging Persian control of the Greek cities of Asia Minor.

29 March 2016

The A.E.G. R.I was a 'Giant' class bomber produced during 1918, but that never entered production, and suffered the loss of the first prototype.

The A.E.G. PE was an armoured ground attack fighter that was the only aircraft of its type to be produced as a triplane.

24 March 2016

USS Warrington (DD-30) was a Paulding class destroyer that took part in the US intervention in Mexico in 1914, operated from Queenstown for six months in 1917 and then from Brest for the rest of the First World War.

USS Mayrant (DD-31) was a Paulding class destroyer that was given Westinghouse geared turbines and operated off the US East Coast during 1918.

23 March 2016

Marshal Michel Ney, duc d'Elchingen, prince de la Moscowa (1769-1815) was famous as the bravest of Napoleon's marshals, and was a master of the rearguard action. He was said to have been the last French soldier to leave Russia in 1812, and was a high quality corps commander, if not quite so able when given an independent command.

21 March 2016

The Renault AMC 34 was a light tank designed to be more capable of combat than the earlier Renault AMR 33, with thicker armour and a more powerful main gun.

The Renault AMC 35 was an improved version of the AMC 34 light tank, with a modified suspension system and a more powerful main gun.

18 March 2016

The battle of Coronea (394 BC) was an inconclusive Spartan victory that saw Agesilaus II defeat an allied army that was attempting to block his path across Boeotia, but not by a big enough margin to allow him to continue with his invasion (Corinthian War, 395-386 BC).

The capture of Lechaeum (392 BC) saw the Spartans take advantage of civil strife within Corinth to capture the port of Lechaeum on the Corinthian Gulf (Corinthian War).

17 March 2016

The A.E.G. G.IV was the most successful in a series of A.E.G. twin engined bombers and was used by the German air service from late in 1916 until the end of the First World War.

The A.E.G. G.V was a larger version of the A.E.G. G.IV twin engined bomber, but it appeared too late to see service in the First World War.

15 March 2016

USS McCall (DD-28) was a Paulding class destroyer that operated in the western Atlantic in 1917 and from Queenstown in 1918.

USS Burrows (DD-29) was a Paulding class destroyer that took part in the US intervention in Mexico, then operated from Queenstown for a year in 1917-18, then moved to Brest until the end of the First World War. After the war she served with the Coast Guard's 'Rum Patrol'.

14 March 2016

The battle of Brienne (29 January 1814) was Napoleon’s first major battle during the 1814 campaign in France, and was a narrow French victory that still failed to prevent the two main Allied armies from joining up.

The battle of La Rothiere (1 February 1814) was the only instance during the campaign of 1814 where the two Allied armies launched a combined attack on Napoleon's main army.

11 March 2016

The Somua S35 was one of the most advanced French tank designs of the 1930s, and performed well in 1940 although wasn't available in large enough numbers to make any different to the outcome of the campaign.

The Somua S40 was an improved version of the Somua S35 that was under development just before the Fall of France. The S40 used the same basic layout as the S35, but with a 220hp Diesel engine, a new form of suspension and a welded turret.

10 March 2016

The battle of Piraeus (403 BC) saw the Spartans defeat the pro-democratic forces of Thrasybulus outside the port of Athens, but divisions within the Spartan leadership meant that the Athenians were still able to restore their democracy

The battle of Cnidus (394 BC) was a decisive Persian naval victory that ended the brief period of Spartan naval supremacy that followed the end of the Great Peloponnesian War, and in its aftermath the short-lived Spartan domination of the Aegean crumbled.

9 March 2016

The A.E.G. G.II was the first in the series of A.E.G. twin engine bombers to enter production, although only in small numbers.

The A.E.G. G.III was an improved version of the A.E.G. G.II, and was produced in small numbers before being replaced by the definitive A.E.G. G.IV.

8 March 2016

The 357th Fighter Group (USAAF) served with the Eighth Air Force, flying a mix of bomber escort and ground attack missions as well as supporting the D-Day landings, the break out from Normandy, the Battle of the Bulge and the crossing of the Rhine.

The 358th Fighter Group (USAAF) fought with the Eighth and then Ninth Air Forces, taking part in the D-Day invasion, and carrying out ground attack and fighter sweep missions as the Allies advanced across Europe.

The 360th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a home based training unit.

7 March 2016

USS Perkins (DD-26) was a Paulding class destroyer that served from Queenstown during 1917 and then off the US East Coast during 1918.

USS Sterett (DD-27) was a Paulding class destroyer that took part in the US intervention in Mexico in 1914 and in Dominica in 1916, then operated from Queenstown in 1917-18.

4 March 2016

The engagement of Bar-sur-Aube (24 January 1814) was a rearguard action during the French retreat from their frontiers early in the campaign of 1814, and saw Marshal Mortier hold off an attack by two Allied corps for a day, before being forced to retreat by superior numbers.

The first battle of St. Dizier (28 January 1814) was Napoleon's first battle during the 1814 campaign in France, and saw the French defeat Blucher's rearguard, having moved too slowly to catch Blucher's main army.

1 March 2016

The Renault AMR 33 was a light cavalry tank designed for cross-country reconnaissance duties. It was an interim model and was quickly followed into production by the improved Renault AMR 35.

The Renault AMR 35 was a more heavily armed version of the AMR 33 light cavalry  tank, and could carry a range of guns from a 7.5mm machine gun to a 20mm cannon.

29 February 2016

The battle of Phyle (403 BC) was the first of three battles that saw the Athenian democrats led by Thrasybulus overthrow a Spartan-supported oligarchy that was then ruling in Athens.

The battle of Munychia (403 BC) was a significant victory for Democratic rebels against the Spartan imposed rule of the Thirty at Athens, and played a significant part in the reestablishment of Democracy at Athens in the aftermath of the Great Peloponnesian War.

26 February 2016

The A.E.G. DJ.I was a single seat armoured ground attack biplane that was still under development at the end of the First World War.

The A.E.G. G.I was the first in the successful series of A.E.G twin engined bombers, but was underpowered itself and only a single example was produced.

25 February 2016

USS Roe (DD-24) was a Paulding class destroyer that operated off the US East Coast during 1917 and from Brest during 1918, then served with the Coast Guard during the 1920s.

USS Terry (DD-25) was a Paulding class destroyer that took part in the US intervention in Mexico in 1914, the invention in Santo Domingo in 1916, served from Queenstown during 1918 and was used by the Coast Guard during the 1920s.

24 February 2016

General Anne-Charles Lebrun (1775-1859) was a French general who served on Napoleon's staff during most of his campaigns from 1805 until the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

Marshal Emmanuel, marquis de Grouchy (1766-1847) was a very able French cavalry commander, unfairly remembered for his failures at the battle of Waterloo. Before Waterloo he had an impressive career, and he became the last of Napoleon's marshals

23 February 2016

The Char Léger Hotchkiss H35 was a light tank designed in the early 1930s, but that was underpowered and was replaced by the Hotchkiss H39.

The Char Léger Hotchkiss H39 was an improved version of the Hotchkiss H35 light tank, with a more powerful engine and slightly improved main gun.

19 February 2016

Teleutias (d.381 BC) was a half-brother of Agesilaus II of Sparta and a successful admiral and general who was killed in battle against the Olynthians.

Thrasybulus (d.388 BC) was a supporter of Athenian democracy who rose to prominence late in the Great Peloponnesian War and then helped revive Athenian power in the aftermath of that war.

18 February 2016

The A.E.G. D.I was the first single seat fighter to be produced by A.E.G., and wasn't a great success with a small production contract being cancelled after two prototypes had crashed.

The A.E.G. Dr.I was an unsuccessful design for a triplane, based on the equally unsuccessful A.E.G. D.I.

17 February 2016

The 353rd Fighter Group (USAAF) served with the Eighth Air Force, providing bomber escorts, flying ground attack missions and protecting troop transports.

The 354th Fighter Group (USAAF) served with the Ninth Air Force from 1943 to the end of the Second World War, taking part in the D-Day campaign, the campaign in north-west Europe, Operation Market Garden and the Battle of the Bulge.

The 355th Fighter Group (USAAF) operated with the Eighth Air Force, flying bomber escort, fighter sweeps and ground attack missions.

16 February 2016

USS Paulding (DD-22) was the name class of the Paulding class of destroyers. She took part in the US intervention in Mexico, served from Queenstown after American entered the First World War then served with the Coast Guard 'Rum Patrol'.

USS Drayton (DD-23) was a Paulding class destroyer that took part in the US intervention in Mexico, and then served from Queenstown and Brest during the First World War.

12 February 2016

General Jacques-Antoine, baron de Chambarlhac de Laubespin (1754-1826) was a French general best known for his performance in Italy under Napoleon.

General Jean-Etienne Championnet (1762-1800) was a French general who fought on the Rhine in 1795-7, conquered the mainland part of the Kingdom of Naples but who fell foul of political intrigue and died while attempting to save the Italian position in Italy in 1799-1800.

10 February 2016

The Char Léger Renault R35 was the most numerous French infantry tank in 1940, but it was outclassed by most German tanks and was mainly used in infantry support units scattered along the entire front line.

The Char Léger FCM-36 was the first diesel powered tank produced in France, but only 100 were built due to the high cost of production.

9 February 2016

Demaratus (fl.510-480 BC) was a king of Sparta best known for serving as an advisor to Xerxes I of Persia during his invasion of Greece in 480 BC. His co-ruler, Cleomenes I, was firmly anti-Persian, and this resulted in tension between the two men.

Deryclidas (fl.411-394 BC) was a Spartan general best known for his campaigns against the Persians during the Spartan-Persian War (400-387 BC).

8 February 2016

The A.E.G. C.VII was an experimental entry in the A.E.G. C series and was produced with two different wing configurations.

The A.E.G. C.VIII was an experimental entry in the A.E.G. C series and was produced with two different wing configurations, one biplane and one triplane.

5 February 2016

USS Reid (DD-21) was a Smith class destroyer that served from the Azores in 1917 and then from Brest from October 1917 until the end of the First World War.

The Paulding class destroyers were the first US destroyers to be powered by oil instead of coal, and were thus the oldest not to be scrapped at the end of the First World War.

3 February 2016

General Jean-Pierre-François, comte Bonnet or Bonet (1768-1857) was a French general who took command at the battle of Salamanca after Marmont was wounded, before being wounded himself an hour later.

General Jean-François Carteaux (1751-1813) was a minor Revolutionary general best known for being Napoleon's commander at Toulon in 1793.

1 February 2016

The AMX 38 was a medium tank produced by the recently nationalised tank production branch of Renault, but that didn't see combat in 1940.

The AMX R 40 was an improved version of the Renault R35, the most numerous French tank in 1940.

29 January 2016

Clearchus (d.400 BC) was a Spartan commander who was forced into exile after seizing power at Byzantium, took part in the revolt of Cyrus the Younger of Persia and was killed in the aftermath of the battle.

Conon (c.450-389 BC) was an Athenian commander who survived the defeats that ended the Great Peloponnesian War and went on to play an important part in the revival of Athenian naval power in the aftermath of the war.

27 January 2016

The A.E.G. C.IV was the most numerous entry in the A.E.G. C series, and introduced a fixed forward firing machine gun and a more powerful engine.

The A.E.G. C.V was an experimental version of the C.IV that given a more powerful Mercedes engine.

26 January 2016

USS Preston (DD-19) was a Smith class destroyer that served off the Azores in 1917 and from Brest from October 1917 to the end of the First World War.

USS Flusser (DD-20) was a Smith class destroyer that served from the Azores and Brest during the First World War, performing a mix of patrols and escort duties.

25 January 2016

General Louis-Albert-Ghislain Bacler d'Albe (1761-1824) was the head of Napoleon's topographical bureau from 1804 and one of his most important staff officers.

Marshal Pierre Riel, marquis de Beurnonville (1752-1821) was an important figure early in the French revolution, fighting in a huge number of battles early in the Revolutionary Wars.

22 January 2016

The Char de Rupture 2C or Char 2C was a very heavy tank that was designed during the First World War but produced in small numbers after the war.

The Renault NC was an improved version of the First World War era Renault FT-17, produced in the 1920s as a possible replacement for the earlier tank.

19 January 2016

Chabrias (d.356 BC) was an Athenian commander who had some successes against Sparta, especially at the naval battle of Naxos, but who was killed at the battle of Embata off Chios (356 BC). During his career he was appointed an Athenian general thirteen times.

Cimon (c.510-451 BC) was a major Athenian commander during the Greco-Persian Wars and helped build up the power of Athens after the defeat of Xerxes's invasion of Greece.

18 January 2016

The A.E.G. C.II was a more manoeuvrable version of the A.E.G. C.I, with smaller dimensions and a lighter weight than the C.I.

The A.E.G. C.III was an experimental aircraft, in which the fuselage filled the entire gap between the two wings.

15 January 2016

USS Smith (DD-17) was the name ship of the Smith class of destroyers and served with the Coast Patrol in 1917 and as an escort ship based at Brest in 1917-18. After the war she was used as a target for bombing tests before being sold for scrap.

USS Lamson (DD-18) was a Smith class destroyer that took part in the US occupation of Veracruz in 1916, served at the Azores in 1917 and from Brest from October 1917 until the end of the First World War.

13 January 2016

The 347th Fighter Group (USAAF) fought on Guadalcanal, the Solomons, New Guinea, Borneo, the Dutch East Indies and the Philippines.

The 348th Fighter Group (USAAF) was based in the south-west Pacific and fought on New Guinea, in the Dutch East Indies, the Philippines before ending the war operating against the Japanese Home Islands.

The 350th Fighter Group (USAAF) was formed in Britain as part of the Eighth Air Force, but quickly moved to North Africa and remained in the Mediterranean theatre for the rest of the war.

12 January 2016

General Louis-André Bon rose from the ranks after the French Revolution, and was on the verge of making his name during Napoleon's expedition to Egypt before he was killed during the failed attack on Acre.

Marshal Jacques Alexander Bernard Law Marquis de Lauriston (1758-1828) was a French general and friend of Napoleon who fought at Marengo, accompanied Villeneuve's fleet during the crossing of the Atlantic, fought at Wagram, during the invasion of Russia and the campaign in Germany in 1813, where he was captured during the retreat from  Leipzig.

11 January 2016

The Schneider CA.1 Char d'Assault was the first French tank, and made its combat debut in April 1917.

The Saint Chamond M.16 assault tank was produced as a result of internal French army politics, and followed the Schneider CA.1 into action.

The Renault FT was the most advanced tank of the First World War, and was the first production tank to be equipped with a turret capable of rotating through 360 degrees.

8 January 2016

Pharnabazus (c.413-373 BC) was a successful Persian military commander who fought against the Greeks and Egyptians during the reigns of Darius II and Artaxerxes II.

Tissaphernes (d.395 BC) was the Persian satrap of Lydia and Caria in Asia Minor and played part in the defeat of Athens in the Great Peloponnesian War and the defeat of the revolt of Cyrus the Younger in 401, but was executed for his failures against the Spartans in 395.

5 January 2016

The A.E.G. B.III was the last in a series of unarmed two-seat reconnaissance aircraft, and was an improved version of the B.II.

The A.E.G. C.I was the first in a series of armed reconnaissance aircraft, and was based on the unarmed A.E.G. B.II.

4 January 2016

USS Worden (DD-16) was a Truxtun class destroyer that served as a recruiting ship in 1917 then escorted convoys along the French coast during 1918.

The Smith class of destroyers were the first in a series of 700 ton destroyers to be more sturdy than the earlier Bainbridge class destroyers, but that soon became known as lightweight 'flivvers' after the construction of 1,000 ton destroyers. 

31 December 2015

The 1st Search Attack Group was an experimental anti-submarine warfare unit that was created in the summer of 1942 at a time when the US military was struggling to cope with the threat of the U-boats.

The 343rd Fighter Group was based in Alaska from the autumn of 1942 and took part in the campaign against the Japanese in the Aleutian Islands.

The 480th Antisubmarine Group (USAAF) was based in Morocco and flew anti-submarine patrols over the Atlantic approaches to the Mediterranean.

30 December 2015

Marshal Guillaume Marie Anne Brune (1763-1815) served under Napoleon early in the future Emperor's career, and was one of first group of Napoleonic Marshals, despite a fairly unimpressive career.

Admiral Laurent Jean François Truguet (1752-1839) was a French admiral who was suspected of hostility to the Revolution, and argued with Napoleon, but still managed to maintain a career that lasted into the post-Napoleonic period.

28 December 2015

The Char D1 Infantry Tank was the first French tank to carry a 47mm gun, but it was an unpopular design had had been relegated to service in North Africa by 1940.

The Char D2 was a development of the D1 with more armour and more engine power. It was produced in small numbers, and only because famous because it was used in de Gaulle's armoured unit during the fighting of 1940.

23 December 2015

Pausanias (d.c.470-465) was a controversial Spartan who commanded the victorious Greek army at Plataea, but who was later accused of treason and executed in Sparta.

Peisander (d.394 BC) was the brother in law of King Agesilaus II of Sparta, and was defeated and killed at the naval battle of Cnidus, where Sparta's brief period of naval domination ended.

22 December 2015

The A.E.G. B.I was an unarmed three-bay biplane with wings on unequal span. It was designed in 1914 and used a method of construction that would become the standard for A.E.G. aircraft.

The A.E.G. B.II was an improved version of the B.I. Like the B.I it used welded steel tubes for the fuselage, with wooden wing ribs and a fabric covering.

21 December 2015

USS Truxtun (DD-14) was the name ship of the Truxtun class of destroyers. She served in Panamanian and Columbia waters during the early months of the US involvement in the First World War, then spent three months based at the Azores before operating from Brest in France during 1918.

USS Whipple (DD-15) was a Truxtun class destroyer that served off the Panama Canal and from the Azores in 1917, then carried out convoy escort duties and anti-submarine patrols from Brest during 1918.

18 December 2015

The 443rd Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) supported the Allied troops fighting in Burma, and then took part in the efforts to fly supplies into China, ending the war operating directly within China.

The 477th Composite Group (USAAF) was an African-American combat unit that never reached combat, and that suffered from repeated morale problems due to segregation and suspicion of the USAAF's intentions for the group.

The 479th Antisubmarine Group operated from England from mid July 1943 to October 1943, attacking German U-boats as they crossed the Bay of Biscay.

17 December 2015

Marshal François Christophe de Kellermann, duke of Valmy (1735-1820) was an experienced commander who helped save the young French Revolution from its foreign enemies at the battle of Valmy.

General François Etienne Kellermann (1770-1835) was the son of Marshal Kellermann, the victor of Valmy, and was a very distinguished cavalry general in his own right, playing a major part in the French victory at Marengo.

15 December 2015

Iphicrates (c.418-353 BC) was an Athenian general who played a key part in the recovery of Athenian power in the aftermath of the Corinthian War, but who was less successful during the Social War, fought against Athens's own allies.

Miltiades the Younger (c.554-489 BC) was the victorious Athenian commander at the battle of Marathon, but he died in disgrace in the following year, a victim of the often poisonous politics of Athens.

14 December 2015

The A.E.G. J.I was an early ground attack aircraft, designed to fill the new infantry support units created by the German air service in 1916.

The A.E.G. J.II was a modified version of the A.E.G. J.I ground attack aircraft, and was introduced in 1918.

11 December 2015

USS Steward (DD-13) was the fastest of the Bainbridge class destroyers, and is often placed into a sub-class of its own.

The Truxtun class destroyers were the last of the first sixteen torpedo boat destroyers built for the US Navy, and were more strongly built than normal and carried one extra 6-pounder gun.

10 December 2015

General Barthelémy Loius Joseph Scherer (1747-1804) was a French general best known for commanding the French army in Italy for three separate spells.

Horace François Bastien Sebastiani (1772-1851) was a French general who fought at Austerlitz, in Spain and during the invasion of Russia, but who is perhaps best know for being surprised on several occasions in Russia.

8 December 2015

The battle of Rossbrun (26 July 1866) was the final significant fighting during the German campaign of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 and saw the Prussians inflict a defeat on the Bavarian army just to the west of Würzburg.

The Treaty of Prague (23 August 1866) ended the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, and saw the Austrians withdraw from German affairs and acknowledge the supremacy of Prussia in northern Germany. Prussia gained some four million citizens, and leadership of a North German Confederation.

7 December 2015

Agesilaus II, king of Sparta (c.444-360 BC) was a successful general who was unable to prevent the slow decline of Sparta from its position of dominance at the end of the Great Peloponnesian War.

Thibron (d.392 BC) was an unsuccessful Spartan commander who was killed in a Persian ambush in Asia Minor.

4 December 2015

The 3rd Combat Cargo Group was a transport unit that was formed in India in 1944 and that operated over India and China for the rest of the war.

The 4th Combat Cargo Group was a transport unit that fought in the Burma campaign and took part in the last stages of the air-lift of supplies into China over the 'Hump'.

The 342nd Composite Group was a mainly fighter unit that formed part of the garrison of Iceland.

2 December 2015

USS Perry (DD-11) was a Paul Jones class destroyer that served in the Pacific Fleet. During the First World War she guarded the Panama Canal and then operated in the Florida Keys.

USS Preble (DD-12) was a Paul Jones class destroyer that served with the Pacific Fleet before the First World War and then escorted convoys off the US East Coast.

1 December 2015

The Gun Carrier, 3in, Churchill, was produced as an emergency measure in an attempt to provide a more powerful mobile anti-tank weapon than the 2-pounder in use in contemporary British tanks.

The Churchill Octopus was produced in an attempt to clear a safe path across minefields, using turretless Churchill tanks to detonate mines and as the basis of a causeway.

27 November 2015

The Douglas C-21/ OA-3 Dolphin was an ambitious aircraft originally ordered as a bomber leader, but normally used as transport and air-sea rescue aircraft.

The Douglas C-26/ OA-4 Dolphin was an improved version of the C-21/ OA-3 Dolphin, with a number of improvements over the earlier aircraft.

25 November 2015

The battle of Naryx (394 BC) was a costly victory won by the forces of an anti-Spartan alliance over a Phocian army early in the Corinthian War (395-386 BC).

The battle of Nemea (394 BC) was the first major fighting on the Corinthian front that gave the Corinthian War (395-386 BC) its name, and was an inconclusive Spartan victory.

24 November 2015

The Paul Jones class destroyers were a sub-group of the Bainbridge class and were similar to the basic design, but with an increase in displacement.

USS Paul Jones (DD-10) was the name ship of the Paul Jones class of destroyers. Before the outbreak of the First World War she served with the Pacific Fleet, before after US entry into the war she moved to the Atlantic coast.

23 November 2015

The Churchill Oke was a prototype flamethrower tank that was produced in 1942 and took part in the disastrous raid on Dieppe.

The Churchill Crocodile was a flamethrower tank based on the Churchill infantry tank, with the flame fuel towed in a separate trailer.

19 November 2015

The Douglas YO-48 was to have been a version of the O-46A observation aircraft powered by a Wright engine, but none were built.

The Douglas O-53 Havoc was to have been a heavy observation aircraft based on the A-20 Havoc, but a large order was cancelled before any had been built.

18 November 2015

The battle of Sardis (395 BC) was a minor victory for Agesilaus II of Sparta during his period in command of the Spartan war effort in Asia Minor that triggered the fall of the Persian satrap Tissaphernes and led to a six month truce in Caria and Lydia.

The battle of Haliartus (395 BC) was the first significant fighting during the Corinthian War (395-386 BC) and was a Spartan defeat that saw the death of Lysander, their victorious leader from of the Great Peloponnesian War.

17 November 2015

The battle of Gerchsheim (25 July 1866) saw the Prussians defeat the retreated Federal 8th Corps as it attempted to retreat from the line of the River Tauber towards the Main near Würzburg.

The battle of Helmstadt (25 July 1866) saw the Prussians defeat a Bavarian force that was moving south to aid its Federal allies, who suffered a separate defeat of their own a little further to the south-east, at Gerchsheim

13 November 2015

USS Lawrence (DD-8) was the name ship of the Lawrence class of destroyers. Before the First World War she served with both the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets, while during the war she guarded the Panama Canal and then operated in the Florida Keys.

USS MacDonough (DD-9) was a Lawrence class destroyer that spent most of her career operating on the US East Coast before moving to France in January 1918 to carry out convoy escort duties.

12 November 2015

The Churchill Mk X was the designation given to Mk VIs that had been upgraded to carry extra armour, and possibly the cast turret of the Mk VII.

The Churchill Mk XI was the designation given to Mk Vs that were upgraded by giving them extra appliqué armour.

11 November 2015

The Douglas O-43 was a parasol wing observation aircraft developed from the experimental O-31 and served with the USAAC in small numbers during the 1930s.

The Douglas O-46 was the main production version of the Douglas family of monoplane observation aircraft, and the first to use a radial engine.

9 November 2015

General Henri Gratian, count Bertrand (1773-1844) was one of the most loyal of Napoleon's followers and served under him in most of his campaigns as well as accompanying him into exile twice and accompanying his remains back to France in 1844.

General Jean Nicolas Stofflet (1751-96) was a leader of the revolt in the Vendée, and was executed after taking up arms for a second time.

6 November 2015

The Persian-Spartan War (400-387 BC) saw the Spartans break with their former supporters in Persia and attempt to replace the Athenians as the defenders of the Greeks of Asia Minor. They were soon distracted by the Corinthian War in Greece, and at the end of the war sacrificed their original allies in order to maintain their position of power at home.

The Corinthian War (395-386 BC) saw the Spartans, with eventual Persian aid, defeat an alliance of Thebes, Corinth, Argos and Athens and apparently remain the dominant power on mainland Greece. However the early part of the war took place at the same time as a Persian-Spartan War (400- 387 BC) that saw Sparta lose her short-lived maritime empire, and it was quickly followed by an intervention at Thebes that ended in disaster.

5 November 2015

The battle of Werbach (24 July 1866) was one of two battles on the same day that saw the Prussians defeat an attempt by their German opponents to defend the line of the River Tauber (Austro-Prussian War of 1866).

The battle of Tauberbischofsheim (24 July 1866) was a Prussian victory that prevented the Federal 8th Corps from defending the line of the River Tauber, and that ended any chance of a coordinated Federal and Bavarian counterattack against the Prussian Army of the Main (Austro-Prussian War of 1866).

4 November 2015

USS Hull (DD-7) was a Hopkins class destroyer that spent most of her service career operating in home waters. After the US entry into the First World War she protected the Panama Canal Zone and then carried out anti-submarine patrols in the Atlantic.

The Lawrence Class destroyers were a sub-group within the Bainbridge class, and had a different layout forward and a different arrangement of funnels.

3 November 2015

The Churchill Mk VIII (A22F) was a version of the Heavy Churchill Mk VII that carried a 95mm howitzer in place of the 75mm gun used on the Mk VII.

The Churchill Mk IX was the designation given to Mk IIIs and Mk IVs that had been upgraded, but that kept their original 6-pounder gun.

30 October 2015

The Douglas O-5 was an observation aircraft based on the Douglas World Cruiser, the aircraft that made the first successful circumnavigation of the globe.

The Douglas O-31 was the first in a series of monoplane observation aircraft produced to replace the existing Douglas biplane aircraft, and eventually led to production orders for the O-43 and O-46.

29 October 2015

Louis Antoine de Bourbon, Duc d'Angoulême (1778-1844) was a member of the French Royal Family who returned to France with the British in 1814, fought against Napoleon's supporters during the 100 Days, and who died in exile after his father Charles X was overthrown.

Antoine Fran François, Count Andréossy (1761-1828) was a French engineer and diplomat who served in Italy and Egypt and as Napoleon's ambassador to Britain, Austria and the Ottoman Empire.

28 October 2015

The Greco-Persian Wars of c.500-448 BC involved a series of clashes between the Persian Empire and the Greeks of Asia Minor and mainland Greece, and ended as something of a draw, with the Persians unable to conquer mainland Greece and the Greeks unable to maintain the independence of the cities of Asia Minor.

The Peace of Callias (c.448 BC) was almost certainly a formal peace treaty between Persia and the Athenian-led Greek alliance that ended half a century of open conflict between the two powers, and established their spheres of influence in the eastern Mediterranean.

27 October 2015

The battle of Blumenau (22 July 1866) was the final battle of the Austrian phase of the war and saw the Prussians attack an Austrian position north-west of Pressburg (now Bratislava), continuing the battle even after news arrived that an armistice was due to come into effect later on the same day (Austro-Prussian War of 1866).

The combat of Hundheim (23 July 1866) was a Prussian victory over German Federal troops that began to disrupt an over-ambitious plan for a counterattack aimed at expelling the Prussians from Frankfurt (Austro-Prussian War of 1866).

26 October 2015

The Hopkins class of destroyers were a sub-group within the larger Bainbridge class, and had a different forward layout and main guns to the standard Bainbridge class ships.

USS Hopkins (DD-6) was the name ship of the Hopkins class of destroyers and mainly served in US home waters before moving to the Panama Canal Zone after American entered the First World War.

23 October 2015

The Churchill Mk VI was the designation given to tanks that were armed with the British 75mm tank in the same turret as on the 6-pounder armed Mk IV

The Churchill VII (A22F) was a heavier version of the Churchill tank, with thicker armour, a redesigned turret and carrying the British 75mm gun.

22 October 2015

The Douglas XA-42/ XB-42 Mixmaster was a twin-engined pusher aircraft that was one of the most advanced piston engined aircraft of the Second World War, but that was quickly superseded by jet powered aircraft.

The Douglas XB-43 was the first US jet bomber and was produced by fitting jet engines to the earlier Douglas XB-42 Mixmaster.

21 October 2015

The battle of Friedland (14 June 1807) was the final battle of the War of the Fourth Coalition, and was a major French victory that forced Tsar Alexander to begin peace talks.

The two treaties of Tilsit (7 and 9 July 1807) ended the War of the Fourth Coalition and saw Napoleon impose very different terms on the Russians and Prussians.

20 October 2015

The 440th Troop Carrier Group took part in the D-Day landings, the invasion of the south of France, Operation Market Garden, the Battle of the Bulge and the crossing of the Rhine.

The 441st Troop Carrier Group took part in the D-Day landings, the invasion of the South of France, Operation Market Garden, the Battle of the Bulge and the crossing of the Rhine.

The 442nd Troop Carrier Group took part in the D-Day landings, the invasion of the South of France, Operation Market Garden and the crossing of the Rhine.

15 October 2015

Leotychides, king of Sparta (c.545-469, r.491-) was a successful commander during the Greco-Persian Wars, who commanded the Greek army at the battle of Mycale.

Evagoras (r.411-374 BC) was king of Salamis on Cyprus, and an ally of Athens who eventually fell under Persian domination after a failed revolt against the Empire.

14 October 2015

The battle of Aschaffenburg (14 July 1866) saw the Prussians gain a foothold on the Main River east of Frankfurt and made it more difficult for the two Federal forces opposing them to join up (Austro-Prussian War of 1866).

The battle of Tobitschau (16 July 1866) saw the Prussians attack the Austrians as they attempted to retreat south in the aftermath of their defeat at Königgrätz, forcing the Austrians to abandon their original line of retreat and instead move east across the Carpathian Mountains (Austria-Prussian War of 1866).

9 October 2015

USS Dale (DD-4) was a Bainbridge class destroyer and was the second destroyer to be commissioned into the US Navy. She served in the Philippines for most of her career, then in the Mediterranean in 1917-1918.

USS Decatur (DD-5) was a Bainbridge class destroyer. She was the first destroyer to be commissioned into the US Navy and served in the Philippines until 1917 then as an escort ship in the Mediterranean theatre.

8 October 2015

The Churchill Mk IV NA75 was produced in North Africa by fitting 75mm guns from Sherman tanks into the cast turrets of the Churchill Mk IV.

The Churchill Mk V was the close-support version of the Mk IV, and was armed with a 95mm howitzer.

7 October 2015

The Douglas XB-19 (XVLR-2) was the largest US military aircraft completed before the US entry into the Second World War and provided valuable data for the development of later heavy bombers such as the Boeing B-29 Superfortress.

The Douglas XB-31 was the designation given to a series of Douglas designs produced as part of the same design contest that produced the Boeing B-29 Superfortress, none of which were ever built.

5 October 2015

The siege of Danzig (18 March-27 May 1807) was the main French activity in the spring of 1807 and saw them capture one of the last strongholds in Prussian hands after the disastrous defeats of Jena and Auerstadt (War of the Fourth Coalition)

The battle of Heilsberg (10 June 1807) saw the Russians defeat a series of French attacks on their fortified camp at Heilsberg, only to retreat when the French threatened to outflank the position.

25 September 2015

Archidamus III, king of Sparta (r.359-338 BC) was a major Spartan leader during the period of the Theban Hegemony, and was unable to prevent a major decline in Spartan power.

Agis III (d.330 BC) was a Spartan king who attempted to revive his city's fortunes, but who was killed during a revolt against Alexander the Great.

24 September 2015

The battle of Kissingen (10 July 1866) was the bigger of two battles lost by the Bavarians on the same day in the aftermath of their failure to unite with their German allies (Austro-Prussian War, 1866).

The battle of Laufach (13 July 1866) was a Prussian victory over German Federal troops who were trying to defend the exits from the Spessart Mountains and prevent the Prussians from approaching Frankfurt (Austro-Prussian War of 1866).

22 September 2015

USS Barry (DD-2) was a Bainbridge class destroyer that served in the Philippines before the First World War and then in the Mediterranean after the US entry into the war.

USS Chauncey (DD-3) was a Bainbridge class destroyer and was the first US destroyer to be lost in service, after colliding with a British merchant ship she was escorting in 1917.

21 September 2015

The Churchill Mk III was the first version of the Churchill tank to be armed with a 6-pounder gun, replacing the 2-pounder turret gun of the Mk I and Mk II.

The Churchill IV combined the 6-pounder gun of the Churchill Mk III with a new cast turret.

18 September 2015

The Douglas B-22 Bolo was the designation given to a version of the B-18 that would have been powered by the 1,600hp R-2600-2 Cyclone engine.

The Douglas B-23 Dragon was produced in an attempt to replace the B-18 Bolo, but its performance wasn't as good as its more modern rivals and only 38 were ever built.

16 September 2015

The 437th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) took part in the D-Day landings, the invasion of the South of France, Operation Market Garden and the Crossing of the Rhine.

The 438th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) took part in the D-Day landings, the invasion of the South of France, Operation Market Garden and the crossing of the Rhine.

The 439th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) took part in the D-Day landings, the Italian campaign and the invasion of the south of France, Operation Market Garden, the Battle of the Bulge and the crossing of the Rhine.

15 September 2015

Marshal Louis-Gabriel Suchet, duc d'Albufera (1770-1826) was one of the most able of Napoleon's marshals when given an independent command, and performed better than any of his contemporaries during the Peninsular War.

General Jacques Gervaise, baron Subervie (1776-1856) was a French general who commanded a division at Waterloo and went on to have a successful political career after the Napoleonic Wars.

14 September 2015

Aristagoras of Miletus (d.c.497-6 BC) was Tyrant of Miletus and helped trigger the Ionian Revolt against Persia, before fleeing into exile in Thrace where he was killed in a minor siege.

Histiaeus (d.c.494/493 BC) was the Tyrant of Miletus during the reign of Darius I and was said to have helped save the Persian army during an expedition across the Danube, before later turning on Darius and encouraging the Ionian Revolt of 500/499 BC.

11 September 2015

The battle of Dermbach (4 July 1866) was a Prussian victory over a Bavarian army that prevented the Bavarians from joining up with their German allies (Austro-Prussian War, 1866).

The battle of Hammelburg (10 July 1866) was one of two defeats suffered by the Bavarians on the same day, as they retreated south in the aftermath of a failure to join up with their German allies.

10 September 2015

The Bainbridge Class destroyers were the first American destroyers, although they were officially designated as torpedo-boat destroyers.  All five served in the Philippines before the First World War and then as escort vessels in the Mediterranean from late 1917.

USS Bainbridge (DD-1) was the name ship of the Bainbridge class of destroyers. She spent most of her active career serving in the Philippines, before spending nine months based at Gibraltar during the First World War.

8 September 2015

The Churchill I was armed with a 2-pounder anti-tank gun and coaxial Besa machine gun carried in a small cast turret and a 3" howitzer carried in the hull front. The turret was too small to carry the upcoming 6-pounder gun, even though the tank had been designed with that weapon in mind.

The Churchill Mk II was the most numerous of the 2-pounder versions of the Churchill infantry tank. It carried a 2-pounder gun and a machine gun in the turret and a second machine gun in the hull front.

7 September 2015

The Douglas YB-11/ YO-44/ YOA-5 began life as an amphibian navigational leader and rescue aircraft to operate alongside land based bombers, but was completed as an observation aircraft and didn't enter production.

The Douglas B-18 Bolo was a bomber based on the DC-2 airliner and played an important part in the expansion of the USAAC, despite being obsolete by the time the United States entered the Second World War.

4 September 2015

General Joseph, Comte Souham (1760-1837) was a French general who fought early in the Revolutionary Wars then fell out of favour, before returning to active service during the Peninsular War, where he briefly commanded the main French army.

General Alexander Antoine Hureau, baron de Senarmont (1769-1810) was a French artillery command best known for his 'artillery charge' at the battle of Friedland.

3 September 2015

Artabazus (fl.362-328) BC was a Persian satrap who rebelled against Artaxerxes III but was pardoned, served Darius III loyally and was taken into the service of Alexander the Great.

Mausolus (d.353/350 BC) was a semi-independent Persian satrap most famous for his tomb, the Mausoleum, which was completed by his wife and sister after his death.

31 August 2015

The battle of Sadowa or Königgrätz (3 July 1866) was a decisive Prussian victory during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. Although the Prussian commander von Moltke failed to achieve the total destruction of the Austrian army that had been his objective, the battle helped break the Austrian will to resist, and peace was made on Prussian terms by the end of July.

27 August 2015

USS Guam (CB-2) was the second and last member of the Alaska class of heavy cruisers to be completed, and supported the Fast Carrier Strike Force during the battle of Okinawa and raids on the Japanese Home Islands, before ending the war with raids into the East China Sea.

USS Hawaii (CB-3) was the third and final member of the Alaska class cruisers to be launched, but it was never completed and was finally sold for scrap in 1959.

26 August 2015

The Infantry Tank Mk IV Churchill (A22) was a heavily armoured infantry tank that overcame serious reliability problems early in its career to become a mainstay of the British armoured forces during the fighting in North-Western Europe in 1944-45.

25 August 2015

The Watanabe K6W1 Experimental 11-Shi Intermediate Seaplane Trainer was a failed design for an aircraft to replace the Yokosuka K5Y Type 93 Intermediate Seaplane Trainer.

The Watanabe E9W1 Navy Type 96 Small Reconnaissance Seaplane was the first aircraft to be designed and built by Watanabe, and was carried on the large Jun Sen Type 3 submarines.

24 August 2015

General Edouard-Jean-Baptists, comte Milhaud (1766-1833) was a French cavalry general best known for commanding a cuirassier corps at Waterloo.

General Anne Jean Marie René Savary, duc de Rovigo (1774-1833) was a French soldier and diplomat, who saw widespread military service under Napoleon, but ended the wars as his chief of police.

21 August 2015

The 434th Troop Carrier Group took part in the D-Day landings, Operation Market Garden, the battle of the Bulge and the crossing of the Rhine.

The 435th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) took part in the D-Day landings, the invasion of the south of France, Operation Market Garden and the crossing of the Rhine.

The 436th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) took part in the D-Day landings, the invasion of the South of France, Operation Market Garden and the Crossing of the Rhine.

20 August 2015

Bagoas was a powerful Persian minister who had the Emperors Artaxerxes III and Arses murdered before finally being killed by Darius III.

Arses (r.November 338-June 336 BC) was the penultimate Achaemenid emperor of Persian, and was raised to the throne by the eunuch Bagoas, the murderer of the pervious emperor, Artaxerxes III.

17 August 2015

The combat of Schweinschadel (29 June 1866) saw the defeat of the last major Austrian attempt to retain a foothold east of the Eble, and completed the series of operations that brought the Crown Prince of Prussia's 2nd Army across the mountains into Bohemia.

The action of Königinhof (29 June 1866) saw the Prussian Guards Corps capture the town and its bridge over the River Elbe, badly disrupting the Austrian plan of campaign (Austria-Prussian War, 1866).

14 August 2015

The Alaska Class cruisers were effectively battle cruisers, designed to deal with a potential threat from heavily armoured Japanese and German cruisers that had evaporated by the time the two members of the class were completed.

USS Alaska (CB-1) was the first member of the Alaska class of large cruisers to enter service, and took part in the final stages of the fighting on Iwo Jima, the invasion of Okinawa, and supported the fast carriers during their raids on the Japanese Home Islands and in the East China Sea.

12 August 2015

The Valentine Bridgelayer was the last version of the tank to see frontline service, and could deploy a medium sized bridge while under fire.

The Valentine DD was the first production version of the floating tanks that saw action on D-Day when applied to the Sherman tank.

11 August 2015

The Yokosuka MXY7 Ohka (Cherry Blossom) 'Baka' was a manned suicide rocket that achieved limited success, but was dangerously vulnerable while being carried to its target.

The Yokosuka P1Y Ginga (Milky War) 'Frances' was a promising twin-engined medium bomber let down by reliability problems. These delayed its service entry until 1945, five years after work began on the aircraft.

10 August 2015

The War of the Fourth Coalition (1806-1807) saw Napoleon defeat Prussia at Jena and Auerstädt in 1806, and Russia at Friedland in 1807, and the resulting Peace of Tilsit marked the high point of Napoleon's power.

7 August 2015

Autophradates (fl.c.390-330 BC) was a satrap of Lydia during the Satrap's Revolt, and then served Darius III during the invasion of Alexander the Great, taking joint control of the Persian fleet in the Aegean after the death of Memnon of Rhodes.

Ariobarzanes (d.c.360) was the leader of the Satrap's revolt against Artaxerxes II.

5 August 2015

The battle of Soor or Berkersdorf (28 June 1866) was a Prussian victory that made up for their defeat at Trautenau on the previous day, and opened up a route to the River Elbe for the Prussian Guard Corps

The battle of Gitschin (or Jicin), 29 June 1866, saw the western wing of the Prussian army invading Bohemia inflict a significant defeat on the retreating Austrian and Saxon troops who had been unable to stop them on the River Iser.

4 August 2015

USS Spokane (CL-120) was an Atlanta class light cruiser that arrived too late for service in the Second World War and was decommissioned just before the outbreak of the Korean War. In 1966 she was selected for conversion into an experimental ship, but the work was never finished.

USS Fresno (CL-121) was the final member of the Atlanta class of light cruisers and had a short service career that fell between the end of the Second World War and the start of the Korean War.

3 August 2015

The Bishop, or Bishop, Carrier, Valentine, 25pdr gun, was a self-propelled gun produced in response to an urgent request from Middle East Command.

The Valentine Scorpion III was a mine-clearing flail tank based on the Matilda Scorpion I, which had been developed in the Middle East.

31 July 2015

The Experimental Kusho 12-Shi Special Flying-boat H7Y1 was a highly secret attempt to produce a long range flying boat that could reach Hawaii from Japan and return safely with its photographs.

The Yokosuka E14Y Navy Type 0 Submarine-borne Reconnaissance Seaplane 'Glen' was a tiny reconnaissance aircraft that was also the only hostile aircraft to drop bombs on the American mainland during the Second World War.

30 July 2015

The 403rd Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) provided cargo and passenger transport services in the south-west Pacific, as well as supporting the campaigns on New Guinea and the Philippines.

The 419th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) ran transport terminals that helped to organise the activities of other transport units.

The 433rd Troop Carrier Group (USSAF) operated in support of the campaigns on New Guinea and the Philippines and moved parts of the Fifth Air Force to Okinawa.

28 July 2015

The siege of Sestus (Autumn-winter 479-478 BC) was the last significant fighting during the campaign of 479, and saw an Athenian force besiege and capture the main Persian base in the Chersonese, on the European side of the Hellespont.

The Satrap's Revolt (c.370s-350s) was a prolonged period of unrest within the Persian Empire, marked by a series of revolts by the satraps, or provincial governors.

27 July 2015

The Austro-Prussian or Seven Weeks War of 1866 was the second of three wars that led to German unification under the leadership of Prussia. The Prussians easily defeated their Austrian and German enemies, and became the dominant power in Northern Germany, while Austrian had to abandon her remaining influence in the rest of Germany.

24 July 2015

USS Tucson (CL-98) was an Atlanta class light cruiser that joined the fleet just in time to take part in the last sortie against the Japanese Home Islands, and then remained in service until 1949.

USS Juneau (CL-119) was an Atlanta class light cruiser that entered service too late for the Second World War, but saw action during the Korean War. She received five battle stars for Korean War service.

23 July 2015

The battle of Morotai (15 September - 4 October 1944) was carried out in order to protect the left flank of any American advance from New Guinea to the southern Philippines, and took them into the Molucca Islands.

The battle of Wewak (December 1944-September 1945) was an Australian offensive on New Guinea, aimed at destroying the last major Japanese position in the pre-war area of Australian New Guinea, on the north coast around Wewak.

22 July 2015

The Yokosuka R1Y Seiun (Blue Cloud) was a design for a long-range reconnaissance aircraft that was abandoned due to poor performance figures.

The Yokosuka R2Y Keiun (Beautiful Cloud or Lucky Cloud) was a long-range land-based reconnaissance aircraft powered by two engines mounted within the fuselage and driving a single propeller.

21 July 2015

The battle of Mycale (479 BC) was a land battle that resulted in the destruction of the Persian fleet in Asia Minor, and that encouraged the Ionian cities to rebel against Persian authority.

The siege of Thebes (479 BC) followed the Greek victory over the invading Persians at Plataea, and ended after the main Persian supporters in Thebes surrendered.

10 July 2015

The battle of Nachod (27 June 1866) saw the Prussians defeat a series of Austrian attacks aimed at recapturing a key position in the Bohemian mountains that had been abandoned without a fight on the previous day.

The battle of Skalitz (28 June 1866) was the second of two victories in two days won by the Prussian V Corps, and helped secure the Prussian position in Bohemia (Austria-Prussian War of 1866)

9 July 2015

USS Reno (CL-96) was part of the second batch of Atlanta class light cruisers, and served with the Carrier Task Force from May 1944 until she was badly damaged during the fighting off Leyte.

USS Flint (CL-97) was an Atlanta class light cruiser that joined the fleet in time to take part in the Pacific campaigns of 1945, including the invasions of Iwo Jima and Okinawa and the raids on the Japanese Home Islands.

8 July 2015

The battle of Noemfoor (2 July-30 August 1944) was a US amphibious landing carried out in order to make up for slow progress on Biak and the resulting shortage of airfields in western New Guinea.

The landings at Sansapor (30-31 July 1944) were the last major American offensive of the long New Guinea campaign, and saw them capture a foothold on the Vogelkop Peninsula, at the western end of New Guinea, where they were able to build a medium bomber base to support operations further west.

7 July 2015

The Yokosuka K4Y1 Type 90 Seaplane Trainer was produced to replace the Yokosho K1Y Type 13 Seaplane Trainer, and was the first Japanese production aircraft to use a welded steel tube fuselage.

The Yokosuka K5Y 'Willow' Type 93 Intermediate Trainer was the most widely produced training aircraft produced in Japan, and remained in production from 1933 to 1945.

6 July 2015

The siege of Olynthus (early 479 BC) was a success for the Persian forces that had escorted Xerxes back to the Hellespont after the battle of Salamis and saw the city fall to assault and a large part of its population massacred.

The battle of Plataea (27 August 479 BC) was the decisive land battle during the Persian invasion of Greece (480-479) and saw the Persian land army left behind after the failure of the 480 campaign defeated by a coalition of Greek powers.

2 July 2015

The 349th Troop Carrier Group reached the European theatre too late to take part in any of the major set-piece airborne assault of the Second World War.

The 374th Troop Carrier Group took part in the long campaign in New Guinea, performing an especially valuable role early in the campaign, when Allied resources were very limited.

The 375th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) took part in the long campaign in New Guinea, then supported the liberation of the Philippines and the campaign on Okinawa.

1 July 2015

The battle of Langensalza (27 June 1866) was the only significant Prussian setback during the campaign against their German enemies during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, but despite their victories the Hanoverians were forced to surrender two days later.

The battle of Trautenau, 27 June 1866, was the only serious Prussian setback during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, and saw the right-hand column of the eastern wing of the advancing Prussian armies suffer a defeat at the hands of the Austrian 10th Corps.

30 June 2015

USS San Juan (CL-54) was an Atlanta class light cruiser that fought in the Guadalcanal campaign, the advance up the Solomon Islands, the invasions of the Marshalls, Mariannas, Philippines, Iwo Jima and Okinawa, as well as fighting at the battle of the Philippine Sea.

USS Oakland (CL-95) was the first in the second group of Atlanta light cruisers to enter service, and supported carrier raids, fought at the battle of Leyte Gulf, and supported the final attacks on the Japanese Home islands.

29 June 2015

The Valentine X was the designation given to tanks that were built from new with the 6-pounder gun.

The Valentine XI was the last production version of the Valentine tank, and was armed with the new British 75mm tank gun. It was similar to the Mk X, which was the first version to be built from new with the 6-pounder anti-tank gun.

25 June 2015

The battle of Wakde Island (18-21 May 1944) was part of a wider American offensive carried out in order to protect the western flanks of their newly captured position at Hollandia, on the north coast of New Guinea.

The battle of Biak Island (27 May- 29 July 1944) was one of the most costly of MacArthur's leapfrogging attacks on the north coast of New Guinea and saw a well dug-in Japanese garrison hold out for several months longer than originally expected.

24 June 2015

The Yokosho K1Y Navy Type 13 Trainer was produced to replace the existing I-go Ko-gata and Avro 504 seaplane trainers, and was in use from the mid 1920s until the early part of the Pacific War, although in decreased numbers from 1930.

The Yokosho K2Y Navy Type 3 Land-based Primary Trainer was the Japanese Navy's main primary trainer during the 1930s and remained in service at the start of the Pacific War.

22 June 2015

The siege of Andros (c.480 BC) is an incident recorded by Herodotus as taking part in the period after the Greek naval victory at Salamis.

The siege of Potidaea (480-479 BC) was an unsuccessful Persian attempt to capture the strongly fortified city in the aftermath of Xerxes's retreat from Greece, and is notable for the first historical record of a tsunami.

19 June 2015

The action of Podol (26-27 June 1866) saw the Prussians defeat an Austrian counterattack which was designed to expel the Prussians from their footholds across the River Iser. Instead the battle ended as a Prussian victory which saw them gain control of another major river crossing over the Iser.

The battle of Müchengrätz (28 June 1866) was a missed chance for the Prussians to isolate and destroy the western part of the Austrian army on the River Iser (Austro-Prussian War).

18 June 2015

USS Helena (CL-50) was a Brooklyn class light cruiser that was present during the attack on Pearl Harbor and fought off Guadalcanal before being sunk at the battle of Kula Gulf in July 1943.

USS San Diego (CL-53) was an Atlanta class light cruiser that fought off Guadalcanal, during the advance up the Solomon Islands, the invasion of the Gilbert islands and the Marshall Islands, the battle of the Philippines Sea and the invasions of the Philippines and Okinawa.

17 June 2015

The Valentine VIII was the designation given to Valentine IIIs that had been upgunned to carry the 6-pounder anti-tank gun.

The Valentine IX was the designation given to Mk Vs that were upgunned to carry a 6-pounder anti-tank gun.

12 June 2015

The battle of Lone Tree Hill or Wakde-Sarmi (17 May-2 September 1944) was a hard-fought contest for control of a strip of the New Guinea coast near the island of Wakde, and saw the Americans eventually win control of a large enough area for them to use as a staging post on the way to further advances.

The battle of the Driniumor River (10 July -25 August 1944) was a rare large scale Japanese counterattack on New Guinea and saw troops sent west from Wewak attack the American lines east of Aitape, achieving some early successes before being repulsed with heavy losses.

11 June 2015

The Yokosho E1Y Type 14 Reconnaissance Seaplane was based on the earlier Yokosho Type 10 Reconnaissance Seaplane, and was a single-engined biplane that remained in service into the early 1930s.

The Yokosho E5Y Navy Type 90-3 Reconnaissance Seaplane was one of three designs accepted by the Japanese Navy to replace the earlier Yokosho Type 14 E1Y, but was only produced in tiny numbers.

10 June 2015

The battle of Thermopylae (August 480 BC) is one of the most famous military defeats in history, and is best known for the fate of the 300 Spartans, killed alongside 700 Thespians on the final day of the battle.

The battle of Salamis (23 or 24 September 480 BC) was the decisive battle of Xerxes's invasion of Greece, and was a major Greek naval victory that left the Persian army dangerously isolated in southern Greece.

9 June 2015

The combat of Huhnerwasser (26 June 1866) was the first clash between Austrian troops and the Prussian Army of the Elbe at the start of the Prussian invasion of Bohemia (Austro-Prussian War).

The combat of Liebenau (26 June 1866) was the first significant combat during the Austro-Prussia War and saw the Prussians force the Austrians to abandon the village of Liebenau and gain their first foothold across the River Iser.

5 June 2015

USS Honolulu (CL-48) was a Brooklyn class light cruiser that was damaged at Pearl Harbor before fighting in the Aleutian and Guadalcanal campaigns and the invasions of Saipan, Guam and Leyte.

USS St Louis (CL-49) was a Brooklyn class cruiser that was at Pearl Habor, and fought in the Aleutians, at Gualdalcanal, New Georgia, Bougainville, Saipan, the battle of the Philippine Sea, Leyte Gulf, the carrier raids on Japan and the invasion of Okinawa.

4 June 2015

The Valentine VI, Infantry Tank Mk III***, was a version of the Valentine IV that was built in Canada. The Mk IV was powered by a GMC diesel engine and had the original two-man turret, with 2-pounder gun and 7.92mm Besa machine gun.

The Valentine VII, Infantry Tank Mk III***, was an improved version of the Mk VI, and like that tank was produced in Canada.

3 June 2015

The battle of Hollandia (22-27 April 1944) was part of Operation Reckless and saw the Americans leapfrog past a series of Japanese bases to capture a key position on the northern coast of New Guinea, catching the Japanese almost entirely by surprise and winning an unexpectedly easy victory.

The battle of Aitape (22-24 April 1944) was carried out in support of the larger landings at Hollandia, and was designed to provide a shield against any possible intervention by Japanese forces further to the west at Wewak.

2 June 2015

The Yokosuka D3Y Myojo (Venus) was originally intended to be a wooden version of the Aichi D3A2-K bomber trainer, but the design was modified while the aircraft was under development. A suicide attack version was also developed, but the prototype of this version was unfinished at the end of the Second World War.

The Yokosuka D4Y Suisei (Comet) 'Judy' was designed as a dive bomber, but entered service as a reconnaissance aircraft. It eventually served in that role, and as a bomber and suicide attack aircraft.

1 June 2015

The siege of Paros (489 BC) was the final campaign of Miltiades, the most important Athenian leader during the battle of Marathon of 490 BC.

The battle of Artemisium (August 480 BC) was an inconclusive naval battle that was fought on the same three days as the battle of Thermopylae, and that ended when the Greek fleet retreated after learning of the Persian victory at Thermopylae.

28 May 2015

USS Atlanta (CL-51) was the name ship of the Atlantic class of light cruisers, and had a short wartime career in the Solomon Islands, before being sunk at the naval battle of Guadalcanal (13-15 November 1942).

USS Juneau (CL-52) was a Atlanta class light cruiser that took part in the Guadalcanal campaign and was sunk by Japanese torpedoes at the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal.

27 May 2015

The Valentine IV was powered by a G.M.C. diesel engine, in place of the A.E.C. model used on the Mk II, but was otherwise similar to the earlier model.

The Valentine V used a new three-man turret, but retained the same engine and main gun of the Valentine IV.

26 May 2015

The occupation of Emirau (20 March 1944) helped to complete the Allied noose around the Japanese base at Rabaul and saw the 4th Marine Division occupy the undefended island in the seas west of New Ireland.

Operation Reckless, the invasion of Hollandia and Aitape of 22-27 April 1944, was one of the most dramatic leapfrogging operations during the New Guinea campaign, and saw American forces bypass the strong Japanese bases at Wewak and Hansa Bay and capture key bases for MacArthur's planned return to the Philippines

22 May 2015

The Yokosuka B3Y Navy Type 92 Carrier Attack Aircraft was a disappointing level bomber that was produced to replace the Mitsubishi B2M Type 89 Carrier Attack Aircraft

The Yokosuka B4Y Type 96 Carrier Attack Bomber 'Jean' was a torpedo bomber that the Allies erroneously believed was still in service in 1941, a mistake that played a part in their underestimating the threat from Japanese air power.

21 May 2015

The battle of Eretria (490 BC) was the second and final Persian success during the campaign that ended in defeat at Marathon.

The battle of Marathon (12 September 490 BC) was the decisive battle during Darius I of Persian's campaigns against the Greeks, and saw the Persians defeated by a largely Athenian army at Marathon in north-eastern Attica.

19 May 2015

The 315th Troop Carrier Group took part in the D-Day landings, Operation Market Garden and the airborne crossing of the Rhine.

The 316th Troop Carrier Group took part in the fighting in North Africa, the invasions of Sicily and Italy, the D-Day landings, Operation Market Garden and the airborne crossing of the Rhine.

The 317th Troop Carrier Group served in the Pacific theatre, taking part in the long New Guinea campaign and in the re conquest of the Philippines.

18 May 2015

USS Phoenix (CL-46) was a Brooklyn class light cruiser that took part in the fighting in the southern Pacific, during the advance along New Guinea and the invasion of the Philippines, but that is better known as the Argentine cruiser General Belgrano, sunk during the 1982 Falklands War.

USS Boise (CL-47) was a Brooklyn class light cruiser that fought at Guadalcanal then took part in the invasion of Sicily and the landings at Salerno on the mainland of Italy before returning to the Pacific to take part in the campaigns on New Guinea, the Philippines and Borneo.

15 May 2015

The Valentine II, Infantry Tank Mk III*, was the first version of the tank to use a diesel engine, but retained the 2-pounder gun of the Valentine I.

The Valentine III introduced a new three-man turret, but retained the same engine and main gun as the Valentine II.

14 May 2015

The battle of Hauwai Island (11-12 March 1944) saw the Americans capture one of the small islands north of Seeadler Harbour in the Admiralty Islands, despite the failure of their first attack.

The battle of Manus (12-25 March 1944) saw the Americans capture the largest of the Admiralty Islands, securing their control of the massive Seeadler Harbour, which then became an important naval base for the rest of the Second World War.

13 May 2015

The Navy Yokosho I-go Ko-gata Seaplane Trainer was produced to replace a pusher Farman type trainer, and was used alongside the Avro 504 by the Japanese Navy in the early 1920s. 

The Yokosuka Type 91 Intermediate Trainer was judged to be too close in performance to contemporary service aircraft, and was thus rejected for production.

12 May 2015

The battle of Malene (494 BC) ended the career of Histiaeus, former Tyrant of Miletus, a former support of Darius who may have played a part in the outbreak of the Ionian Revolt, but who ended his career as something of an adventurer.

The siege of Carystus (490 BC) was an early Persian victory in the campaign that ended at the battle of Marathon.

11 May 2015

USS Savannah (CL-42) was a Brooklyn class cruiser that took part in Operation Torch, the invasion of Sicily and the Salerno landings, where she was badly damaged by a radio-controlled bomb that ended her active career.

USS Nashville (CL-43) was a Brooklyn class cruiser that took part in the Doolittle raid, then fought in the Guadalcanal and New Georgia campaigns and during the campaigns in New Guinea and the Philippines.

8 May 2015

The 89th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) was a home-based training unit that operated from 1942 to 1944.

The 313th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) was a transport unit that took part in the invasion of Sicily, the Salerno landings, the D-Day landings, Operation Market Garden and the crossing of the Rhine.

The 314th Troop Carrier Group took part in the invasions of Sicily and Italy, the D-Day landings, Operation Market Garden and the crossing of the Rhine.

7 May 2015

The Infantry Tank Mk III, Valentine, was the most numerous British-built tank of the Second World War, with over 8,000 built between 1940 and 1944. It was a rare example of a private venture tank design that was accepted for mass production, and thus didn't have an 'A' number like most British tanks.

The Valentine I, Infantry Tank Mk III, was the only version of the tank to use a petrol engine, and was armed with the standard 2-pounder gun of early war British tanks.

5 May 2015

The invasion of the Admiralty Islands (25 February-25 March 1944) was a major step in the isolation of the powerful Japanese base at Rabaul, and saw forces from the US Cavalry capture the main islands in a series of battles that lasted for one month.

The battle of Los Negros (29 February-8 March 1944) was the first stage in the American invasion of the Admiralty Islands, a campaign that helped completed the isolation of Rabaul and also forced the Japanese to abandon their stronghold at Madang.

4 May 2015

The Navy Yokosho Ro-go Ko-gata Reconnaissance Seaplane was the first Japanese-designed aircraft to enter production for the Japanese Navy, and was in service into the late 1920s.

The Navy Type 10 Reconnaissance Seaplane was an unsatisfactory design for an aircraft to replace the Ro-go Ko-gata seaplane that eventually evolved into the more successful Yokosho Type 14 Reconnaissance Seaplane E1Y.

1 May 2015

The battle of Lade (494 BC) was the decisive battle of the Ionian Revolt, and was a crushing Persian naval victory that eliminated Ionian naval power and left the individual Ionian cities exposed to attack.

The siege of Miletus (494 BC) followed the Ionian naval defeat in the battle of Lade, and saw the Persians recapture the city that had triggered the Ionian Revolt in 499.

30 April 2015

USS Brooklyn (CL-40) was the name ship of the Brooklyn class of light cruisers and served in the Mediterranean and Atlantic theatres during the Second World War, taking part in Operation Torch and the invasions of Sicily, Italy and the south of France. Brooklyn received four battle stars for her World War II service.

USS Philadelphia (CL-41) was a Brooklyn class cruiser that took part in the US occupation of Iceland, Operation Torch, the invasion of Sicily and the landings at Salerno, Anzio and in the south of France.

27 April 2015

The Matilda Murray was a flame-thrower tank produced in Australian that arrived too late to see service in the Second World War.

The Matilda Dozer was a bull-dozer equipped version of the A12 Matilda Infantry tank, produced in Australia for use in jungle warfare.

24 April 2015

The battle of Cape Gloucester (26 December 1943-April 1944) was the main American attack during Operation Dexterity, the invasion of western New Britain, and was carried out in order to secure control of the Dampier and Vitiaz Straits, between New Britain and New Ireland.

Operation Appease, or the battle of Talasea (6-16 March 1944) was the last major US advance on New Britain, and saw the US Marines capture Talasea, on the Willaumez Peninsula, cutting off the main route being used by Japanese troops attempting to flee from the western part of the island.

23 April 2015

The Yokosho 1-go Reconnaissance Seaplane was designed to be operated from a submarine, and was successfully tested but didn't enter production.

The Yokosho E6Y Type 19 Reconnaissance Seaplane was the first submarine-based reconnaissance plane to be officially accepted by the Japanese Navy.

22 April 2015

The 62nd Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) took part in the battle for Tunisia, the invasion of Sicily, the fighting on the mainland of Italy, the invasion of the south of France and supported partisans in the Balkans.

The 63rd Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) was a home based transport unit that was used to move supplies in North America and later as a training group.

The 64th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) was a transport unit that operated in North Africa, Sicily, Italy, the south of France and briefly in Burma during the siege of Imphal.

21 April 2015

The battle of Labraunda (497 BC) was the second of three battles between the Persians and Carian rebels during the Ionian Revolt, and was a second costly defeat for the Carians.

The battle of Pedasus or Pedasa (497 or 496 BC) was the third in a series of battles between the Persians and Carian rebels during the Ionian Revolt, and was a major Persian defeat that effectively ended their first large scale counterattack against the rebels.

17 April 2015

USS Los Angeles (CA-135) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that served on two tours of duty during the Korean War. Los Angeles received five battle stars for service during the Korean conflict.

USS Chicago (CA-136/ CG-11) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that entered service just in time to take part in the final bombardment of Japan during the Second World War, and that was later converted into a guided-missile cruiser.

16 April 2015

The Matilda with Carrot was produced by fitting an explosive charge on a frame mounted in front of the tank, and was designed to clear obstacles and minefields.

The Matilda Frog was a flamethrower tank produced in Australia, around the A12 Matilda infantry tank Mk II.

15 April 2015

Operation Dexterity (16 December 1943-10 February 1944) was the Allied invasion of western New Britain, carried out in order to secure the straits between New Britain and New Guinea, and to tighten the Allied net around the Japanese base at Rabaul.

The battle of Arawe (15 December 1943- 16 January 1944) was a diversionary attack on New Britain, carried out to distract Japanese attention from the main American target at Cape Gloucester on the north-west corner of the island.

14 April 2015

The 10th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) was a transport unit that was based in the United States throughout its existence.

The 60th Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) served in the Mediterranean Theatre and took part in Operation Torch, the battle for Tunisia, the invasion of Sicily the liberation of Greece and the partisan battles in Yugoslavia.

The 61st Troop Carrier Group (USAAF) began operations in the Mediterranean, where it took part in the invasions of Sicily and Italy, before moving to England to take part in the D-Day invasion, Operation Market-Garden and the crossing of the Rhine.

13 April 2015

The siege of Soli (c.497 BC) was part of the Persian reconquest of Cyprus after the island's failed participation in the Ionian Revolt, and was the last to be concluded, lasting for four months.

The battle of the Maeander (497 BC) was the first of three battles between Carian rebels and the Persians that eventually disrupted the first major Persian counterattack during the Ionian Revolt.

10 April 2015

USS Macon (CA-132) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that was completed too late for service in the Second World War and that was used in the Atlantic and Mediterranean during the Korean War.

USS Toledo (CA-133) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that carried out three combat tours during the Korean War, and was one of the few members of her class to be continuously in commission in her original configuration.

7 April 2015

The Matilda with AMRA Mk Ia was an attempt to create a mine-sweeping vehicle by pushing heavy rollers ahead of a Matilda infantry tank.

The Matilda Scorpion I was a mine-clearing device developed in the Middle East and that saw use in North Africa as well as being modified for use on the Valentine tank.

6 April 2015

The battle of Dumpu (8-13 December 1943) was a rare Japanese counterattack during the fighting in the Finisterre Range on New Guinea, and saw them attempt to push the Australians out of their furthest outposts downstream from Dumpu in the Ramu Valley

The battle of Kankiryo Saddle (20 January-1 February 1944) saw Australian troops finally force the Japanese to abandon a key position in the Finisterre Mountains of New Guinea, after a period of difficult fighting on jungle-clad mountain ridges that had begun in October 1943 with the first clashes on the famous Shaggy Ridge.

3 April 2015

The battle of Salamis, c.497 BC, was a land and sea battle on Cyprus, won by the Persians on land and the Cypriotes and their Ionian allies at sea.

The siege of Paphos (c.497) was part of the Persian reconquest of Cyprus after the defeat of the Cyprian rebels at Salamis.

2 April 2015

The siege of St Quentin (2-27 August 1557) saw Gaspard de Coligny, Admiral of France, hold off a massive army led by Philip II of Spain for nearly a month, badly disrupting his plans for an invasion of France.

The battle of St Quentin (10 August 1557) saw the Spanish defeat a French army that was attempting to get reinforcements to the besieged garrison of St Quentin (Fifth Hapsburg-Valois War).

1 April 2015

USS Bremerton (CA-130) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that was completed just too late to see combat during the Second World War but was recommissioned and was used during the Korean War. Bremerton received two battle stars for service performed during the Korean action.

USS Fall River (CA-131) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that had a very short active career that included a spell as a flagship during the Bikina Atoll atomic weapons tests of 1946.

31 March 2015

The Matilda CDL (Canal Defence Light) was a version of the Matilda Infantry Tank Mk II that carried a powerful searchlight instead of its main gun and that was designed to win control of the night-time battlefield.

The Baron was a mine-clearing vehicle based on the Matilda II infantry tank, but despite entering production it was superseded by more effective vehicles and was only used in training.

27 March 2015

The Finisterre Range campaign (17 September 1943-24 April 1944) saw Australian troops successfully push the Japanese out of a series of strong defensive positions on incredibly difficult mountainous terrain in the Finisterre Mountains of New Guinea, preventing them from interfering with operations further east on the Huon Peninsula.

The battle of Shaggy Ridge (10 October 1943-23 January 1944) saw Australians troops slowly force the Japanese off a narrow mountain ridge that dominated a key route across the Finisterre Mountains of New Guinea.

26 March 2015

The Kawanishi K-11 Experimental Carrier Fighter was a private venture aircraft produced in an attempt to win a contest being held to replace the Mitsubishi Type 10 Carrier Fighter (1MF1 to 1MF5).

The Kawanishi Baika (Plum Blossom) was a design for a piloted suicide aircraft based loosely on the V1 flying bomb.

The Kawanishi Ki-85 was a very rare example of a Kawanishi aircraft designed for the Japanese Army. It would have been a four-engined heavy bomber based on the Douglas DC-4E and Nakajima G5N1 Shinzan (Mountain Recess), but the project was cancelled early.

25 March 2015

The 423rd Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a short lived home-based training unit that was disbanded within five months of being activated.

The 424th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home-based unit that was never fully organised, despite being officially activated on 1 April 1943.

The 426th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home-based unit that was never fully organised, despite being officially activated on 1 July 1943.

The 432nd Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home-based unit that served with the AAF School of Applied Tactics.

24 March 2015

The Persian Conquest of Egypt of 525 BC saw Cambyses II of Persia conquer the fourth major power of the ancient near east, completing the series of conquests begun by his father Cyrus II the Great.

The Ionian Revolt (499-493 BC) was a major uprising of the Greek cities of Asia Minor against Persian rule, and is said to have either delayed an inevitable Persian invasion of mainland Greece, or made that invasion more likely.

23 March 2015

Sir Thomas Wyatt the Younger (c.1519-1554) was an English soldier who fought in the Italian Wars before returning to England, where he led a dangerous revolt against Mary I.

Alvaro de Bazan, Marquis of Santa Cruz (1526-1588) was a Spanish naval commander who planned the Spanish Armada, but died just before the fleet sailed, denying the fleet an able commander.

19 March 2015

USS Rochester (CA-124) was a member of the Oregon City sub-class of the Baltimore class of heavy cruisers and served three tours of duty during the Korean War. Rochester received six battle stars for Korean War service.

USS Northampton (CA-125/ CLC-1/ CC-1) was laid down as a Baltimore class heavy cruiser, but was completed as a command and control ship and ended up as a Presidential Command Post to be used in case of a nuclear war.

18 March 2015

The Matilda Mk IV Infantry Tank Mk IIA** (A12) was a slightly improved version of the Matilda Mk III, with a modified engine mounting system and larger fuel tanks.

The Matilda Mk V, Infantry Tank Mk IIA** was very similar to the Matilda IV, but with some minor improvements made to the transmission.

17 March 2015

The battle of Saidor (2 January 1944) saw US troops land between the remaining Japanese bases on the north coast of the Huon Peninsula. As a result the Japanese abandoned all of their bases to the east of the landings.

The battle of the Green Islands (15-20 February 1944) saw a powerful New Zealand force overwhelm the Japanese garrison of the Green Islands between New Britain and Bougainville, part of the wider campaign to isolate the Japanese bases at Rabaul and Kavieng

16 March 2015

The Kawanishi K6K1 Experimental 11-Shi Intermediate Seaplane Trainer was an unsuccessful attempt to produce a new trainer to replace the Yokosuka K5Y ‘Willow’ Type 93 Intermediate Seaplane Trainer and Kawanishi E7K 'Alf' Type 94 Reconnaissance Seaplane

The Kawanishi K8K1 Navy Type 0 Primary Seaplane Trainer was produced in small numbers in 1940, but was cancelled after the Japanese Navy abandoned the use of primary seaplane trainers.

13 March 2015

The battle of Ephesus (498 BC) was a victory won by the Persians over a rebellious Greek army that was retreating from an attack on the city of Sardis (Ionian Revolt).

The siege of Amathus (c.498/7) saw an attempt by Greek rebels to capture the pro-Persian Phoenician city of Amathus on Cyprus.

10 March 2015

Ferdinando Francesco d'Avalos, Marquis of Pescara (1490-1525) was a Italian general who served in the Imperial service in the middle period of the Italian Wars, and was largely responsible for the decisive Spanish victory at Pavia in February 1525.

Francesco Maria I Della Rovere, duke of Urbino (1490-1538) was an Italian general who spent most of career in the Papal service, but who was unable to prevent the sack of Rome in 1527, and was often seen as a rather sluggish commander.

9 March 2015

USS Oregon City (CA-122) was the name-ship of the Oregon City sub-class of the Baltimore class of heavy cruisers and has a short active carrier that lasted for under two years.

USS Albany (CA-123/ CG-10) was a member of the Oregon City sub-class of the Baltimore class of heavy cruisers, and served with the 5th Fleet in the Mediterranean before being converted into a guided missile cruiser.

6 March 2015

The Matilda Mk II, Infantry Tank Mk IIA (A12) saw the Vickers machine gun of the original tank replaced with the Besa machine gun that had been adopted as standard for British tanks.

The Matilda Mk III Infantry Tank Mk IIA* saw the introduction of more powerful Leyland diesel engines in place of the AEC engines used in the original Matilda II.

5 March 2015

The battle of Sattelberg (29 October-25 November 1943) saw Australian troops capture a strongly defended Japanese position in the hills to the north-west of Finschhafen, and helped secure their position on the eastern tip of the Huon Peninsula.

The battle of Wareo (26 November-10 December 1943) saw the Australians capture the last major Japanese stronghold in the vicinity of Finschhafen, at the eastern tip of the Huon Peninsula, firmly securing their beachhead and clearing the way for an advance further north around the coast.

4 March 2015

The Kawanishi E11K1 Experimental 11-Shi Special Reconnaissance Seaplane / Navy Type 96 Transport was Kawanishi's second attempt to produce a spotter flying boat for the Japanese Navy, and like the first attempt ended in failure.

The Kawanishi E13K1 Experimental 12-Shi Three-seat Reconnaissance Seaplane was an unsuccessful attempt to design an aircraft to replace the Navy Type 94 Reconnaissance Seaplane E7K.

3 March 2015

The 74th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home based training group that both trained air crews and operated in support of army units that were training in the United States.

The 75th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home based unit that supported army training unit in 1942 and was a replacement training unit from 1943 until 1944.

The 76th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home based unit that operated alongside army units that were training in the United States.

The 77th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home based unit that mainly operated alongside army units undergoing training, but that also provided detachments for active service around the borders of the United States and in India.

2 March 2015

The siege of Naxos (499 BC) was an unsuccessful Persian backed attempt to restore a part of exiled Naxian aristocrats. The failure of the attack played a part in the outbreak of the Ionian Revolt (499-494 BC), an attempt to overthrow Persian control of the Greek cities of Ionian.

The battle of Sardis (498 BC) was a minor success for the Greeks during the Ionian Revolt, and despite being followed by a retreat and a defeat at Ephesus, helped to spread the revolt to Byzantium, the Hellespont and Caria.

27 February 2015

François de Bourbon, Count of Enghien (1519-1546) was a French commander who defeated an Imperial army at Ceresole in 1544 while only 25 but who died two years later in an accident and was thus denied a longer military career.

Louis d'Armagnac, duke of Nemours (1472-1503) was the defeated French commander at the battle of Carignola (28 April 1503), where he became one of the first generals to be killed by handgun fire.

26 February 2015

USS Columbus (CA-74/ CG-12) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that was later converted into a guided missile cruiser and served in that role with the Atlantic Fleet into the 1970s.

USS Helena (CA-75) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that saw combat during the Korean War. She was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation of the Republic of Korea and the Korean Service Medal with four stars.

24 February 2015

The Matilda Infantry Tank Mk II (A12) was the most capable British tank of 1940, but was slow to produce, could only carry a 2pdr gun, and was thus soon obsolete.

The Matilda Mk I, Infantry Tank Mk II (A12) was the first production version of the Matilda II, and would have been one of the most effective tanks in service in 1940 if it had been available in significant numbers.

23 February 2015

The Huon Peninsula Campaign (22 September 1943-24 April 1944) was part of the second stage of Operation Postern, and was conducted to clear the Japanese from the shores of the Vitiaz Strait, in order to allow the Allies to use their naval forces off the northern coast of New Guinea.

The battle of Finschhafen (22 September-28 October 1943) marked the start of the Huon Peninusla campaign and saw Australian troops capture the former German port of Finschhafen, at the eastern tip of the Huon Peninsula, and then fight off a major Japanese counterattack.

20 February 2015

The Nieuport 82 was a basic trainer based on the Nieuport 14 observation aircraft.

The Nieuport 83 was an advanced trainer based on the Nieuport 10 two-seat observation aircraft.

18 February 2015

The battle of Pelusium (early 525 BC) was the decisive battle of the first Persian invasion of Egypt, and saw Cambyses II defeat Psamtik III, opening the rest of Egypt to conquest.

The siege of Memphis (early 525 BC) was the last recorded resistance to Cambyses II of Persia's invasion of Egypt, and came after the main Egyptian army had been defeated at Pelusium.

17 February 2015

The battle of Marciano (2 August 1554) saw the active field army of Siena suffer a heavy defeat, allowing their Florentine enemies to focus all of their efforts on the siege of Siena.

The battle of Renty (13 August 1554) was a minor French victory during an Imperial invasion of Picardy that was most notable as Charles V's last battle (Fifth Hapsburg-Valois War).

16 February 2015

USS St Paul (CA-73) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that took part in the final carrier raids on Japan during 1945 and carried out three combat tours of Korea, firing the last naval salvo of the war and five combat tours of Vietnam.

USS Pittsburgh (CA-72) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that was completed in time to take part in the attacks on Iwo Jima, Okinawa and the Japanese Home Islands and that served in the Atlantic and Mediterranean during the Korean War.

13 February 2015

The attack on Nadzab (5 September 1943) was a successful airborne assault carried out in order to support the Australian advance on Lae, at the head of the Huon Gulf .

The battle of Lae (4-16 September 1943) was the final stage in the Salamaua-Lae Campaign, and saw Australian troops with US support capture the last Japanese stronghold in the Huon Gulf area of New Guinea.

12 February 2015

The Nieuport 80 was a two-seat trainer with one set of controls, developed from the Nieuport 12 and Nieuport 13.

The Nieuport 81 was a dual control trainer based on the earlier Nieuport 12 and Nieuport 13.

10 February 2015

Achaemenes (or Hakhamanesh), fl. early 7th C. BC, was the possibly legendary founder of the Achaemenid dynasty, the founders of the Persian Empire.

Teispes, fl. mid 7th C BC, was the second recorded king of the Achaemenid dynasty, and may have expended his kingdom from its basis in Persis during a period of weakness in the Median Empire.

Cyrus I, fl mid 7th C. BC, was the third Achaemenid king of Persis, then part of the wider Median Empire.

Cambyses I was king of Persis (c.600-559) and the father of Cyrus II the Great, founder of the Persian Empire.

6 February 2015

The siege of Metz (October 1552-January 1553) was a failed Imperial attempt to recapture Metz that was one of Charles V's last major military operations and that was said to have played a part in the decline of his health and his decision to abdicate (Fifth Hapsburg-Valois War).

The siege of Siena (January 1554-April 1555) was one of the longer sieges of the Italian Wars, and was one of the last attempts by the pro-French party in Italy to counter Imperial and Spanish power in Italy.

5 February 2015

The Kawanishi E8K1 Experimental 8-Shi Reconnaissance Seaplane was an advanced monoplane design that didn't have the manoeuvrability required by the Japanese navy and thus never entered production.

The Kawanishi E10K1 Experimental 9-Shi Night Reconnaissance Seaplane was designed to serve as a spotter aircraft with the Japanese fleet, but failed to satisfy in that role, or in its alternative role as a light transport.

3 February 2015

The 70th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home based unit that was used to help with the training of army units.

The 71st Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) operated in the Pacific theatre from the end of 1943 until the end of the Second World War, focusing on reconnaissance but flying a wide range of other missions at the same time.

The 72nd Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a reconnaissance group that was based in the Panama Canal Zone during 1942 and 1943.

2 February 2015

Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba (El Gran Capitán), 1453-1515, was a Spanish general who reformed the infantry in the early stages of the Italian Wars, helping to create the famous tercio formation that made Spanish armies so formidable during the sixteenth century.

Pedro Navarro, count of Oliveto (c.1469-1528) was a highly successful Spanish engineer who entered French service after the Spanish government refused to pay his ransom after he was captured at the battle of Ravenna in 1512.

30 January 2015

USS Canberra (CA-70) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that was badly damaged by a Japanese torpedo during the battle off Formosa (12-16 October 1944) but that was towed to safety, a remarkable achievement that also helped to convince the Japanese that they had inflicted heavy damage on the American fleet.

USS Quincy (CA-71) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that helped support the D-Day landings and Operation Dragoon before moving to the Pacific for the final battles against Japan.

29 January 2015

The Salamaua-Lae Campaign (30 June-16 September 1943) was the first part of Operation Postern, a wider offensive aimed at eliminating the Japanese presence on the New Guinea side of the Vitiaz Strait.

The battle of Salamaua (30 June-11 September 1943) was the first stage in the Allied campaign in north-eastern New Guinea, and saw Australian troops slowly push forwards across difficult terrain, pulling the Japanese away from their major base at Lae, further up the coast.

27 January 2015

The Nieuport 27 was the last in the long series of Nieuport sesquiplane fighters that had begun with the Nieuport 10 and Nieuport 11, and was very similar to the previous version, the Nieuport Type 24.

The Nieuport 28 was a totally new design that was produced in an attempt to replace the famous sesquiplane fighters that had begin with the Nieuport 10 and Nieuport 11.

23 January 2015

The siege of Pavia (27 October 1524-24 February 1525) saw the defenders of the city hold long enough for Imperial reinforcements to read Italy before inflicting a crushing defeat on Francis I at the Battle of Pavia (24 February 1525).

The battle of Pavia (24 February 1525) was the decisive battle of the First Hapsburg-Valois War, and was a French defeat that saw Francis I captured and that permanently undermined the French position in Italy.

22 January 2015

USS Baltimore (CA-68) was the name ship of the Baltimore class of heavy cruisers, and saw service at Makin, in the Marshall Islands, supported the fast carriers during 1944 and 1945 and took part in the battle of Okinawa.

USS Boston (CA-69/ CAG-1) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser that escorted the American fast carriers in the Pacific in 1944-45, took part in the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Battle of Leyte Gulf and the last raids on the Japanese Home Islands.

20 January 2015

Operation Postern - The Markham Valley/ Huon Peninsula Campaign of 4 September 1943-24 April 1944 saw a largely Australian force clear the Japanese from the Huon Gulf and the Huon Peninsula and ended with the fall of the major Japanese base at Madang, to the north-west of the Huon Peninsula.

The battle of Nassau Bay (30 June 1943) was an early step in the wider Allied offensive in the Huon Gulf area of New Guinea (Operation Postern), and was carried out in order to capture a staging post for later steps in the campaign and to improve the supply situation for the main Australian force attacking Salamaua from inland bases.

19 January 2015

The Nieuport 19 was a twin-engined aircraft that was ordered by the RNAS, but that was never delivered.

The Nieuport Triplane of 1916-17 was a very unusual design, with the middle wing thrust well forward of the upper wing. This arrangement was meant to improve the pilot's view, but the aircraft was unstable and didn't enter production.

16 January 2015

The Treaty of Noyon (13 August 1516) ended the fighting between Spain and France after Francis I's first invasion of Italy.

The battle of La Bicocca (27 April 1522) was the first in a series of French battlefield defeats in Italy during the First Hapsburg-Valois War and saw an army sent to recapture Milan defeated just outside the city.

14 January 2015

The 67th Reconnaissance Group flew with the Eighth and Ninth Air Forces during the campaign in Europe in 1944-45, taking part in the D-Day campaign, the advance through France, the battle of the Bulge and the final invasion of Germany.

The 68th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was originally formed as an Observation Group in the United States in the summer of 1941, before serving in the Mediterranean Theatre as a reconnaissance, ground attack and electronic countermeasures group.

The 69th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) spent most of the Second World War operating as a training unit, but did reach Europe in time to take part in the last few weeks of the war against Germany.

13 January 2015

USS Wichita (CA-45) was the last heavy cruiser to be produced for the US Navy before the outbreak of the Second World War, and the last to be restricted by the interwar naval treaties.

The Atlanta class light cruisers were the lightest and most lightly armed cruisers to see service with the US Navy during the Second World War and were a product of the London Naval Treaty of 1936.

12 January 2015

The New Guinea campaign (January 1942-September 1945) was one of the longest campaigns of the Second World War. It began with the easy Japanese conquest of most of the north coast of the massive island. The Japanese finally ran out of steam during the Papuan Campaign, and were unable to capture Port Moresby on the south coast of Papua New Guinea. The Allies then went onto the offensive. The Japanese were pushed back across to the north coast of Papua, before the Allies began a series of campaigns that eventually gave them control of almost the entire island.

8 January 2015

The Nieuport 15 was an attempt to produce a dedicated bomber, but its performance was disappointing and despite an order from the RNAS it never entered service.

The designation Nieuport 18 appears to have been given to more than one aircraft type, including a single engined fighter and a twin engined three-man bomber.

7 January 2015

Alfonso I Este, duke of Ferrara (1476-1534) was a pro-French Italian leader who managed to maintain his position in the Po valley despite the hostility of a series of popes.

Cesare Borgia (c.1475/6-1507) was the younger son of Cardinal Roderigo Borgia (later Pope Alexander VI), and after a brief church career became a successful military commander.

5 January 2015

The 26th Reconnaissance Group was a home-based unit that took part in military exercises and helped train ground forces.

The 65th Reconnaissance Group went through two incarnations during the Second World War, the first as a home based observation unit and the second as a training unit.

The 66th Reconnaissance Group was a home-based unit that served as a reconnaissance and and artillery spotting training unit as well as flying anti-submarine patrols during the first half of 1942.

1 January 2015

The Brooklyn class cruisers were the first 6in cruisers to be built for the US Navy after the London Naval Treaty imposed limits on the number of 8in cruisers that could be built.

The Baltimore Class Heavy Cruisers were the only American heavy cruisers not limited by the pre-war Naval Treaties to see service with the US Navy during the Second World War, and were developed from the last of the treaty cruisers, USS Wichita.

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