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4000 B.C.

   

3000 B.C.

   

2000 B.C.

   

c.1275 B.C.

  Battle of Kadesh

1000 B.C.

   

580 B.C.

  Pentathlus' Expedition to Sicily of c.580 was probably one of the first clashes between the Greeks and the Phoenician inhabitants of western Sicily, and ended with a victory for the Phoenicians and their local allies.

510 B.C.

  Dorieus' Expedition to Sicily (c.510 BC) was an unsuccessful attempt by a band of Greek adventurers to capture the town of Eryx in western Sicily and use it as the basis of a new Greek city.

500 B.C.

  Birth of Sun Tzu

499 or 496 B.C.

 

The battle of Lake Regillus (499 or 496 BC) was a narrow Roman victory over the Latin League early in the life of the Republic that helped to prevent the last of the kings of Rome from regaining his throne.

493 B.C.

  The battle of the Helorus River (c.493 BC) saw Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela, defeat the army of Syracuse, but he was unable to capitalise on his victory by capturing the city.

483-474 B.C.

 

The First Veientine War (483-474 B.C.) was the first of three clashes between Rome and her nearest Etruscan neighbour, the city of Veii.

481-480 B.C.

  The Carthaginian Invasion of Greek Sicily of 481-480 BC took place at the same time as Xerxes's invasion of Greece and ended with a Greek victory at the battle of Himera.

480 B.C.

 

The siege of Himera (480 BC) was the first military action of the Carthaginian invasion of Sicily of 480, and was ended by the dramatic Carthaginian defeat at the battle of Himera.

The battle of Himera (autumn 480 BC) was a famous victory won by the Greeks of Syracuse over an invading Carthaginian army.

472-1 B.C.

  The battle of Akragas (c.472-1 BC) was a clash between Heiro, tyrant of Syracuse and Thrasydaeus, tyrant of Akragas, that ended in victory for Heiro.

474 B.C.

  The naval battle of Cumae (or Cyme) of 474 BC saw a combined fleet from Syracuse and Cumae defeat an Etruscan fleet in a battle fought in the bay of Naples.

466 B.C.

  The Syracusan Revolution of 466 BC ended a period of tyrannical rule in the city and ushered in a prolonged period of democracy and prosperity.

465 B.C.

  The battle of Crastus (c.465 BC) took place in the period between the removal of several Tyrants on Sicily and the establishment of a period of peace, and was fought between Akragas on one side and the inhabitants of the town of Crastus and their allies from Himera and Gela on the other.

451 B.C.

 

The siege of Motyum (451 BC) was the first known attempt by the Sicel leader Ducetius to conquer an area held by one of the major Greek powers of Sicily, and led to his greatest victory over the Greeks at the battle of Motyum.

The battle of Motyum (451 BC) was the most important battlefield victory won by the Sicel leader Ducetius, but he was defeated at Nomae in the following year and forced into exile.

450 B.C.

  The battle of Nomae (450 BC) was a defeat that reduced the power of Ducetius, king of the Sicels, and that eventually forced him into exile.

446 B.C.

  The battle of the Himera River (446 BC) was a clash between the Greek cities of Syracuse and Akragas, triggered by the return to Sicily of the Sicel leader Ducetius

440 B.C.

  The siege of Trinacie (c.440 BC) was one of the final stages in the Greek conquest of the Sicels, the native inhabitants of eastern Sicily.

437-434 or 428-425 B.C.

 

The Second Veientine War (437-434 or 428-425 B.C.) was fought for control of the crossing over the Tiber at Fidenae, five miles upstream from Rome.

437 or 428 B.C.

 

The battle of the Anio (437 or 428 B.C.) was a Roman victory early in the Second Veientine War that was won after Lars Tolumnius, king of Veii, was killed in single combat

435 or 426 B.C.

 

The battle of Nomentum (435 or 426 B.C.) was a Roman victory over a combined army from Veii and Fidenae that was followed by a successful Roman attack on Fidenae, and possibly by the end of the Second Veientine War.

435 or 426 B.C.

 

The siege of Fidenae (435 or 426 B.C.) saw the Romans capture the town only five miles upstream on the Tiber and eliminate the last Veientine enclave on the right bank of the Tiber.

435-431 B.C.

  The Corinth-Corcyra War of 435-431 BC began as a dispute between Corinth and her colony Corcyra, but the Athenians were soon dragged into the conflict, and it contributed to the outbreak of the Great Peloponnesian War.

435 B.C.

 

The siege of Epidamnus (435 BC) saw the Corcyraeans capture their own former colony, overcoming a garrison partly provided by their own mother city of Corinth

The battle of Leucimme (435 BC) was a naval victory won by Corcyra over the Corinthians that gave them control of the seas around the western coast of Greece and allowed them to launch raids on Corinth's allies for much of the next year

433 B.C.

  The battle of Sybota (433 BC) was an inconclusive naval battle between Corinth and Corcyraean that saved Corcyra from invasion, but that also played a part in the outbreak of the Great Peloponnesian War.

432-30/29 B.C.

  The siege of Potidaia (432-430/29 BC) saw the Athenians besiege a city that was part of their empire, and was one of a series of relatively minor military clashes that helped to trigger the Great Peloponnesian War.

431 B.C.

  The Great Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) was a titanic struggle between Athens and Sparta that engulfed the entire Greek world, and that ended with the total defeat of Athens and the destruction of her naval empire.

429 B.C.

 

The battle of Spartolus of 429 BC was a costly Athenian defeat in a battle fought just outside the city of Spartolus in Chalcidice. s

The battle of Stratus (429 BC) was a Spartan defeat that ended a brief campaign designed to drive the Athenians out of Acarnania, the area to the north-west of the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth (Great Peloponnesian War)

The battle of Chalcis (429 BC) was the first of two Athenian naval victories won in the same year in the Gulf of Corinth that helped demonstrate their naval superiority in the early part of the Great Peloponnesian War.

The battle of Naupactus (429 BC) was a second Athenian naval victory won in a short period around the Gulf of Corinth, but was won by a very narrow margin and only after the narrow failure of a Peloponnesian plan to trap the entire Athenian fleet.

429-427 B.C.

  The siege of Plataea (429-427 BC) was a Theban victory that saw them capture Athen's only ally in Boiotia, although only after a two-year long siege.

428-427 B.C.

  The siege of Mytilene (428-427 BC) saw the Athenians defeat a revolt on the island of Lesbos, and is most famous for the two debates about the correct punishment for the rebels.

426 B.C.

 

The battle of Aegitium (426 BC) was an Athenian defeat that ended a short-lived invasion of Aetolia.

The siege of Naupactus (426 BC) was a short-lived Spartan attempt to capture a key Athenian naval base on the northern shores of the Gulf of Corinth.

The battle of Olpae (426 BC) was an Athenian victory that ended a Spartan campaign aimed at the conquest of Acarnania and Amphilochia.

The battle of Idomene (426 BC) was a second victory in three days won by Demosthenes against the Ambraciots in the north-west of Greece.

The battle of Tanagra (426 BC) was a minor Athenian victory won close to the city of Tanagra in Boeotia.

425 B.C.

 

The battle of Pylos (425 BC) was the first part of a two-part battle most famous the surrender of a force of Spartan hoplites trapped on the island of Sphacteria.

The battle of Sphacteria (425 BC) was the second part of a two-part battle which ended with the surrender of a force of Spartan hoplites (Great Peloponnesian War).

The battle of Solygia (425 BC) was a minor Athenian victory during a raid on Corinth, but one that had little long term impact (Great Peloponnesian War).

424 B.C.

  The battle of Delium (424 BC) was a costly Athenian defeat that came during an unsuccessful attempt to seize control of Boeotia (Great Peloponnesian War).

423-421 B.C.

  The siege of Scione (423-421 B.C.) came after the city rebelled against Athens, with Spartan support, but continued on after those cities agreed a short-lived peace treaty, and at the end the defenders of the city were either executed or sold into slavery.

423 or 422 B.C.

  The battle of Laodocium (423 or 422 BC) was a clash between two Peloponnesian cities, fought during a brief armistice between Athens and Sparta (Great Peloponnesian War).

422 B.C.

  The battle of Amphipolis (422 BC) was a disastrous Athenian defeat in Thrace, inflicted on them by an army led by the Spartan Brasidas.

421 B.C.

  The Peace of Nicias (421 BC) brought a temporary end to the fighting in the Great Peloponnesian War. Although it was meant to last for fifty years, it was broken after only a year and a half, and the war continued until 404 BC.

418 B.C.

 

The siege of Orchomenes (418 B.C.) was a short-lived success won by an alliance of Greek cities led by Argos and that included Athens.

The battle of Mantinea (418 BC) was a Spartan victory over an alliance of Peloponnesian states led by Argos and supported by Athens. The alliance survived into the following year, but the threat that it originally posed to Sparta was gone.

415 B.C.

  The battle of Syracuse (or of the Anapus River) of 415 BC was an Athenian victory won close to the shore south of the city of Syracuse, but one that had no impact on the long-term outcome of the Sicilian expedition, which ended in total defeat.

414-413 B.C.

 

The Athenian siege of Syracuse of 414-413 BC was a two year long epic that ended with the total defeat and destruction of the Athenian army, and that put Athens onto the defensive in the renewed fighting in the Great Peloponnesian War.

412 B.C.

 

The unsuccessful siege of Miletus (412 BC) was a major Athenian setback early in the Ionian phase of the Great Peloponnesian War, and helped establish a revolt against Athenian power in the area.

The battle of Panormus (412 BC) was a minor Athenian victory during the longer siege of Miletus, most notable for the death of the Spartan commander Chalcideus.

The battle of Miletus (412 BC) was an Athenian victory fought outside the walls of Miletus, but that was followed almost immediately by the arrival of a Peloponnesian fleet and an Athenian retreat.

412/411 B.C.

  The battle of Cnidus (412/411 BC) was an inconclusive naval battle which meant that the Athenians were unable to prevent two Spartan fleets from uniting on the coast of Asia Minor.

411 B.C.

 

The battle of Eretria (411 BC) was a naval defeat suffered by Athens that was followed by a major revolt on the island of Euboea, cutting the city off from one of its last sources of food (Great Peloponnesian War).

The battle of Cynossema (411 BC) was the first major Athenian victory since their disastrous defeat on Sicily in 413 BC, and helped restore morale in the city after a series of setbacks and a period of political upheaval.

410 B.C.

  The battle of Cyzicus (410 BC) was a major Athenian victory won in the Propontis and that temporarily restored Athenian control of the Hellespont and the sea routes to the Black Sea, as well as restoring confidence and morale in Athens after the disaster at Syracuse

409/408 B.C.

  The battle of Megara (409/408 BC) was a rare example of an Athenian victory on land over a force that contained Spartan troops.

408 B.C.

 

The siege of Chalcedon (408 BC) was part of an Athenian attempt to regain control of the Bosphorus and ensure the safety of Athens's food supplies from the Black Sea.

The siege of Byzantium (408 BC) was an Athenian victory that saw them regain control over the Bosphorus, and remove a threat to Athens's food supplies from the Black Sea.

407 B.C.

  The battle of Notium (407 BC) was a minor Athenian naval defeat, but in its aftermath Alcibiades went into exile for a second time, removing one of the best Athenian commanders of the Great Peloponnesian War.

406 B.C.

 

The siege of Delphinium (406 BC) was a minor Peloponnesian success that came early in the command of Callicratidas, an admiral who replaced the popular Lysander in command of the Peloponnesian fleet in Asia Minor.

The siege of Methymne (406 BC) was a second success for the Peloponnesian fleet commanded by Callicratidas, and saw the loss of a second Athenian stronghold on the coast of Asia Minor.

The siege of Mytilene (406 BC) saw the Peloponnesians attempt to capture this Athenian held city on Lesbos. The siege was ended by the Athenian naval victory at Arginusea, but the reaction to the aftermath of this battle played a part in the final Athenian defeat in the Great Peloponnesian War.

The battle of the Arginusae Islands (406 BC) was the last major Athenian victory of the Great Peloponnesian War, but after the battle six of the eight victorious generals were executed for failing to rescue the crews of the twenty five Athenian warships lost during the battle.

405 B.C.

  The battle of Aegospotami (405 BC) was a crushing Athenian defeat that effectively ended the Great Peloponnesian War, leaving the city vulnerable to a siege and naval blockade.

405-396 B.C.

 

The Third Veientine War (405-396 B.C.) saw the Roman Republic finally capture and destroy their closest rival, the Etruscan city of Veii, after a siege that lasted for ten years

The ten year long siege of Veii (405-396 B.C.) was the main event of the Third Veientine War and saw the Romans finally conquer their nearest rival, the Etruscan city of Veii.

404 B.C.

 

The siege of Athens (to 404 BC) was the final act of the Great Peloponnesian War, and confirmed the Spartan victory that had been made almost inevitable at the naval battle of Aegospotami in 405 BC.

End of the Great Peloponnesian War (from 431 BC)

390 B.C.

 

The First Gallic Invasion of Italy of 390 B.C. was a pivotal event in the history of the Roman Republic and saw the city occupied and sacked for the last time in eight hundred years.

 

18 July

The battle of the Allia (18 July 390 B.C.) was one of the most embarrassing defeats in Roman history, and left the city defenceless in the face of a Gallic war band.

   

The sack of Rome (390 B.C.) was the worst recorded disaster in the history of the early Roman Republic, and saw a Gallic war band led by Brennus capture and sack most of the city, after winning an easy victory on the Allia

   

The battle of the Trausian Plain (c.390-384 B.C.) probably saw an Etruscan army from the city of Caere defeat all or part of the Gallic war band that was responsible for the sack of Rome

343 B.C.

 

The First Samnite War (343-341 BC) was the first of three clashes between Rome and the Samnite hill tribes, and ended in a Roman victory that saw the Republic begin to expand into Campania.

   

The battle and siege of Capua of 343 B.C. triggered the First Samnite War (343-341 B.C.), the first of three wars between Rome and the Samnites.

   

The battle of Mount Gaurus, 343 B.C., was the opening battle of the First Samnite War (343-341 B.C.), and was a hard fought Roman victory.

   

The battle of Saticula (343 B.C.) was a Roman victory that saw a rare example of the Roman army fighting at night in an attempt to avoid a disaster.

   

The battle of Suessula (343 B.C.) was the final major clash during the First Samnite War (343-341 B.C.), and was a major Roman victory

340 B.C.

  The Latin War of 340-338 BC was a major step in the road that led to Roman control of the Italian peninsula, and that saw a major change in the relationship between the Roman republic and her former Latin allies.
    The battle of Veseris (or Vesuvius) of 340 BC was the first major battle of the Latin War of 340-338 BC and was a Roman victory made famous by the execution of the young Manlius Torquatus by his father, the consul Manlius Torquatus and the self-sacrifice of the consul Decius Mus.
   

The battle of Trifanum (340 BC) was a Roman victory that ended the Campanian phase of the Latin War of 340-338 BC.

339 B.C.

 

The battle of the Fenectane Plains (339 BC) was a Roman victory in the second year of the Latin War of 340-338 BC

338 B.C.

  The battle of Astura was one of two Roman victories during 338 BC that ended the Latin War of 340-338 BC
   

The battle of Pedum (338 BC) was the decisive battle of the Latin War of 340-338BC and saw the Romans defeat a Latin army sent to protect Pedum and capture the city in the same day

327-6 B.C.

 

The Roman siege of Neapolis (Naples) of 327-326 BC was the first fighting in what developed into the Second Samnite War (327-304 BC).

325 B.C.

  The battle of Imbrinium (325 BC) was an early Roman victory in the Second Samnite War most famous for a violent dispute between the Dictator L. Papirius Cursor and his Master of the Horse. 

324-261 B.C.

  Conquests of the Mauryan Empire, c.324-261 BC: The Mauryan Empire was the first power to unite most of the Indian subcontinent, and at its peak stretched from Afghanistan in the north-west, east almost to the mouth of the Ganges and south as far as modern Mysore

323 B.C.

 

Death of Alexander the Great begins the Wars of the Diadachi.

   

Settlement at Babylon, the first attempt to divide up power within Alexander's empire

   

Start of the Lamian or Hellenic War, an attempt by an alliance of Greek cities led by Athens to escape Macedonian control

322 B.C.

 

Siege of Lamia sees alliance led by Athens trap Antipater in the town of Lamia. Death of Athenian general Leosthenes

 

Spring

Battle of Abydos - First of two naval defeats for Athens
 

July

Battle of Amorgos - Major naval defeat that ends Athenian naval power
 

August

Battle of Crannon - Macedonian victory in Thessaly that effectively ends the Lamian War
    Athens knocked out of the Lamian War
   

Outbreak of the First Diadoch War, (to 320 BC) between the successors of Alexander the Great

    According to Livy the Romans won a significant battlefield victory in Samnium during 322 BC (Second Samnite War), at an unnamed location, and with either a specially appointed Dictator or the consuls for the year in command.

321 B.C.

 

Truce between Antipater and the Aetolians ends the Lamian War.

   

Death of Craterus in a battle against Eumenes of Cardia

   

Perdiccas murdered by his officers in Egypt

    The battle of the Caudine Forks (321 BC) was a humiliating defeat inflicted on the Romans by a Samnite army in the Apennine Mountains (Second Samnite War).

320 B.C.

 

End of the First Diadoch War, (from 322 BC).

   

Settlement at Triparadisus second attempt to divide power in Alexander's empire

319 B.C.

 

Outbreak of the Second Diadoch War (to 316 BC)

316 B.C.

 

Battle of Gabiene, marks the end of the Second Diadoch War in Asia (from 319 BC)

    The siege of Saticula (316-315 BC) was a Roman success that marked the resumption of hostilities in the Second Samnite War after a short period of truce.
    The two sieges of Plistica of 316-315 and 315 BC saw a Samnite army make two attempts to capture the city, which was allied with Rome, eventually taking it by assault.

315 B.C.

 

Outbreak of Third Diadoch War (to 311 BC)

   

The battle of Lautulae (315 BC) was the second major Samnite victory during the Second Samnite War, but one that didn't produce any long term advantage

    The siege of Sora (315 and 315-314 BC) saw the Romans recapture the city after a pro-Samnite revolt (Second Samnite War)

314 B.C.

  The battle of Tarracina of 314 BC was a Roman victory that restored the situation after the Samnite victory at Lautulae in the previous year, and that eliminated a Samnite threat to Latium
   

The siege of Bovianum of 314-313 BC was a short-lived  Roman attempt to take advantage of their victory at Tarracina in 314

 

 

311 B.C.

 

End of Third Diadoch War (from 315 BC), ends with all of the main contestants back where they started.

    The Etruscan War of 311/10-308 BC was a short conflict between Rome and some of the inland Etruscan cities that for a brief period saw Rome facing a war on two fronts, against the Etruscans to the north and the Samnites to the south.

310 B.C.

  The siege of Sutrium of 311/10-310/9 BC saw the first fighting in the brief Etruscan War of 311/10-308 BC, and saw the Etruscans fail in their attempt to capture this key border city
   

The battle of Perusia, 310/309 BC, was a Roman victory that forced several key Etruscan cities to make peace with Rome (Etruscan War, 311/308 BC)

   

The battle of Lake Vadimo (310 BC) was a major Roman victory that broke the power of the Etruscan cities involved in the short Etruscan War of 311/10-308

308 B.C.

 

The battle of Mevania, 308 BC, was a final Roman victory in the Etruscan War, although it was fought against the Umbrians

307 B.C.

 

Outbreak of Fourth Diadoch War (to 301 BC)

c.306-3 B.C.

  Seleucus I Nicator's invasion of India (c.306-303 BC) was one of a series of obscure campaigns fought by Seleucus in an attempt to gain control of the eastern part of his recently regained kingdom

301 B.C.

 

Fourth Diadoch War ends (from 307 BC) with defeat and death of Antigonus at the battle of Ipsus

283 B.C.

 

Death of Ptolemy I of natural causes

276 B.C.

 

Outbreak of the First Syrian War between the Seleucid Empire and Ptolemaic Egypt.

272 B.C.

 

First Syrian War ends in victory for Ptolemaic Egypt

c.272-261 B.C.

  The conquest of Kalinga of c.271-261 BC was the only aggressive war fought by the third Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, and the suffering he saw during this war helped turn the Emperor away from violence and towards a more peaceful path.

266 B.C.

 

Outbreak of Chremonidean War, (to 262 B.C.), Revolt against Macedonian rule by Athens and Sparta

264 B.C.

 

Outbreak of First Punic War (to 241 BC) between Rome and Carthage. Joint Punic and Syracusan siege of Messana begins the fighting.

263 B.C.

 

Alliance between Syracuse and Rome allows the Romans to concentrate on beating Carthage on Sicily.

   

Eumenes’ War, brief war that sees Pergamum become independent of Seleucid Empire.

262 B.C.

 

Fall of Athens marks end of Chremonidean War (from 266), (Greece)

   

First Punic War: Siege and battle of Agrigentum sees Rome capture Carthaginian ally on Sicily

261 B.C.

 

Death of Antiochus I, Seleucid Emperor. End of Eumenes' War

260 B.C.

  Battle of the Lipera Islands, minor Roman naval defeat
    Battle of Mylae, first major Roman victory which began to alter the balance of power at sea.

256 B.C.

 

Battle of Cape Ecnomus, Roman Naval victory that allowed them to invade Carthage's African homeland

    Siege of Aspis. A first Roman victory in Punic North Africa.
    Siege of Adys. Siege that delays the Roman army in North Africa, allowing the Carthaginians to arrive with an army.
    Battle of Adys. Roman victory over a Punic army sent to relief the siege of Adys.

255 B.C.

 

Battle of Tunis, Carthaginian victory that ended the Roman invasion of Africa

   

Battle of Cape Hermaeum, Roman naval victory that allowed the rescue of the survivors of the Battle of Tunis

254 B.C.

 

Sack of Agrigentum, Carthaginian forces recapture and sack the city of Agrigentum, lost in 262 B.C.

   

Siege of Panormus, Roman forces capture the main Carthaginian base in northern Sicily.

251 B.C.

 

Battle of Panormus, Roman victory over a Carthaginian force sent to recapture Panormus (Sicily)

250 B.C.

 

Start of siege of Lilybaeum (to 241 B.C.), Roman attempt to capture main Carthaginian base on Sicily.

249 B.C.

 

The Battle of Drepanum was the only serious Roman naval defeat of the First Punic War.

246 B.C.

 

Probable date for the Battle of Andros, Macedonian naval victory over an Egyptian fleet in the Aegean.

   

Outbreak of the Third Syrian War or Laodicean War (to 241 BC) between Egypt and the Seleucid Empire

242 B.C.

 

Siege of Drepanum (to 242-241 B.C.). Roman fleet arrives by surprise off Sicily. Troops land at Drepanum and begin a siege.

241 B.C.

 

First Punic War (from 264 B.C.) ends in Roman victory

   

Third Syrian War or Laodicean War, (from 246 B.C.) ends with a minor Egyptian victory

   

Outbreak of the War of the Brothers, c.241-236 BC , civil war that saw the Seleucid Empire temporarily split in two.

240 B.C.

 

Battle of Ancyra, (or 239 B.C.), decisive battle of the War of the Brothers and victory for the rebels under Antiochus Hierax.

230-228 B.C.

 

Although it was a short, limited conflict, the First Illyrian War (230-228 BC) is noteworthy as the first time the Roman Republic sent its armies to the eastern shores of the Adriatic.

221 B.C.

 

Outbreak of the inconclusive Fourth Syrian War (to 217 BC)

220 B.C.

 

Battle near Apollonia sees Antiochus III defeat a rebellion under the satrap Molon

219 B.C.

 

The Second Illyrian War (219 BC) was a short campaign in which the Romans restored the balance of power they had created at the end of the First Illyrian War, ten years earlier.

218 B.C.

 

Battle of the Plane Tree Pass, Seleucid victory during the Fourth Syrian War

217 B.C.

22 June

Battle of Raphia, 22 June, was the decisive battle of the Fourth Syrian War, and an Egyptian victory over Antiochus III

    End of the Fourth Syrian War (from 221 BC)

218 B.C.

November

Battle of Ticinus, Hannibal's first victory over the Romans on Italian soil.
 

December

Battle of Trebia, the first of Hannibal's great victories over the Romans.

215-205 B.C.

 

The First Macedonian War was caused by the decision of Philip V of Macedonia to form an alliance with Hannibal in the aftermath of his series of great victories against Rome in Italy.

208 B.C.

  The battle of Linji (208 BC) saw two of the many rebels against the failing Qin dynasty defeated and killed by Zhang Han, one of the most successful Qin generals (Fall of the Qin Dynasty)
    The battle of Dingtao (208 BC) saw the Qin army of Zhang Han defeat and Xiang Liang, king of Chu, the third rebel leader to fall to his armies during the course of 208 BC (Fall of the Qin Dynasty).

207 B.C.

22 June

Battle of Metaurus, defeat of second Punic invasion of Italy led by Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal

   

The battle of Mantinea was the most significant battle of the First Macedonian War, although it involved none of the main participants in that war.

    The battle of Julu (207 BC) was a key victory for rebels against the tottering Qin Dynasty, and resulted in the surrender of Zhang Han, their most able general.
    The battle of Lantian (207 BC) saw a rebel army led by Liu Bang defeat one of the last Qin armies, a defeat that exposed the Qin heartland to conquest and ended the short-lived Qin dynasty.

206 B.C.

  The Chu-Han Contention (206-202 BC) was a civil war that followed the collapse of the Qin Dynasty, and that saw Liu Bang, the founder of the Han dynasty, defeat Xiang Yu, the leader of the revolt that had overthrown the Qin.
    The battle of Ch'ents'ang (206 BC) was the first victory won by Liu Bang, the founder of the Han dynasty, in the civil war that followed the fall of the Qin dynasty.
    The battle of Haochih (206 BC) was the second victory in Liu Bang’s (founder of the Han dynasty) invasion of the kingdom of Yong, the first step in the civil war between Liu Bang and Xiang Yu.
    The siege of Fei-ch'iu (206-205 BC) was the final stage in Liu Bang’s conquest of the kingdom of Yong, the first stage in his eventual creation of the Han dynasty.

205 B.C.

 

The peace of Phoenice of 205 ended the fighting in the First Macedonian War (215-205 BC).

    The battle of Pengcheng (205 BC) was a major defeat suffered by Liu Bang, the founder of the Han Dynasty, after he occupied the capital of his main rival Xiang Yu.
    The battle of Jingzing (205) BC was one of a number of unusual victories won by Han Xin, one of the most able supporters of Liu Bang, the founder the Han Dynasty (Chu-Han Contention).

204 B.C.

  The siege of Xingyang (204 BC) was a victory won by Xiang Yu during his struggle against Liu Bang, the founder of the Han dynasty. Liu Bang was trapped in the besieged city, but managed to escape thus avoiding capture when the city fell.
    The battle of Chenggao (204 BC) was a minor victory won by Liu Bang while the main Chu armies under Xiang Yu were distracted by a defeat suffered by one of his other armies at Hsia-p’ei.
    The battle of Hsia-p’ei (204 BC) was a defeat suffered by the armies of Chu that forced Xiang Yu to abandon his campaign against Liu Bang around Xingyang, giving the Han leader time to recover from his narrow escape from that city.
    The siege of Chenggao (204 BC) was the second occasion during the same year in which Liu Bang, the eventual founder of the Han Dynasty, was forced to flee from a besieged city with a handful of supporters (Chu-Han Contention).
    The battle of Lixia (October 204 BC) was a controversial victory won by a Han army commanded by Han Xin over an army of the Kingdom of Qi that came after Qi had decided to ally with Han.
    The battle of the Wei River (November 204 BC) was a major victory that saw the Han general Han Xin defeat a Chu army that had been sent to defend the kingdom of Qi, allowing the Han to occupy the kingdom of Qi, a strategically important location to the north of the Chu heartland.

203 B.C.

  The battle of Ying (203 BC) was a victory won by a Han army over a Qi army, fought in the aftermath of the major Han victory on the Wei River (November 204 BC).
    The battle of the Si River (203 BC) was a major victory won by Liu Bang over a Chu army that had been defending the city of Chenggao.
    The treaty of the Hong Canal (203 BC) was a short-lived peace treaty agreed between Liu Bang of Han and Xiang Yu of Chu, in which they agreed to split the old Qin Empire between them.
 

November

The battle of Guling (203 BC) was the last victory won by Xiang Yu during the Chi-Han Contention, and saw him defeat the isolated Han army of Liu Bang.

202 B.C.

January

The battle of Gaixia (January 202 BC) was the decisive battle of the Chu-Han Contention and saw Liu Bang inflict a major defeat on Xiang Yu of Chu, who committed suicide soon after the battle.

201 B.C.

 

The battle of Chios was the first of two naval battles fought by Philip V of Macedonia off the coast of Asia Minor during 201.

   

The battle of Lade was the second of two naval battles fought by Philip V of Macedonia during 201 BC.

200-196 B.C.

 

The siege of Abydos was one of the final of a series of conquests made by Philip V of Macedonia around the Aegean that helped trigger the Second Macedonian War (against Rome).

    The Second Macedonian War was the first war in which the Roman Republic made a major military effort in Greece, and it marked an end to the power of Macedonia.

198 B.C.

24 June (probable date)

The battle of the Aous was the first significant Roman victory during the Second Macedonian War.

197 B.C.

 

The battle of Cynoscephalea of 197 B.C. was the decisive battle of the First Macedonian War, and was the first of a series of victories won by Roman legions over the Greek phalanx that ended three centuries of Greek dominance on the battlefield.

192-188 B.C.

 

The war between Rome and Antiochus III was the second of two wars that saw the Roman Republic, in a period of less than a decade, defeat the two most powerful of the successor states to the empire of Alexander the Great – Macedonia and the Seleucid Empire.

191 B.C.

 

The battle of Thermopylae ended the Greek phase of the war between Rome and the Seleucid emperor Antiochus III, and saw Antiochus expelled from Greece

   

The battle of Corycus was the first naval battle of the war between Rome and Antiochus III, and saw the Romans and their allies begin to win control of the Aegean Sea.

190 B.C.

 

The battle of Eurymedon (or Side) was one of two naval battles that marked a turning point in that years fighting in the war between Rome and Antiochus III.

   

The battle of Myonnesus was the decisive naval battle of the War between Rome and Antiochus III, and saw a combined Roman and Rhodian fleet defeat Antiochus’ main surviving fleet.

   

The battle of Magnesia, in the winter of 190 B.C., saw a badly outnumbered Roman army defeat the army of the Seleucid Emperor Antiochus III (the Great), forever altering the balance of power in the eastern Mediterranean.

188 B.C.

 

The peace of Apamea of 188 B.C. ended the war between Rome and Antiochus III, and also ended any chance that the Seleucid Empire might ever reclaim its lands in Asia Minor. 

168 B.C.

22 June

Battle of Pydna, Roman victory over Macedonia

89 B.C.

 

The First Mithridatic War (89-85 B.C.) was the first of three clashes between the Roman Republic and Mithridates VI of Pontus which would last for nearly thirty years, and end with the destruction of the Pontic kingdom.

   

The battle of the Amnias River (89 B.C.) was the first battle of the First Mithridatic War, and was the first of a series of victories in which the armies of Mithridates VI conquered the Roman province of Asia.

   

The battle of Protopachium, 89 B.C., was the second of two victories won by the armies of Mithridates VI of Pontus that at least temporarily destroyed Roman authority in their province of Asia at the start of the First Mithridatic War.

88 B.C.

 

The siege of Rhodes of 88 B.C. was one of the first defeats suffered by Mithridates VI of Pontus in the early period of the First Mithridatic War against Rome.

87 B.C.

 

The siege of Athens of 87-86 B.C. was one of the first major Roman successes during the First Mithridatic War (89-85 B.C.), and marked the point at which the initiative in the war began to move towards the Romans.

   

The siege of Piraeus of 87-86 B.C. was a bitterly fought clash that only ended when the defenders of the city pulled out by sea after the fall of the city of Athens.

86 B.C.

 

The battle of Chaeornea (86 B.C.) was the first of two crushing defeats suffered by Pontic armies that ended Mithridates VI's invasion of Greece (First Mithridatic War).

   

The battle of Orchomenus of 86 B.C. was the second of two great Roman victories that ended the Pontic invasion of Greece during the First Mithridatic War.

83 B.C.

 

The Second Mithridatic War, 83-82 B.C., was a short-lived conflict largely caused by the ambition of Lucius Licinius Murena, the Roman governor of Asia after the end of the First Mithridatic War.

82 B.C.

 

The battle of the Halys River was the only major engagement during the short Second Mithridatic War (83-82 B.C.) and was one of the few defeats suffered by a Roman army during the three wars against Mithridates IV of Pontus.

73 B.C.

 

The Third Mithridatic War of 73-63 B.C. was the last of three clashes between Mithridates VI of Pontus and the Roman Republic. A war that began in western Asia Minor ended with Roman armies campaigning in Armenia, to the east of the Black Sea and in Syria and saw Roman power extended into completely new regions

   

The battle of Chalcedon was a combined land and sea battle at the start of the Third Mithridatic War that ended in a crushing victory for Mithridates VI of Pontus.

   

The siege of Cyzicus was a Roman victory that effectively ended Mithridates VI's campaign in western Asia Minor at the start of the Third Mithridatic War.

   

The battle of the Rhyndacis of 73 B.C. was the first of a series of disasters that befell the army of Mithridates VI of Pontus when it attempted to retreat from the siege of Cyzicus (Third Mithridatic War).

   

The battle of Lemnos was a naval victory won by Lucius Licinius Lucullus early in the Third Mithridatic War over a Pontic fleet commanded by the Roman renegade Marcus Varius.

72 B.C

 

The siege of Eupatoria (c.72-71 B.C.) was one of the shorter sieges during the Roman general Lucullus's invasion of Pontus (Third Mithridatic War).

69 B.C.

 

The battle of Tigranocerta, 6 or 7 October 69 B.C., was a one-sided Roman victory over a massive army led by Tigranes I of Armenia, but one that the Romans were unable to take advantage of.

58 B.C.

  Outbreak of the Gallic War (to 51 B.C.)
 

June

The battle of the Arar (June 58 BC) was the first significant victory won by Julius Caesar, and marked the unusually late start of his military career

 

June/ July

The battle of Bibracte (June/July 58 B.C.) was the second and decisive battle in Julius Caesar's first military campaign, and saw him force the Helvetii tribe to abandon their planned migration from Switzerland to the west coast of France

 

September

The battle of Vesontio (September 58 B.C.) was the second major victory of Julius Caesar's military career and saw him defeat a large army of Germans led by Ariovistus, a Suebian chief who had crossed the Rhine some years earlier to intervene in a war between Rome's ally's the Aedui and the Sequani.

57 B.C.

 

The battle of the Aisne (57 B.C.) was Julius Caesar's first victory in his campaign against the Belgic tribes of modern Belgium.

 

July

The battle of the Sambre (July 57 B.C.) was the most important battle of Caesar's campaign against the Belgae in 57 B.C. and saw his army recover after being ambushed to inflict a crushing defeat on three Belgic tribes led by the Nervii.

 

September

The siege of the Atuatuci (September 57 B.C.) was the final major victory during Julius Caesar's conquest of the Belgae.

 

Winter 57/56 B.C.

The battle of Octodurus (winter 57/56 B.C.) was a battle in the upper Rhone valley described by Julius Caesar as a Roman victory, but that effectively ended an attempt to open the Great St. Bernard Pass.

56 B.C.

 

The defeat of the Sotiates (56 B.C.) was the first of two major battles in unknown locations in which Publius Crassus, the son of the Triumvir and one of Caesar's most able lieutenants, defeated the Aquitani tribes of south-west Gaul.

 

June

The battle of the Morbihan Gulf (June 56 B.C.) was the first naval battle in recorded history to definitely took place in the North Atlantic, and saw a Roman fleet raised by Julius Caesar destroy the naval power of the Veneti tribe of modern Brittany.

 

June

The defeat of the Vocates and Tarusates (June 56 B.C.) was the second of two major battles in unknown locations in which Publius Crassus, the son of the Triumvir and one of Caesar's most able lieutenants, defeated the Aquitani tribes of south-west Gaul.

54 B.C.

October

The disaster at Atuatuca (October 54 B.C.) was one of the most serious setbacks suffered by Julius Caesar during his conquest of Gaul, and saw the Eburones destroy an entire Roman legion that had just entered winter quarters.

    The siege of Q. Cicero's camp, early in the winter of 54-53 B.C. was the highpoint of the second Gallic revolt during Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul, and its failure handed the initiative back to the Romans.

52 B.C.

 

The siege of Gorgobina (early 52 B.C.) saw Vercingetorix make an unsuccessful attack on a town that was under the protection of Julius Caesar. The Gauls were forced to lift the siege when Caesar approached from the north with his main army and besieged Novidunum, but the attack had forced the Romans to leave their winter quarters much earlier than they would have liked.  

   

The siege of Vellaunodunum (early 52 B.C.) was the first of three Roman attacks on Gallic towns that forced Vercingetorix to abandon his siege of Gorgobina early in the Great Gallic Revolt of 52 B.C.

   

The siege of Cenabum (early 52 B.C.) was the second of three Roman attacks on Gallic towns that forced Vercingetorix to abandon his siege of Gorgobina, and that saw the Romans capture the town where the great Gallic revolt had begun.

 

March

The siege of Noviodunum (probably March 52 B.C.) was the third of three Roman attacks on Gallic towns that forced Vercingetorix to abandon his siege of Gorgobina. It also saw the first direct clash between the main armies of Caesar and Vercingetorix, a minor cavalry action fought outside the town

 

March-April

The siege of Avaricum (c.March-April 52 B.C.) was the first major clash between Julius Caesar and Vercingetorix during the Great Gallic Revolt, and ended with a Roman victory and the sack of the town.

 

May

The battle of Lutetia (May 52 B.C.) was a victory won by Labienus, Caesar's most able lieutenant during the Gallic Wars, over the Senones and Parisii on the left bank of the Seine close to the centre of modern Paris.

 

May

The unsuccessful siege of Gergovia (May 52 B.C.) was the only major setback suffered by an army led in person by Julius Caesar during the entire Gallic Wars.

 

July

The battle of the Vingeanne (July 52 B.C.) was a cavalry battle that saw the Romans and their German auxiliaries defeat a Gallic attack on their column, a defeat that may have been the main reason that Vercingetorix chose to defend the nearby town of Alesia.
 

October

Battle of Alesia, Caesars final victory in the Gallic Wars

51 B.C.

  The siege of Limonum, early 51 B.C., was an unsuccessful attempt by the Andes, one of the last rebellious tribes in Gaul, to capture the chief town of the Pictones tribe.
   

The battle on the Loire of early 51 B.C. was a Roman victory that effectively ended the Great Gallic revolt on the west coast of Gaul.

    The siege of Uxellodunum (spring 51 B.C.) was the last attempt by the Gauls to defend a fortified town against a Roman attack during Caesar's Gallic War.
   

The defeat of Comius the Atrebatian, late in 51 B.C., was a minor cavalry skirmish noteworthy only for being the last recorded battle of Caesar's Gallic War.

   

End of the Gallic War (from 58 B.C.)

49 B.C.

 

GAUL

The siege of Massilia (March-September 49 BC) was an early victory for Caesar during the Great Roman Civil War, largely won by his subordinates while Caesar himself campaigned in Spain.

The naval battles of Massilia (49 BC) were two victories won by Caesar's naval commander Decimus Brutus during the siege of the same town.

NORTH AFRICA

The battle of Utica (49 BC) was an initial victory won by G. Scribonius, Caesar's commander in North Africa, over Pompey's supporters (Great Roman Civil War)

The siege of Utica (49 BC) was a short-lived attempt by Caesar's lieutenant in North Africa, G. Scribonius Curio, to take advantage of his victory in a battle outside the city (Great Roman Civil War).

The battle of the Bagradas River (24 July 49 BC) was a major defeat for Caesar's army in North Africa, and firmly established Pompey's control over the area.

ADRIATIC

The siege of Curicta (49 BC) was a success for Pompey's supporters against Caesar's governor of Illyria early in the Great Roman Civil War.

The siege of Salonae (49 BC) was an unsuccessful attempt by Pompey's supporters in Illyricum to capture a town that supported Caesar (Great Roman Civil War)

SPAIN

The battle of Ilerda (May-2 July 49 BC) was Caesar's first major military success during the Great Civil War, and saw him defeat Pompey's most experienced armies, posted in Spain where Pompey had gained one of his earliest victories, against the forces of the Roman rebel Sertorius, and which had been his proconsular province in 55 BC.

48 B.C.

 

The siege of Dyrrhachium (March-May 48 BC) was the first direct confrontation between Caesar and Pompey during the Great Roman Civil War, and ended as a victory for Pompey after he broke through Caesar's siege lines.

The battle of Dyrrhachium (20 May 48 BC) was the most serious setback suffered in person by Caesar during the Great Roman Civil War and saw Pompey break out of a blockade south of Dyrrhachium on the eastern coast of the Adriatic.

The siege of Gomphi (48 BC) was a minor victory won by Caesar in the period between his defeat at Dyrrhachium in May and his victory at Pharsalus in August.

46 B.C.

  The battle of Carteia (46 BC) was a minor naval victory won by one of Caesar's lieutenants over a Pompeian fleet that had escaped from Africa to Spain after the battle of Thapsus (47 BC).

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