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29 December 2010

No.154 Squadron was a fighter squadron that had two incarnations during the Second World War, first serving in the UK briefly late in 1942 before moving to the Mediterranean and second providing bomber escorts from the UK.

No.155 Squadron was a fighter squadron that served in India and over Burma, performing reconnaissance, ground attack and bomber escort missions.

No.156 Squadron was a bomber squadron that was a founder member of the Pathfinder Force, serving with it from August 1942 until the end of the war.

28 December 2010

No.146 Squadron served as a defensive fighter and ground attack squadron in India and over Burma

No.152 'Hyderabad' Squadron was a fighter squadron that took part in the Battle of Britain, and the campaigns in North Africa, Sicily and Italy, before ending the war as a fighter bomber squadron operating over Burma.

No.153 Squadron had two incarnations during the Second World War, first as a night fighter squadron which served both at home and in the Mediterranean, and then as a Lancaster squadron in Bomber Command.

27 December 2010

No.141 Squadron began the war as a day-fighter squadron equipped with the two-seat Defiant turret fighter, but after a costly first contact with the Germans became a night fighter squadron, ending the war with Bomber Command's No.100 Group.

No.143 Squadron was part of Coastal Command, and formed part of the first 'Strike Wing' at Coates, as well as the Banff strike wing in Scotland

No.145 Squadron was a fighter squadron that fought in the Battle of Britain and the cross-channel sweeps of 1941 before moving to the Mediterranean, where it took part in the campaigns in North Africa, Sicily and Italy, ending the war as a fighter-bomber squadron.

23 December 2010

No.133 Squadron was the third 'Eagle' Squadron, RAF fighter squadrons manned by American volunteers

No.137 Squadron was a fighter-bomber and ground attack squadron that was one of only two squadrons to receive the Westland Whirlwind, before moving on to the Hurricane and finally the Typhoon.

No.140 Squadron was a photo-reconnaissance squadron that was based in the UK for most of the war, before moving to Belgium in September 1944.

22 December 2010

The Polikarpov I-170 was a design for version of the I-153 biplane fighter with a wooden fuselage structure in place of the metal tubing used on the standard aircraft.

The Polikarpov I-190 was the last of Nikolai Polikarpov's biplane fighter designs to take to the air, but only the first prototype was completed and the project was abandoned early in 1941

The Polikarpov I-195 was Nikolai Polikarpov's last design for a biplane fighter, and was to a more powerful version of the I-190.

21 December 2010

Lucius Nasidius (fl.49-31 BC) was a Roman naval commander who fought against Julius Caesar and later against Octavius, suffering defeats on both occasions.

Lucius Scribonius Libo (fr.56-34 BC) was a supporter of Pompey the Great in the civil war between Caesar and the Senate, commanding part of Pompey's fleet in the first year of the war

20 December 2010

No.134 Squadron was formed to take Hurricanes to the Soviet Union to help defend Murmansk, before going on to serve in Northern Ireland, North Africa and Burma.

No.135 Squadron was a fighter squadron that was caught up in the retreat from Burma in 1942 and spent the rest of the war operating on the Burmese front.

No.136 Squadron was a fighter squadron that was on its way to the Far East when the Japanese invaded Burma, and spent much of the war operating over that country.

19 December 2010

This account of the British retreat to Dunkirk and the evacuation that followed was written by Gunner Sidney Fowler and was originally published in the Newsletter of the Friends' Hall Gooch Street, Birmingham.

17 December 2010

No.130 Squadron was a fighter squadron that spent most of the Second World War on offensive duties, including fighter sweeps in 1941-43 and armed reconnaissance over Germany towards the end of the war

No.131 Squadron was a fighter squadron that spent most of the Second World War operating from Britain, flying a mix of defensive and offensive duties, before moving to the Far East where it never began fully operational

No.132 Squadron served as a fighter squadron based in Britain from 1941 until the end of 1944, before moving to the Far East in preparation for the invasion of Malaya

15 December 2010

Sabura (d.46 BC) was a Numidian general who fought against Caesar during the Great Roman Civil War, defeating one of his generals in 49 BC before dying in battle in 46 BC.

L. Calpumius Bibulus (d.48 BC) was a political opponent of Caesar's who was unable to stop his fleets crossing the Adriatic in 49 BC, and who died of a fever while isolated on his fleet

14 December 2010

The Polikarpov I-152 or I-15bis was the second in the series of biplanes that began with the I-15 and ended with the I-153, and in some ways was a step backwards from the earlier aircraft

The Polikarpov I-153 Chaika was the last of Nikolai Polikarpov's biplane fighter aircraft to enter service, and despite being the most advanced entry in the series was already obsolete when it first entered service in 1939

13 December 2010

No.127 Squadron was a fighter squadron that spend much of the Second World War in the Mediterranean before returning to Britain to take part in the D-Day campaign.

No.128 Squadron had two incarnations during the Second World War, first as a fighter squadron in West Africa and then as a night intruder squadron based in Britain.

No.129 Squadron was a fighter squadron that was based in the UK from 1941 until the end of the Second World War, providing bomber escorts, taking part in the D-Day landings and the campaign against the V-1 flying bomb

10 December 2010

No.124 Squadron was a fighter squadron that served as a high-altitude interception unit, before joining Fighter Command to carry out bomber escort duties, ending the war attacking V-2 sites

No.125 Squadron was a night fighter squadron that generally served in a defensive capacity, as well as taking part in the D-Day campaign

No.126 Squadron was a fighter squadron that took part in the defence of Malta in 1941 and 1942, the invasion of Italy in 1943 and the D-Day invasions in 1944.

9 December 2010

Marcus Petreius was an experienced solder and a supporter of Pompey during the Great Roman Civil War. He was defeated at Ilerda in Spain in the first year of the war, but survived to take part in the defeats at Pharsalus and at Thapsus, committing suicide after the second of these battles.

Lucius Afranius (d.46 BC) was a supporter of Pompey the Great who was defeated by Caesar in the first major battle of the Great Roman Civil War at Ilerda (49 BC), and who survived to be present at the battles of Dyrrhacium, Pharsalia and Thapsus, being killed soon after the last battle.

8 December 2010

The battle of Ilerda (May-2 July 49 BC) was Caesar's first major military success during the Great Civil War, and saw him defeat Pompey's most experienced armies, posted in Spain where Pompey had gained one of his earliest victories, against the forces of the Roman rebel Sertorius, and which had been his proconsular province in 55 BC.

The siege of Gomphi (48 BC) was a minor victory won by Caesar in the period between his defeat at Dyrrhachium in May and his victory at Pharsalus in August.

7 December 2010

No.121 Squadron was the second 'Eagle' squadron, manned by American volunteers

No.122 Squadron was a fighter-bomber squadron that formed part of 2nd Tactical Air Force during the D-Day period, before flying bomber escort missions to the end of the war.

No.123 Squadron served as an army co-operation and fighter squadron in the Middle East in 1942-43, then provided fighter escorts over Burma before ending the war as a fighter-bomber squadron.

6 December 2010

The Polikarpov I-11 is one of the more obscure Soviet aircraft designs of the 1930

The Polikarpov I-13 was a design for a sesquiplane fighter aircraft produced during a period of some turmoil in the Soviet aircraft industry and that never progressed beyond the design stage

The Polikarpov I-15 was a gull-winged biplane that made its name fighting for the Republican cause in Spain, where it earned its nickname of 'Chato', or 'Snub Nose'.

3 December 2010

No.118 Squadron was a fighter squadron that spent most of its existence flying fighter sweeps and escorting bombers over occupied Europe.

No.119 Squadron had two incarnations during the Second World War, first as flying boat squadron originally formed to operate three Short S.26 class flying boats, and then as a land plane squadron operating against German E-boats.

No.120 Squadron was the first squadron in Coastal Command to receive the Very Long Range Liberator, the aircraft that closed the Atlantic Gap and played a major part in the defeat of the U-boats.

2 December 2010

No.113 Squadron was a bomber and fighter-bomber squadron that served in North Africa and Greece before moving to the Far East to take part in both the unsuccessful defence of Burma and its eventual reconquest.

No.116 Squadron was a support squadron, providing aircraft to help anti-aircraft batteries calibrate their predictors and radar sets.

No.117 Squadron served as a transport squadron in the Middle East, before moving to Burma where it carried out parachute supply drops.

1 December 2010

Juba I, king of Numidia (d.46 BC), was an Africa king who allied himself with Pompey during the Great Roman Civil War, defeating one of Caesar's armies in 49 BC before being defeated by Caesar in 46 BC.

P. Attius Varus (d.45 BC) was one of Pompey's generals during the Great Roman Civil War, holding North Africa against Caesar's lieutenants in the first year of the war, thus ensuring that the Pompeian leaders still had a base after their defeat at Pharsalia in the following year

30 November 2010

The Polikarpov I-5 was the second of Nikolai Polikarpov's biplane fighters to enter front line service, and was designed while he was working in a prison camp.

The Polikarpov I-6 was a biplane of wooden construction designed to compete against the metal framed I-5, but that never progressed beyond the prototype stage

29 November 2010

The siege of Curicta (49 BC) was a success for Pompey's supporters against Caesar's governor of Illyria early in the Great Roman Civil War.

The siege of Salonae (49 BC) was an unsuccessful attempt by Pompey's supporters in Illyricum to capture a town that supported Caesar (Great Roman Civil War)

26 November 2010

The Polikarpov 2I-1N (DI-1) was a two seat fighter that was the first in a long line of biplane fighters designed by Nikolai Polikarpov.

The Polikarpov I-3 was the first of Nikolai Polikarpov's fighter designs to enter front line service, and was the first of a long line of designs that reached their peak with the I-153.

The Polikarpov DI-2 was a two-seat fighter developed from the single-seat I-3. The only prototype crashed during 1929 ending work on the project

25 November 2010

The siege of Utica (49 BC) was a short-lived attempt by Caesar's lieutenant in North Africa, G. Scribonius Curio, to take advantage of his victory in a battle outside the city (Great Roman Civil War).

The battle of the Bagradas River (24 July 49 BC) was a major defeat for Caesar's army in North Africa, and firmly established Pompey's control over the area.

24 November 2010

The Fiat G.55 Centauro (Centaur) was an improved version of the G.50, powered by a licence built DB 605 engine and armed with two machine guns and three 20mm cannon, thus solving most of the problems with the earlier aircraft

The Fiat G.56 was a fighter aircraft that combined the fuselage of the successful G.55 Centauro with a 1,750hp Daimbler Benz DB 603A to produce the fastest Italian fighter aircraft of the Second World War.

The Fiat G.59 was a post-war trainer producing by matching the fuselage of the G.55 Centauro with the Rolls Royce Merlin engine

23 November 2010

The Fiat G.50 Freccia (Arrow) was the first all-metal monoplane fighter to enter service with the Italian Air Force, but it was underpowered and under-armed compared to its British and German contemporaries

The Fiat G.52 was the designation given to a version of the G.50 Freccia that would have been powered by the Daimler Benz DB 601 engine

22 November 2010

The naval battles of Massilia (49 BC) were two victories won by Caesar's naval commander Decimus Brutus during the siege of the same town.

The battle of Utica (49 BC) was an initial victory won by G. Scribonius, Caesar's commander in North Africa, over Pompey's supporters (Great Roman Civil War)

19 November 2010

The Dutch attack on Landguard Fort (2 July 1667) was intended to clear the way for an attack on the anchorage at Harwich, but was repulsed by one of the earliest precursors of the Royal Marines (Second Dutch War)

The siege of Massilia (March-September 49 BC) was an early victory for Caesar during the Great Roman Civil War, largely won by his subordinates while Caesar himself campaigned in Spain.

18 November 2010

The Fiat CR.41 was a version of the CR.40 that was given a much more powerful Gnome-Rhone Mistral Major 14Ksf engine

The Fiat CR.42 Falco was probably the best biplane fighter aircraft ever produced, but it didn’t make its maiden flight until 1938, by which time it was already verging on obsolescence

17 November 2010

The Franco-Austrian War of 1809 was part of the War of the Fifth Coalition, and was Napoleon's last successful military campaign, ending soon after his victory in the massive battle of Wagram in July 1809.

Zacharie Jacques Theodore Allemand (1762-1826) was one of the more capable French naval commanders of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, gaining his reputation in a series of successful raids against British shipping early in the wars.

16 November 2010

The Fiat CR.32 was a refined version of the CR.30 and was the main Italian fighter aircraft during the second half of the 1930s

The Fiat CR.40 was developed alongside the better known Fiat CR.32, and differed from that aircraft both in its choice of engine and the design of the upper wing.

15 November 2010

The combat of Schöngrabern (10 July 1809) was a second successful Austrian rearguard action in two days in the aftermath of their defeat at Wagram, and saw a small force from Reuss's V Corps hold up Massena's troops advancing on the main road towards Znaim

The battle of Znaim (10-11 July 1809) was the last battle on the main front of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809, and was cut short after Napoleon agreed to Austrian offers of an armistice.

12 November 2010

The battle of Linz (17 May 1809) was an unsuccessful Austrian attempt to threaten Napoleon's long lines of communication back from Vienna along the Danube, and to prevent French reinforcements from moving west to join Napoleon's main army

The combat of Hollabrunn (9 July 1809) was a successful Austrian rearguard action during their retreat after defeat at Wagram (5-6 July 1809) and saw Klenau's VI Corps hold up the French troops sent to find the retreating Austrian army

11 November 2010

The Fiat CR.30 was the first entry in the series of biplane fighters that included the CR.32 and CR.42 Falco, and marked a clean break with the line of aircraft that included the CR.1 and CR.20

The Fiat CR.33 was a modified version of the CR.32 biplane fighter, with a more powerful engine and an increased top speed.

10 November 2010

The battle of Wagram (5-6 July 1809) was the decisive (if not the final) battle of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 and was a costly French victory that saw Napoleon command a larger army than at any previous battle.

The combat of Laa (9 July 1809) was one of a number of minor clashes between the French and the retreating Austrians in the aftermath of the battle of Wagram, and helped the French identify the main Austrian line of retreat.

9 November 2010

Johann, Freiherr von Hiller (1748-1819) was one of the more capable Austrian generals during the Franco-Austrian War of 1809, but his obvious ambition made him unpopular amongst his fellow generals and he missed the decisive battle of Wagram after asking to be relieved from command on grounds of sickness on the day before the battle

Karl Philipp Freiherr von Wrede (1767-1838) was a Bavarian general who fought both for and against Napoleon, fighting at Wagram in 1809 and taking part in both Napoleon's campaign in Russia in 1812 and the Allied invasion of France in 1813-14.

8 November 2010

The Fiat CR.10 was a version of the successful CR.1 biplane fighter that was powered by the Fiat A.20 engine

The Fiat CR.20 was the second Fiat fighter designed by Celestino Rosatelli to enter service with the Italian Air Force, following on from the CR.1

5 November 2010

The siege of Vienna of 10-13 May 1809 saw the Austrian capital fall to Napoleon for the second time in four years after a very short attempt to defend the city.

The battle of Aspern-Essling (21-22 May 1809) was the first serious battlefield defeat suffered by Napoleon, and saw the Austrians repel a hasty French attempt to cross the Danube close to Vienna.

4 November 2010

The combat of Riedau (1 May 1809) was a minor rearguard action fought during the retreat of the left wing of the main Austrian army after the failure of their invasion of Bavaria

The battle of Ebelsberg (3 May 1809) was a costly French victory that saw them fight their way across the River Thaun during Napoleon's advance into Austria after his victories in Bavaria

3 November 2010

Karl Peter Ott Freiherr von Bartokez (1738-1809) was an experienced Hungarian cavalry commander who proved to be a capable general during the fighting in Belgium and Italy during the Wars of the First and Second Coalitions

Dominique Vandamme (1770-1830) was one of Napoleon's more capable generals, rising to command corps from 1809 until the final end of the wars in 1815.

2 November 2010

The Fiat CR.1 was the first in a long series of biplane fighters designed for Fiat by Celestino Rosatelli, and was an unusual sesquiplane aircraft, with larger lower and smaller upper wings

The Fiat CR.2 was a version of the CR.1 biplane fighter that was powered by an Armstrong Siddeley Lynx radial engine

The Fiat CR.5 was a version of the CR.1 biplane that was powered by a licence-built Jupiter radial engine

1 November 2010

The Macchi M.C.205N Orione (Orion) was a major redesign of the M.C.205V, based on the same licence-built DB605 engine, but with a new longer fuselage

The Macchi M.C.206 was a further development of the M.C.205N, with the same long fuselage and licence-built DB605 engine as that aircraft, but with a wider wing span

The Macchi M.C.207 was a more heavily armed version of the M.C.206

30 October 2010

The Macchi M.C.202 Folgore (Thunderbolt) was probably the best Italian fighter aircraft to see service in significant numbers during the Second World War

The Macchi M.C.205V Veltro (Greyhound) was an interim design for a fighter produced by matching the fuselage of the M.C.202 with the Daimler Benz DB 605A engine

28 October 2010

The battle of Ratisbon or Regensburg (23 April 1809) was the final major battle in the initial Bavarian phase of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 (Fifth Coalition), and saw the French push the Austrians out of their last foot hold on the southern bank of the Danube.

The combat of Salzburg, 29 April 1809, saw a small force of Napoleon's Bavarian allies capture the Austrian city of Salzburg, although they failed to intercept an Austrian column retreating from Munich (Franco-Austrian War of 1809)

27 October 2010

The battle of Landshut (21 April 1809) saw the French force their way across the River Isar, completing the defeat of the left wing of the Austrian army that began on the previous day at Abensberg

The battle of Neumarkt (24 April 1809) was a rare French defeat during the Bavarian stage of the Franco-Austrian war of 1809 and saw the retreating Austrian left wing defeat Marshal Bessières' smaller pursuing column.

26 October 2010

The Macchi M.C.200 Saetta (Lightning) was one of the most important Italian fighter aircraft during the first years of Italian involvement in the Second World War, but was outclassed by its more modern opponents.

The Macchi M.C.201 was the designation given to a single prototype of an improved version of the Macchi M.C.200 Saetta

22 October 2010

The combat of Pfaffenhoffen (19 April 1809) was a minor clash between the left wing of the Austrian army invading Bavaria at the start of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 and elements of Marshal Oudinet's corps, advancing east on the right wing of the French army

The battle of Abensberg (20 April 1809) was the first stage in Napoleon's counter-attack against the Austrian army invading Bavaria at the start of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809, and saw him split the main Austrian army in half, forcing it to retreat to separate directions

21 October 2010

The Kawasaki Ki-96 was a single-seat twin-engine fighter based on the Ki-45 Toryu that reached the prototype stage before work moved onto the two-seat Ki-102.

The Kawasaki Ki-102 Army Type 4 Assault Plane was a twin-engined heavy fighter developed from the Ki-45 Toryu via the single-seat Ki-96, and which saw limited service over Okinawa

The Kawasaki Ki-108 was a twin-engined high-altitude fighter based on the Ki-96 and Ki-102 developments of the Ki-45 Toryu

20 October 2010

Operation Sealion was the German plan for an invasion of Britain in the autumn of 1940, and was the reason that the Germans fought the Battle of Britain

19 October 2010

The battle of Teugn-Hausen (19 April 1809) was the first large scale battle during the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 (Fifth Coalition) and saw the main Austrian army under Archduke Charles fail to take a chance to trap Marshal Davout's isolated 3rd Corps

The combat of Arnhofen (19 April 1809) was a Bavarian victory over an Austrian brigade guarding the left flank of the main Austrian army during its invasion of Bavaria at the start of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809

18 October 2010

The engagement at Landshut of 16 April 1809 was one of the few Austrian successes during their invasion of Bavaria at the start of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 (War of the Fifth Coalition)

The engagement on the Regen or of Reinhausen of 17 April 1809 was a minor skirmish found on the north bank of the Danube opposite Regensburg that saw part of the Austrian advance guard clash with elements of Marshal Davout's isolated 3rd Corps

15 October 2010

The Kawasaki Ki-60 was a single-engine heavy interceptor powered by the German DB 601A inline engine that reached the prototype stage during 1941 but that was rejected in favour of the lighter Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien

The Kawasaki Ki-64 was a radical design for a high-speed single-seat fighter powered by two engines both mounted in the main fuselage

7 October 2010

The Kawasaki Ki-48 Army Type 99 Twin-engined Light Bomber (Lily) was a fast but under-armed light bomber that performed well over China in 1940 but proved to be vulnerable when faced with more modern Allied fighters.

The Kawasaki Ki-174 was an obscure version of the Ki-48 twin-engine light bomber, probably designed as a single-seat suicide aircraft

6 October 2010

The Arado Ar 296 was a design for an improved version of the Arado Ar 96B advanced trainer, to be powered by the Argus As 411 inverted inline engine in place of the similar but less powerful Argus As 410

The Arado Ar 396 was a training aircraft developed from the successful Arado Ar 96B, but using as little metal as possible in its construction. Despite its name the Ar 396 was developed in France, and none reached the Luftwaffe

5 October 2010

The Kawasaki Ki-3 Army Type 93 Light Bomber was one of the last biplane types to replaced by the Japanese Army, remaining in front-line service until 1938

The Kawasaki Ki-81 was a heavily armed escort fighter based on the Ki-48 Sokei light bomber

4 October 2010

The Arado Ar 67 was a single-seat fighter produced in 1933 and powered by a Rolls Royce Kestral engine

The Arado Ar 96 was the Luftwaffe's standard advanced trainer, and was a two-seat low-wing all-metal monoplane that first flew in 1938

1 October 2010

The Kawasaki Type 87 Night Bomber was a version of the Dornier Do-N produced partly in Germany and completed in Japan

The Kawasaki Type 92 Fighter was a German-designed biplane that saw some service during the fighting in Manchuria in 1933

30 September 2010

The Arado Ar 65 was the first front-line fighter to equip the fighter-squadrons of the Luftwaffe after Hitler's rise to power, although it was developed in the last years of the Weimar Republic

The Arado Ar 66 was a two-seat biplane trainer that became the Luftwaffe's most numerous primary training aircraft

29 September 2010

The Kawasaki Type 88 Reconnaissance Biplane was a single-engined biplane designed by the German Dr Richard Vogt that served with the Imperial Japanese Army during the early 1930s

The Kawasaki Type 88 Light Bomber was based on the Type 88-II Reconnaissance Biplane, but with the ability to carry a 200kg (441lb) bomb load

28 September 2010

The Arado SSD I was a single-seat float biplane produced in 1929 and that was designed to be launched by catapult from ships at sea.

The Arado Ar 64 was the first Arado fighter design to progress past the prototype stage, although it never entered service, being superseded by the Ar 65

27 September 2010

The Blohm und Voss Bv 142 was a land-plane version of the Ha 139 float seaplane, also designed as a trans-Atlantic mail plane, and that was also taken into Luftwaffe service

The Blohm und Voss Bv 222 Wiking was the largest flying boat to reach operational status during the Second World War, although it was produced in tiny numbers, and indeed never really reached full production status

23 September 2010

The Arado SD I was one of the first new fighter aircraft designed in Germany after the First World War and was a single-seat sesquiplane produced in 1927.

The Arado SD II was a single-seat sesquiplane fighter produced alongside the similar SD III and that became the basis for the Arado Ar 64.

The Arado SD III was a single-seat sesquiplane fighter produced alongside the similar SD II and that became the basis for the Arado Ar 65.

22 September 2010

The Blohm und Voss Bv 138 was a three-engined long-range reconnaissance flying boat that was the most numerous of their own aircraft produced by Blohm und Voss.

The Blohm und Voss Bv 139 was the designation given to three four-engined flying boats produced as mail planes for Lufthansa, but that served with the Luftwaffe during the Second World War

21 September 2010

The Focke-Wulf Ta 211 was the original designation given to the Ta 154 twin-engined fighter, at a time when it was being developed as a high-speed bomber.

The Focke-Wulf Ta 154 Moskito was a twin-engined night fighter of wooden construction that was cancelled soon after entering production, partly because of problems with the glue holding it together

20 September 2010

The revolt of Herat of 1383 was a short-lived rebellion against Tamerlane that ended with a massacre and the increasingly familiar site of towers of skulls outside the city

The siege of Isfizar (1383) saw Tamerlane put down a revolt in a city south of Herat, and ended with yet another of his trademark atrocities

17 September 2010

The Arado Ar 198 was a short-range reconnaissance aircraft designed to the same specifications as the Fw 189 but that never progressed beyond the prototype stage.

The Focke-Wulf Fw 58 Weihe (Kite) was a twin-engined aircraft that was used as a light transport, air-ambulance and navigational trainer by the Luftwaffe

The Focke-Wulf Fw 189 'Uhu' (Eagle Owl) was the most successful German short-range reconnaissance aircraft of the Second World War, entering service in time to take part in the invasion of the Soviet Union and remaining in use in its main role well into 1944

16 September 2010

The Blohm und Voss Bv 141 was an asymmetric reconnaissance aircraft designed in response to the same specification that led to the Focke-Wulf 189

The Blohm und Voss Bv 237 was a design for an asymmetric dive-bomber largely based on the earlier Bv 141 reconnaissance aircraft.

15 September 2010

HMS Striker was an Attacker class escort carrier that took part in operations off the Norwegian coast during 1944, as well as playing a part in the D-Day landings and escorting convoys to Russia

HMS Tracker was an Attacker class escort carrier that was one of the few members of her class to be used extensively on convoy escort duties, before spending the first part of 1945 acting as a ferry carrier for the US Navy

4 September 2010

The siege of Fushanj (1381) was Tamerlane's first military successes in Khorasan, and a precursor to his first short siege of Herat

The siege of Herat of 1381 was an easy success that ended Tamerlane's first major campaign in Khorasan and saw his empire expand out of its original base in Transoxiana into the former empire of the Il-Khans in Persian for the first time

2 September 2010

The Focke-Wulf Fw 56 Stösser (Falcon) was an advanced training aircraft that was used at German fighter pilot schools throughout the Second World War.

The Focke-Wulf Fw 57 was a twin-engined heavy fighter that never developed beyond the prototype stage, although it did make its maiden flight in 1936

The Focke-Wulf Fw 187 Falke (Falcon) was a high performance twin-engined fighter that was developed in single and two seat versions, but that never attracted the support of the German air ministry, and didn't enter production

1 September 2010

The siege of Kath (1372) was an early success during Tamerlane's first expedition into Khwarezm, and was followed by one of the first examples of the atrocities that so often followed when Tamerlane captured a city.

The siege of Urganch of 1379 was the key victory during Tamerlane's fourth war in Khwarezm, and saw the city fall after a siege of three months.

31 August 2010

HMS Searcher was an Attacker class escort carrier that spent most of her carrier operating off the Norwegian coast, although she also took part in the invasion of southern France and the liberation of Greece

HMS Stalker was an Attacker class escort carrier that took part in the Salerno landings in 1943, the invasion of the south of France and the liberation of Greece in 1944 and the liberations of Penang, Rangoon and Malaya during 1945.

30 August 2010

The Focke-Wulf Fw 44 'Stieglitz' (Goldfinch) was a sports and primary training aircraft that helped establish Focke-Wulf as a major aircraft manufacturer

The Focke-Wulf Fw 191 was a medium bomber designed in response to the German Air Ministry's 'Bomber B' specification of 1939, but that was let down by the failure of the engines it was designed to use and that never entered production.

27 August 2010

The siege of Takrit (20 November-11 December 1393) was an example of Tamerlane's skills in siege warfare and saw his army capture a bandit stronghold said to be impregnable

The battle of the Terek River (22 April 1395) was the final clash between Tamerlane and Toktamish, leader of the Golden Horde, and ended in a decisive victory for Tamerlane.

The siege of Yazd (1396) saw an army led by two of Tamerlane's grandsons defeat a rebellion centred on the city of Yazd and ended with a rare example of clemency on the part of Tamerlane.

26 August 2010

HMS Pursuer was an Attacker class escort carrier that served on convoy escort duty as well as taking part in the April 1944 attack on Tirpitz, the D-Day landings, the liberations of the south of France and of Greece, before ending the war with the East Indies Fleet

HMS Ravager was an Attacker class escort carrier that was used for deck landing training for most of its service career

25 August 2010

HMS Fencer was an Attacker class escort carrier that served with the Home Fleet in 1944, sinking three U-boats at the start of May, before joining the British Pacific Fleet as a ferry carrier during 1945

HMS Hunter was an Attacker class escort carrier that took part in the Salerno landings in 1943 and Operation Dragoon and the liberation of Greece in 1944 before joining the East Indies Fleet in 1945

24 August 2010

HMS Attacker was the name ship for the Attacker class of escort carriers. She took part in the landings at Salerno in 1943 and in the south of France and Greece in 1944, before moving to the Far East in time to take part in the liberation of Penang and the re-occupation of Singapore

HMS Battler was an Attacker class escort carrier that served on convoy escort duty between Britain and Africa in 1943, took part in the Salerno landings, and spent 1944 operating with the Eastern Fleet then the East Indies Fleet, before becoming a deck landing training carrier in 1945

23 August 2010

The battle of the Mire or Tashkent (1365) was a rare defeat for Tamerlane, and came during a struggle for power within the divided Chaghatay Khanate.

The battle of Balkh (1370) was a key success in Tamerlane's rise to power, and established him as the ruler of the western Chaghatay in Transoxiana

20 August 2010

The Grumman TBF/ TBM Avenger was the US Navy's only front line torpedo bomber from the late summer of 1942 until the end of the Second World War, and was a sturdy robust aircraft that accounted for a large part of the Japanese fleet, as well as serving as the British Fleet Air Arm's main torpedo bomber in the later years of the war.

The Grumman TBF/ TBM Avenger was the only torpedo bomber used by the US Navy from the summer of 1942 until the end of the Second World War, although it served as a conventional level bomber more often than as a torpedo bomber

The Grumman Avenger was the most important attack aircraft in use with the Fleet Air Arm during the last eighteen months of the Second World War, making its main contribution to the war effort in the Far East, although it was also used in significant numbers over Home Waters and off Norway

The Grumman XTBF-2 Avenger was a single prototype for a version of the aircraft powered by the 1,900hp Wright R-2600-10 engine.

The Avenger Mk.I was the British designation for the Grumman TBF-1 and Eastern TBM-1 from January 1944, replacing the earlier Tarpon I

The Avenger Mk.II was the British designation for the Grumman TBF-1C and Eastern TBM-1C from January 1944, replacing the earlier Tarpon II.

The Avenger Mk.III was the British designation for the Eastern TBM-3 and TBM-3E from January 1944, replacing the earlier Tarpon III

Today we also add an illustrated look at the uniforms and infantry weapons of the German army during the Second World War

18 August 2010

The Grumman TBF-1 Avenger was the first production version of the aircraft, and the only one to be built by Grumman.

The Eastern TBM-1 Avenger was the first version of that aircraft produced by the Eastern Aircraft Division of General Motors, and was produced in larger numbers than the Grumman TBF-1.

The Eastern TBM-3 Avenger was the second major version of the Avenger torpedo bomber to enter production, and had a more powerful engine than the earlier TBF-1/ TBM-1

The Eastern TBM-3E Avenger was the last major wartime production version of the aircraft, and was significantly lighter than the -3E, giving it the same performance as the original TBF-1.

The Eastern TBM-3S Avenger was an anti-submarine warfare aircraft produced after the Second World War and that was normally paired with the TBM-3W early warning radar aircraft in hunter-killer anti-submarine teams

The Eastern TBM-3W Avenger was an airborne early warning radar aircraft developed during the Second World War but that only entered service in May 1946.

The Eastern XTBM-4 Avenger was the designation given to three prototypes of an improved version of the Avenger that were produced in 1945

The Grumman Tarpon was the designation originally given to the TBF/ TBM Avenger in British service

The Avenger AS Mk.4 was the British designation given a version of the TBM-3S anti-submarine warfare aircraft that served with the Fleet Air Arm from 1953.

17 August 2010

HMS Furious was laid down as a light battlecruiser during the First World War but achieved most fame as an aircraft carrier during the Second World War, spending much of her time operating in the Mediterranean and off the coast of Norway as well as in the Atlantic and on the Arctic convoys.

The Chance-Vought XTBU-1 Sea Wolf was a torpedo bomber designed as a rival to the Grumman Avenger, and that entered production as the Consolidated TBY-2 Sea Wolf.

The Consolidated TBY-2 Sea Wolf was the production version of the XTBU-1 torpedo bomber developed by Vought at the same time as the Grumman Avenger.

13 August 2010

HMS Queen was a Ruler class escort carrier that spent most of her active career on convoy escort or trooping duties, although she did take part in some active combat off Norway early in 1945.

HMS Rajah was a Ruler class escort carrier that spend most of her active career operating as a ferry carrier under US Navy control

12 August 2010

HMS Nabob was a Ruler class escort carrier that has a short active career in British home waters before being badly damaged by a U-boat during an attack on the Tirpitz in August 1944.

HMS Patroller was a Ruler class escort carrier that saw little active service, being used as a ferry carrier under US Navy control early in 1945 before returning to British control to carry out similar duties.

HMS Premier was a Ruler class escort carrier that served off the Norwegian coast during the first part of 1945, as well as escorting a convoy to Russia and acting as a deck landing training carrier

10 August 2010

HMS Emperor was a Ruler class escort carrier that took part in operations off Norway and in the Mediterranean in 1944 and with the East India Fleet during 1945.

HMS Empress was a Ruler class escort carrier that served in the Far East for most of 1945, operating with the East Indies Fleet.

HMS Khedive was a Ruler class escort carrier that took part in Operation Dragoon and the liberation of Greece during 1944 before joining the East Indies Fleet during 1945

We also open a gallery devoted to the Battle of Britain and another for German Army Equipment of the Second World War

9 August 2010

HMS Puncher was a Ruler class escort carrier that took part in a series of operations off the Norwegian coast early in 1945 before becoming a deck landing training carrier for the rest of the year.

HMS Shah was a Ruler class escort carrier that served in the Far East, spending most of 1944 on anti-submarine patrols and general escort duties, before taking part in several major operations during 1945.

4 August 2010

Today we open two related picture galleries, one for No.100 Squadron and one for the Avro Lincoln, both with thanks to Colin Proctor, and a picture of the ship's badge of HMS Black Prince, with thanks to Damien Taylor

30 July 2010

HMS Ameer was a Ruler class escort carrier that served with the East Indies Fleet from the summer of 1944 until the end of the war, taking part in most major operations during 1945.

HMS Atheling was a Ruler class escort carrier that served alongside HMS Illustrious in the Bay of Bengal for a short period of time in 1944 before being loaned to the US Navy to serve as a ferry carrier in 1945.

HMS Ranee was a Ruler class escort carrier that was loaned back to the US Navy and spent the first half of 1945 ferrying US Naval aircraft to the front line.

HMS Reaper was a Ruler class escort carrier that served on convoy escort duties in the Atlantic and Mediterranean in the second half of 1944 before being loaded to the US Navy to search as a ferry carrier at the start of 1945.

HMS Smiter was a Ruler class escort carrier that saw little service during the Second World War, accompanying a small number of Atlantic convoys in 1944, before sailing to the Far East too late to see any action

28 July 2010

HMS Chaser was an Attacker class escort carrier that had a short but successful career escorting Arctic convoys early in 1944 before serving with the Fleet Train of the British Pacific Fleet in 1945.

HMS Thane was a Ruler class escort carrier that had a short service career, escorting at least two convoys across the Atlantic before being torpedoed and badly damaged by U-482

HMS Trouncer was a Ruler class escort carrier, and one of five members of that class to see significant service in the Atlantic, escorting a number of trans-Atlantic convoys from the summer of 1944.

HMS Trumpeter was a Ruler class escort carrier that saw an unusual level of front-line service, taking part in twelve months of operations off the Norwegian coast between the summers of 1944 and 1945, before moving to the Far East

22 July 2010

The Ruler class of escort carriers were the largest group of aircraft carriers to serve in the Royal Navy during the Second World War

HMS Arbiter was a Ruler class escort carrier that had a short service carrier with the Royal Navy, becoming a replenishment carrier in the British Pacific Fleet in the summer of 1945

HMS Begum was a Ruler class escort carrier that spent most of its career acting as a ferry carrier, apart from six months spent protecting Allied shipping in the Far East in the second half of 1944.

HMS Ruler was the name ship of the Ruler class of escort carriers, built in the United States as the Prince William class and based on a standard merchant ship hull

HMS Slinger was a Ruler class escort carrier that served as a replenishment carrier with the British Pacific Fleet in 1945

HMS Speaker was a Ruler class escort carrier that served with the fleet train of the British Pacific Fleet from March 1945 until VJ Day.

16 July 2010

No.808 Naval Air Squadron was a single-engine fighter squadron that served on the Ark Royal until she was sunk, then helped support the landings at Salerno before joining the East Indian Fleet.

No.809 Naval Air Squadron was a single-engine fighter squadron that served extensively in the Mediterranean and in the Far East, taking part in the invasions of North Africa, Italy and the south of France and the liberation of Rangoon and Malaya

15 July 2010

The Fairey Fulmar was a moderately successful fighter aircraft that served with the Fleet Air Arm from 1940 until 1943, despite suffering from a lack of speed and a poor climb rate, at least when compared to its main opponents

14 July 2010

HMS Ark Royal (1937-1941) was the first purpose built large aircraft carrier to be completed for the Royal Navy, and one of the most famous warships of the Second World War

The Japanese were to use rifles throughout the Second World War which were heavily based on the Ariksaka Model 1905 bolt action rifle which had served them during the First World War.

2 July 2010

The combat of Mt. Kita (16 May 1809) was the first of a series of French victories that broke the deadlock on the Dalmatian Front during the War of the Fifth Coalition

The combat of Gracac (17 May 1809) was a battle between Austrian and French troops on the Dalmatia-Croatia border that ended in a draw, but that did not prevent the Austrians from having to withdraw further into Croatia

The combat of Gospic (21-22 May 1809) was hard fought clash between the Austrians and French on the border between Croatia and Dalmatia that ended in a draw but that forced the Austrians to retreat to the north.

The combat of Zutalovka (25 May 1809) was a clash between a retreating Austrian army from Croatia and the pursuing French Army of Dalmatia

1 July 2010

The combat of Papa (12 June 1809) was a rearguard action fought during Archduke John of Austria's retreat towards the Danube after the failure of his invasion of Italy

The battle of Raab (14 June 1809) was a victory won by the French Army of Italy over an Austrian army in Western Hungary, preventing that army from reinforcing the main Austrian army in the days before the battle of Wagram.

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