Military History Encyclopedia on the Web

New Features

We have now added a list of recent pictures added to the site.

Sign up for our mailing list to receive news of new articles, or look at our blog, Military History Blog on the Web, where we will announce new articles and features. Subscribe to our feed to get news direct:

Go to updates from: January 2015 onwards2014201320122011July-December 2010January-June 2010June-December 2009 January-June 20092008October-December 2007 July-September 2007January-June 200720062005

30 June

The Northrop P-61A was the first production version of the Black Widow night-fighter, and the first version to enter combat.

The Northrop P-61B was the main production version of the Black Widow night-fighter, with 450 being produced. Early production P-61Bs were very similar to late production P-61As, but with an eight inch long extension to the nose to allow the aircraft to carry the improved SCR-720C airborne radar set.

The Northrop P-61C was the final production version of the Black Widow night-fighter, and differed from earlier aircraft in having more powerful turbo-supercharged engines.

The Northrop XP-61D was the second designation given to the two prototypes for the up-engined P-61C Black Widow, and was adopted after a series of engine changes.

The Northrop XP-61E was a two-man long-range escort fighter version of the Black Widow night-fighter originally developed to escort bombers to Japan

The Northrop XP-61F was the designation given to a planned two-seat version of the Black Widow night-fighter.

The Northrop P-61G was the unofficial designation given to sixteen Black Widow night-fighters converted to perform as weather reconnaissance aircraft.

The Northrop P-61H was the designation given to a version of the Black Widow night-fighter that would have had the four gun turret replaced by a large internal fuel tank

The Northrop F2T-1 was the designation given to twelve surplus P-61A Black Widows used as training aircraft by the US Marine Corps

The Northrop XFT was the first Northrop designed aircraft to be built for the US Navy, and was an experimental all-metal low-wing monoplane single seat fighter aircraft rather surprising based on the Northrop Delta transport aircraft

26 June

No.71 Squadron was the first 'Eagle' Squadron, manned by American volunteers in the year before the American entry into the Second World War.

No.72 Squadron began the Second World War as a home based fighter squadron, taking part in the battle of Britain and the offensive sweeps over France, before moving to North Africa late in 1942. The squadron remained in the mediterranean to the end of the war, taking part in the fighting on Sicily, in Italy and the invasion of southern France.

No.73 Squadron was one of the small number of Hurricane squadrons that moved to France at the start of the Second World War. After operating as a night fighter squadron during the battle of Britain it them moved to the Middle East, taking part in the campaigns in North Africa, in Italy, and in Greece, before ending the war in the Balkans.

9 June

No.56 Squadron all but two months of the Second World War operating Hawker fighters, using Hurricanes during the Battle of Britain before becoming the first squadron to convert to the troublesome Hawker Typhoon, and by the end of the war the squadron was using the high-speed Hawker Tempest on armed reconnaissance missions behind German lines.

No.57 Squadron served as a Blenheim squadron during the battle of France in 1940, before in 1941 joining Bomber Command's main force, flying the Lancaster from 1942 until the end of the war.

No.59 Squadron began the Second World War as a reconnaissance squadron, but spent most of the war serving as an anti-shipping or anti-submarine squadron, flying the very long range Liberator from the summer of 1942.

No.60 Squadron served in the Far East throughout the Second World War, originally as a Singapore-based Blenheim squadron and later as a Hurricane equipped ground-attack squadron.

No.62 Squadron went through two incarnations during the Second World War. The first was badly mauled in the early days of the war against Japan, while the second was formed from survivors of the defeat in Burma.

No.64 Squadron served as a fighter squadron throughout the Second World War, taking part in the battle of Britain and carrying out offensive sweeps over France before ending the war escorting Bomber Command on daylight raids over Germany.

No.65 Squadron had a varied wartime career, which included participation in the Battle of Britain, a period spent practising deck landings and spells as a figher-bomber squadron in Normandy and as daylight bomber escorts.

No.66 Squadron served as a fighter squadron throughout the Second World War, taking part in the Battle of Britain, escorting day bombers over France and joining the 2nd Tactical Air Force during the fighting after D-Day.

No.67 Squadron was one of the few RAF squadrons to spent almost the entire Second World War fighting over Burma.

No.68 Squadron was formed in January 1941 as a defensive night fighter squadron, and continued to perform that role until it was disbanded in April 1945.

No.69 Squadron was formed on Malta as a reconnaissance squadron, and spent three years operating a wide range of aircraft from the island, before in 1944 returning to Britain to take part in the invasion of north western Europe.

No.70 Squadron served as a heavy bomber squadron, first in North Africa and then from bases in Italy.

8 June

No 36 Squadron (RAF) began the Second World War as a torpedo bomber squadron based at Singapore, but saw most service as a Wellinton equipped anti-submarine squadron.

No.45 Squadron spent the entire Second World War operating in the east, at first as a Blenheim bomber squadron operating from Egypt, from where it took part in the campaigns in the Western Desert, Italian East Africa and Syria, before moving to Burma early in 1942, where it eventually operated as a ground attack squadron, first with the Vultee Vengeance dive bomber and later with fighter-bomber Mosquitoes.

No.46 Squadron began the Second World War as a Hawker Hurricane squadron, fighting in Norway, in the battle of Britain and on Malta. It then became a Beaufighter day and night fighter squadron, operating around the Mediterranean, before in 1945 returning to Britain to become a transport squadron.

No.47 Squadron was one of the few squadrons to use the Vickers Wellesley in combat, using them against Italian forces in East Africa, before converting to the Beaufort then Beaufighter for anti-submarine and anti-shipping work in the Mediterranean. By the end of the war the squadron was operating as a ground attack unit, using the Mosquito to attack Japanese targets in Burma.

No.53 Squadron started the Second World War as a strategic reconnaissance unit equipped with the Bristol Blenheim, but spent most of the war flying anti-submarine patrols, eventually using the very long range Consolidated Liberator.

No.54 Squadron spent the entire Second World War flying the Supermarine Spitfire. During 1940 it helped to protect the Dunkirk evacuations and took part in the Battle of Britain, before in the summer of 1942 it moved to Australia, arriving after the worst of the Japanese raids were over.

No.55 Squadron spent almost the entire Second World War serving as a day bomber squadron, first in North Africa and then on Sicily and for the entire duration of the campaign in Italy.

5 June

The small town of Carentan occupied a pivotal position between Omaha and Utah Beaches, and its capture was one of the most important American priorities in the days immediately after D-Day

The campaign in the Cotentin Peninsula (6-30 June 1944) was the first major Allied advance after the D-Day landings, and ended with the capture of the port of Cherbourg, seen by the Allies as one of the most important objectives of Operation Overlord

The capture of the port of Cherbourg was one of the most important early objectives for the Allies after the D-Day landings

Operation Epsom (26-30 June 1944) , or the battle of the Odon,was the first major British offensive to be launched after the D-Day landings, and was a successful attempt to force the Germans to concentrate their armoured units against the British and Canadians, at the eastern end of the Normandy beachhead

2 June

The Douglas A-26 Invader was the best medium bomber to see service with the USAAF during the Second World War, but production delays meant that it wasn't available in large numbers until late in 1944, and it was only used in significant numbers by the Ninth Air Force in Europe.

The Douglas A-26B the gun-nosed version of the Invader medium bomber, and was designed to carry out both bombing and low level strafing attacks, a combination of functions that was seen as the most effective way to attack the many Japanese island bases scattered across the Pacific.

The Douglas A-26C Invader differed from the A-26B in having a transparent bombardier's nose in place of that version's solid gun carrying nose.

The Douglas A-26D Invader was an improved version of the solid-nosed A-26B, with more powerful engines.

The Douglas A-26E Invader was to have been a version of the glass nosed A-26C but with the same more powerful 2,100hp Chevrolet-built R-2800-83 engines as the A-26D. 

The Douglas XA-26F was a jet-augmented version of the Invader, powered by two 2,100hp R-2800-83 radial engines and by a General Electric J31 turbojet.

The Douglas JD Invader was the designation given to 141 Douglas A-26 Invaders that were operated by the US Navy as utility aircraft, target tugs and target drone launching and controlling aircraft.

The On Mark B-26K Counter Invader was a major redesign of the Invader, produced in the mid 1960s for use in Vietnam.

Although the Douglas A-26 Invader made its combat debut in the Pacific it only played a small part in the war against Japan.

The Douglas A-26 Invader saw most combat during the Second World War against the Germans, serving in significant numbers with the Ninth Air Force.

The outbreak of the Korean War caught the USAF by surprise, and in the middle of converted from piston engined aircraft to jets. As a result a number of Second World War era aircraft had to be rushed back into front line service, including the Douglas B-26 Invader (designated as the A-26 until 1947)

The Douglas B-26 Invader was involved in the fighting in Vietnam for nearly twenty years, from 1951 when they were used by the French, until 1969 when the last aircraft in American service were withdrawn

29 May

The Churchill AVRE (Assault Vehicle, Royal Engineers) was developed after the Dieppe raid in an attempt to make combat engineers less vulnerable while they were attempting to destroy enemy defences.

The 'Carrot' Explosive Device was a light framework that could be attached to the front of a Churchill tank and that was designed to allow small explosive charges to be dropped into place

The 'Onion' Explosive Device was the first of two frames designed to allow explosive charges to be moved into place using a Churchill tank.

The Churchill AVRE with 'Goat' Explosive Device was the only one of a series of British attempts to use a tank to place an explosive charge in place to enter production during the Second World War

The Churchill Ark was an expendable bridging tank produced by fitting folding ramps at both ends of a turretless Churchill tank

The Churchill 'Jumbo' Bridging Tank carried a 30ft long bridge which it could lower into place in 1 minute 35 seconds

28 May

The D-Day landings of 6 June 1944 were one of the most significant moments of the Second World War, and marked the point when the combined military force of the Western allies were finally brought to bear fully against Germany.

Joseph Lawton Collins (1896-1987) was one of the most capable American Corps commanders of the Second World War, and one of a small number of senior officers to serve in both the Pacific and European fronts, commanding the 25th Division on Guadalcanal and the 7th Corps from D-Day to the end of the war.

General Friedrich Dollman (1876-1944) was the commander of the German 7th Army at the time of the D-Day landings, with direct responsibility for the defence of the Normandy coastline

Leonard Gerow (1888-1972) was the commander of the US 5th Corps from July 1943 until the start of 1945, and led it from Omaha Beach into Germany

General Leo Freiherr Geyr von Schweppenburg (1886-1974) was an acknowledged expect in armoured warfare who had a successful career on the eastern front before being posted to the west, where he clashed with Rommel over the correct tactics to use against the expected Allied invasion

Paul Hausser (1880-1972) was the most capable general to serve in the Waffen-SS, after playing an important role in the creation of the armed wing of the SS.

15 May

British Airborne Operations on D-Day, 6 June 1944: The eastern flank of the Allied beachhead on D-Day was formed by the troops of the British 6th Airborne Division, who had the job of destroying the bridges across the River Dives and capturing intact those across the River Orne and the Orne (or Caen in some sources) Canal

US Airborne Operations on D-Day, 6 June 1944: One of the most daring elements of the D-Day landings was the insertion of two full US airborne divisions in the Cotentin peninsula, on the western flank of the Allied beachhead, where they played a vital part in the success of the landing on Utah Beach and helped to cause so much confusion that the Germans were unable to launch a coherent counterattack against either American beach

As the commander of the 352nd Infantry Division Major General Dietrich Kraiss was responsible for the defence of the section of the Normandy Coast that included Omaha Beach and part of Gold Beach, and his deployments and actions on D-Day would play a part in the Allied victory.

14 May

Today we open our biggest picture gallery yet, devoted to Operation Overlord and the D-Day landings, starting with 32 pictures and 12 maps and with many more to come.

13 May

The landing on Gold Beach was one of the more successful of the D-Day landings, and by the end of 6 June the British had penetrated the German's coastal defences and were on the verge of liberating Bayeux, which on 7 June became the first French town to be liberated

The landing on Juno Beach was the main Canadian contribution on D-Day, and saw the Canadian 3rd Infantry Division and 2nd Armoured Brigade overcome some of the strongest German defences and a late arrival to achieve the deepest penetration into France of any Allied troops on 6 June

The troops landing on Sword Beach on 6 June had the most important task on D-Day – to protect the eastern flank of the entire landing area against the possibility of a major German armoured counterattack from the east, while at the same time taking part in the attack on Caen

11 May

The landing on Omaha Beach was the hardest fought and most costly of the D-Day landings, and the one that came closest to failure. A combination of a strong defensive position, rough seas, the loss of most of the supporting tanks and artillery, a too-short naval bombardment and an ineffective aerial bombardment saw the first wave of American troops pinned down on the water's edge, and although by the end of the day the landing was secure the Omaha beachhead was still less than a mile deep.

8 May

The landings on Utah Beach (6 June 1944) were the most westerly and perhaps the easiest of the D-Day landings, due in part to the actions of the American airborne divisions operating inland from the beach and partly to a strong tide which swept the landing craft a kilometre to the south of their intended landing point

Operation Gambit (2-6 June 1944) was one of the smaller operations that made up the D-Day landings and saw ten men in two British mini-submarines spend three days on the sea-floor off the Normandy beaches so that they could transmit a sonar signal to guide the DD tanks onto the right part of the beach

The Landing Craft, Personnel (Large) (LCP(L)) was the first purpose-build landing craft to be acquired by the US Marine Corps, and was the first in a series of designs that culminated in the LCVP, one of the most important Allied weapons of the Second World War

The Landing Craft, Personnel (Ramp) (LCP(R)) was developed during 1941 by Andrew Higgins to solve the biggest problem with the basic LCP(L) – the difficulties encountered in disembarking over the sides of the craft, and was the first version of the Higgins Boat to feature a bow ramp.

The sight of a row of Landing Craft, Vehicle Personnels (LCVP) coming in to land on a hostile beach is one of the most familiar images of the Second World War.

5 May

The Martin B-26 Marauder had a short combat career in the Pacific. After playing a part in the early fighting on New Guinea, at Guadalcanal and even at Midway the type was withdraw from the Pacific during 1943, but this early combat experience did help overcome the aircraft's early poor reputation

The Martin B-26 Marauder played an important part in the fighting in North Africa and Italy, first arriving in the theatre at the end of 1942 and remaining in service in large numbers until the start of 1945.

4 May

The Martin AT-23 was the first designation given to a number of Marauder bombers converted to act as target tugs.

The Martin TB-26 was the second designation given to a number of Marauder bombers converted to act as target tugs, replacing AT-23

The Martin JM was the US Navy designation for a number of B-26 Marauders acquired for use as trainers and target tugs

Although the RAF received a sizable number of B-26 Marauders, only two squadrons were ever equipped with the type, both in the Desert Air Force, and only one Marauder squadron was ever active at any one time

The controversial Martin B-26 Marauder saw most service with the Ninth Air Force, operating with eight Bombardment Groups. After a terrible introduction into the European Theatre as a low-level bomber the B-26 found its niche as a medium bomber, and ended the war with the best loss ratio of any bomber in the Ninth Air Force

The Martin B-26 Marauder was used in large numbers by the revived French Armée de l'Air from 1943, and was used during the fighting in Italy and southern France.

The South Africa Air Force received 100 Marauders IIs, using them to equip five squadrons of the Desert Air Force, although by the time the Marauders began to arrive all five squadrons had moved to Italy, where they remained until the end of the war

24 April

The Martin B-26 Marauder was one of the more controversial American aircraft of the Second World War, earning an early reputation as a killer aircraft before going on to suffer the lowest loss rate of any American bomber in the European theatre

The Martin B-26 Marauder was the designation given to the first 201 Marauders, ordered straight off the drawing board in 1940 and delivered during 1941.

The Martin B-26A Marauder was the second production version of the aircraft. It differed from the B-26 in having the 0.30in nose and tail guns replaced with more powerful 0.50in guns, and by having the fittings for an auxiliary fuel tank in the aft bomb bay.

The Martin B-26B was the most numerous version of the Marauder. At first it differed from earlier versions in having more powerful engines and increased armament, but starting with the 642nd aircraft it was also given longer wings and larger tail fin in an attempt to make it easier for inexperienced pilots to fly

The Martin B-26C Marauder was the designation given to those B-26s built at Martin's factory in Omaha, Nebraska

The Martin XB-26D Marauder was the designation given to a single B-26 that was modified to test a wing de-icing system that used ducts to direct hot air from the engines onto the wings

The designation Martin B-26E Marauder was associated with two different projects, involved either an adjustment of the angle of incidence of the wings or the movement of the aircraft's dorsal turret.

The Martin B-26F saw the last major change to the design of the Marauder medium bomber, a 3.5 degrees increase in the angle of incidence of the wing, which was introduced to improve the aircraft's poor take-off performance

The Martin B-26G was the final production version of the Marauder bomber and was part of an effort to increase the number of parts that Army and Navy aircraft had in common.

The Martin XB-26H Marauder was the designation given to a single TB-26G trainer that was modified to test out a new arrangement of landing gear that was being designed for the new generation of jet bombers.

22 April

Millard F. Harmon (1888-1945) was a senior American airman of the Second World War who spent most of the war serving in the Pacific, taking part in the fighting in the Solomon Islands before holding a number of overlapping and sometimes contradictory positions under Nimitz in the central Pacific.

George Howard Brett (1886-1963) was a senior USAAF officer who was on a tour of the Middle East and China at the time of the Pearl Harbor attack, and in the aftermath took command of all American forces in Australia in December 1941, holding that post through some of the disastrous early fighting in the Pacific.

Frank Maxwell Andrews (1884-1943) was a pioneer of strategic air power and a senior USAAF officer who served in the Caribbean, the Mediterranean and briefly as commander of the European Theatre of Operations, US Army (ETOUSA) while Eisenhower was in North Africa

21 April

General Henry Harley 'Hap' Arnold (1886-1950) was the most senior American airman of the Second World War, and a dedicated believer in the power of strategic bombing.

Major General Frederick Anderson (1905-1969) was an American pioneer of strategic air warfare. First as commander of VIII Bomber Command and then as deputy commander of the U.S. Strategic Air Forces in Europe he played a major role in the American bombing campaign against Germany

General John K. Cannon (1895-1955) was a senior USAAF officer who by the end of the Second World War had risen to command the Mediterranean Allied Air Force, having spent most of the war in that theatre.

17 April

Part four of our series on Operation Downfall, the planned invasion of Japan, looks at the Allied plans for Operations Olympic and Coronet.

The Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8 was the standard Corps Reconnaissance aircraft of the RFC and RAF in the second half of the First World War and superseded the B.E.2c and B.E.2e, the much maligned aircraft that had performed that role since 1914

The Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.9 was a version of the R.E.8 that had its unequal span wings replaced with the two-bay equal span wings of the B.E.2d.

16 April

The Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.1 was a refined version of the B.E.2, originally designed to be light enough to carry armour plating without reducing its performance but that was actually used as a test bed for experiments in stability

The Royal Aircraft Factory H.R.E.2 was a floatplane biplane with some similarity to the B.E.2, developed at the Royal Aircraft Factory in 1913-14.

The Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.3 was a two-seat reconnaissance aircraft similar to the R.E.2 with its floats removed but with a more powerful Austro-Daimler engine.

The Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.4 was a design for an aircraft capable of operating from small fields surrounded by high trees.

The Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.5 was the first aircraft in the Factory's Reconnaissance Experiment series to enter production, although only in small numbers.

The Royal Aircraft Factory H.R.E.6 was a design for a three-seat floatplane biplane.

The Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.7 was based on a high altitude version of the R.E.5. Although it was produced in relatively large numbers the Royal Flying Corps never really had a use for the aircraft and its front line career only lasted for six months in the first half of 1916.

15 April

Today we open a picture gallery devoted to the de Havilland Mosquito

14 April

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.8 was a member of the B.E.2 family that was powered by a Gnome rotary engine.

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.8a was produced by fitting the rotary engined B.E.8 with the wings of the B.E.2c, giving it ailerons in place of the wing warping controls of the basic B.E.8.

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.9 was one of the more unusual aircraft to be designed during the First World War and was a tractor biplane with a gun position mounted in front of the propeller.

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.10 was to have been a version of the B.E.2c constructed with a steel-tube fuselage instead of the wooden frame of the standard B.E.2c.

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.12 was a single seat version of the B.E.2c with a more powerful engine, originally designed to operate as a bomber or photographic reconnaissance aircraft, tasks for which the second crewman of the B.E.2c was not required

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.12a was produced in an attempt to improve the performance of the single seat B.E.12 by giving it the wings from the B.E.2e, which at the time was believed to be a vast improvement on the basic B.E.2c

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.12b was a higher powered version of the basic B.E.12 that was designed as a Home Defence aircraft but that entered service after the Zeppelin raids it was designed to counter had almost stopped.

6 April

We start with a list of Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2/ B.E.12 Squadrons of the First World War.

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2c was the most controversial British aircraft of the First World War. Designed to be a stable reconnaissance platform it was a perfectly capable military aircraft until the arrival of the Fokker E.I, when its built-in stability and lack of any defensive armament made it a sitting duck

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2d was a version of the B.E.2c with dual controls and a modified fuel system that was produced in small numbers between October 1915 and early 1916.

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2e was produced in an attempt to improve the military performance of the B.E.2c. Taken in isolation these efforts were successful, for the B.E.2e was the fastest version of the B.E.2, but the improvements weren't enough to compensate for the ever-increasing capacity of German fighter aircraft

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2f was the designation given to existing B.E.2cs that had been modified to the B.E.2e standard by giving them the unequal span wings and modified tail of the newer design.

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2g was the designation given to existing B.E.2ds that had been modified to the B.E.2e standard by giving them the unequal span wings and modified tail of the newer design.

3 April

The Royal Aircraft Factory (R.A.F.) was responsible for the design of most Royal Flying Corps aircraft in the early years of the First World War.

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.1 was the first tractor biplane to be designed by Geoffrey de Havilland, and was the immediate predecessor of the B.E.2 and its variants, the mainstay of the early R.F.C.

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2 was the second in the Factory's series of experimental tractor biplanes, and was also the prototype for the B.E.2a and the family of aircraft that followed.

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2a was a two seat tractor biplane that became the standard equipment of the pre-First World War Royal Flying Corps.

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2b was a slightly improved version of the B.E.2a two-seat reconnaissance aircraft, developed early in 1914 to increase crew comfort.

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.3 was the third entry in the BE.1/2 family and differed from the earlier aircraft in having heavily staggered wings

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.4 was structurally identical to the B.E.3 but with a more powerful engine

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.5 was one of a number of similar aircraft all based on the original B.E.1 built by the Aircraft Factory in the years before the First World War.

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.6 was one of a series of early R.A.F. aircraft that were official produced by reconstructing damaged aircraft, in this case the Factory's own S.E.1.

The Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.7 was a higher powered version of the B.E.3 and B.E.4, two experimental members of the B.E.2 family that were distinguished mainly by their staggered wings.

1 April

The Airco D.H.5 was designed in 1916 as a replacement for Geoffrey de Havilland's earlier D.H.2 pusher aircraft, but it was outclassed by its British contemporaries and was most useful as a ground attack aircraft

The Airco D.H.6 was Geoffrey de Havilland's first training aircraft, and was a deliberately simple aircraft designed to be produced in large numbers in preparation for the massive expansion of the R.F.C. planned for 1917.

The Airco D.H.7 was a design for a single-seat single-engined tractor fighter, to be powered by a Rolls-Royce Falcon engine.

The Airco D.H.8 was a design for a pusher aircraft that would have been armed with the 1 ½ pounder Coventry Ordnance Works gun (the C.O.W. Gun)

The Airco D.H.9A was a single-engined day bomber produced by matching the fuselage of the unsuccessful Airco D.H.9 with a 400hp Liberty 12 engine. The resulting aircraft was one of the most successful bombers of its period and remained in front line service with the RAF until 1931.

The Airco D.H.10 Amiens was a two-engined heavy bomber based on the earlier D.H.3, but that arrived too late to make any contribution to the fighting during the First World War.

The Airco D.H.11 Oxford was designed as a potential replacement for the D.H.10 twin-engined day bomber, but never progressed beyond the prototype stage.

The Airco D.H.12 was to have been a twin engined day bomber based on the D.H.11 Oxford

The Airco D.H.14 Okapi was a single-engined day bomber designed to replace de Havilland's earlier single engined bombers, but that never progressed beyond the prototype stage.

The Airco D.H.15 Gazelle was an experimental version of the D.H.9A, built as a flying test bed for a 500hp B.H.P. Atlantic twelve cylinder watercooled engine

31 March

The Airco D.H.1 was the first production aircraft designed by Geoffrey de Havilland after his appointment as Chief Designer for the Aircraft Manufacturing Co. Ltd in June 1914.

The Airco D.H.2 was the first purpose built fighter aircraft to enter British service, and played a major part in the defeat of the Fokker monoplanes and the end of the Fokker scourge.

The Airco D.H.3 was Geoffrey de Havilland's first twin engined aircraft and was designed as a day bomber with the range to hit German industry.

The Airco D.H.4 was the Royal Flying Corps' first purpose-built day bomber, filling a role that until then had been carried out by aircraft that had been designed for other duties. 

The Airco D.H.9 was an unsuccessful single engined day bomber designed to replace the D.H.4 but that was let down by its original engine.

27 March

Commius of the Atrebates (fl.57-50 BC) was a Gallic leader who supported Caesar for most of the Gallic War before switching sides and taking part in the final revolt under Vercingetorix.

Indutiomarus was a Treviri nobleman who played a major role in the second Gallic revolt against Julius Caesar.

Orgetorix was a Helvetii nobleman who was largely responsible for the migration that began the Gallic War.

26 March

The Gallic War (58-51 B.C.) was the conflict in which Julius Caesar first emerged as a great military leader, after an earlier career as an impoverished populist politician. A conflict that began with an attempt to preserve stability on the borders of the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul soon turned into a war of conquest which only ended after Caesar had put down three major Gallic revolts.

Vercingetorix was the best known, and perhaps the most able, leader of the Gallic opposition to Caesar during the Gallic War of 58-51 B.C.

Cativolcus (d.53 B.C.) was one of two kings of the Eburones tribe during the Gallic War.

Ambiorix (fl.54-53 B.C.) was one of the more successful leaders of the resistance to Caesar during the Gallic Wars, winning one of the few clear cut Gallic victories of the war when he destroyed a Roman legion at Aduataca.

The siege of Uxellodunum (spring 51 B.C.) was the last attempt by the Gauls to defend a fortified town against a Roman attack during Caesar's Gallic War.

The defeat of Comius the Atrebatian, late in 51 B.C., was a minor cavalry skirmish noteworthy only for being the last recorded battle of Caesar's Gallic War.

24 March

The unsuccessful siege of Gergovia (May 52 B.C.) was the only major setback suffered by an army led in person by Julius Caesar during the entire Gallic Wars.

The battle of the Vingeanne (July 52 B.C.) was a cavalry battle that saw the Romans and their German auxiliaries defeat a Gallic attack on their column, a defeat that may have been the main reason that Vercingetorix chose to defend the nearby town of Alesia.

The siege of Limonum, early 51 B.C., was an unsuccessful attempt by the Andes, one of the last rebellious tribes in Gaul, to capture the chief town of the Pictones tribe.

The battle on the Loire of early 51 B.C. was a Roman victory that effectively ended the Great Gallic revolt on the west coast of Gaul.

23 March

The siege of Gorgobina (early 52 B.C.) saw Vercingetorix make an unsuccessful attack on a town that was under the protection of Julius Caesar. The Gauls were forced to lift the siege when Caesar approached from the north with his main army and besieged Novidunum, but the attack had forced the Romans to leave their winter quarters much earlier than they would have liked.  

The siege of Vellaunodunum (early 52 B.C.) was the first of three Roman attacks on Gallic towns that forced Vercingetorix to abandon his siege of Gorgobina early in the Great Gallic Revolt of 52 B.C.

The siege of Cenabum (early 52 B.C.) was the second of three Roman attacks on Gallic towns that forced Vercingetorix to abandon his siege of Gorgobina, and that saw the Romans capture the town where the great Gallic revolt had begun.

The siege of Noviodunum (probably March 52 B.C.) was the third of three Roman attacks on Gallic towns that forced Vercingetorix to abandon his siege of Gorgobina. It also saw the first direct clash between the main armies of Caesar and Vercingetorix, a minor cavalry action fought outside the town

The battle of Lutetia (May 52 B.C.) was a victory won by Labienus, Caesar's most able lieutenant during the Gallic Wars, over the Senones and Parisii on the left bank of the Seine close to the centre of modern Paris.

The siege of Avaricum (c.March-April 52 B.C.) was the first major clash between Julius Caesar and Vercingetorix during the Great Gallic Revolt, and ended with a Roman victory and the sack of the town.

22 March

The disaster at Atuatuca (October 54 B.C.) was one of the most serious setbacks suffered by Julius Caesar during his conquest of Gaul, and saw the Eburones destroy an entire Roman legion that had just entered winter quarters.

The siege of Q. Cicero's camp, early in the winter of 54-53 B.C. was the highpoint of the second Gallic revolt during Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul, and its failure handed the initiative back to the Romans.

20 March

The battle of Octodurus (winter 57/56 B.C.) was a battle in the upper Rhone valley described by Julius Caesar as a Roman victory, but that effectively ended an attempt to open the Great St. Bernard Pass.

The battle of the Morbihan Gulf (June 56 B.C.) was the first naval battle in recorded history to definitely took place in the North Atlantic, and saw a Roman fleet raised by Julius Caesar destroy the naval power of the Veneti tribe of modern Brittany.

The defeat of the Sotiates (56 B.C.) was the first of two major battles in unknown locations in which Publius Crassus, the son of the Triumvir and one of Caesar's most able lieutenants, defeated the Aquitani tribes of south-west Gaul.

The defeat of the Vocates and Tarusates (56 B.C.) was the second of two major battles in unknown locations in which Publius Crassus, the son of the Triumvir and one of Caesar's most able lieutenants, defeated the Aquitani tribes of south-west Gaul.

18 March

Dumnorix (d.54 B.C.) was a leader of the anti-Roman faction in the Aedui tribe, and the brother of the pro-Roman leader Divitiacus.

Divitiacus (fl.58-57 B.C.) was a leader of the pro-Roman faction in the Aedui, and the brother of the anti-Roman leader Dumnorix.

The battle of Bibracte (June/July 58 B.C.) was the second and decisive battle in Julius Caesar's first military campaign, and saw him force the Helvetii tribe to abandon their planned migration from Switzerland to the west coast of France

The battle of the Aisne (57 B.C.) was Julius Caesar's first victory in his campaign against the Belgic tribes of modern Belgium.

The battle of the Sambre (July 57 B.C.) was the most important battle of Caesar's campaign against the Belgae in 57 B.C. and saw his army recover after being ambushed to inflict a crushing defeat on three Belgic tribes led by the Nervii.

The siege of the Atuatuci (September 57 B.C.) was the final major victory during Julius Caesar's conquest of the Belgae.

17 March

Ariovistus (fl.61-58 B.C.) was a Suebian chief who led a large force of Germans across the Rhine in the years just before the outbreak of Caesar's Gallic War. He carved out a sizable kingdom in Alsace before being defeated by Caesar and forced to retreat back across the Rhine and into obscurity.

The battle of the Arar (June 58 BC) was the first significant victory won by Julius Caesar, and marked the unusually late start of his military career

The battle of Vesontio (September 58 B.C.) was the second major victory of Julius Caesar's military career and saw him defeat a large army of Germans led by Ariovistus, a Suebian chief who had crossed the Rhine some years earlier to intervene in a war between Rome's ally's the Aedui and the Sequani.

3 March

The siege of Bellegarde of 6 May-17 September 1794 saw the French recapture this important border fortification in the eastern Pyrenees over a year after it had fallen to the Spanish.

The sieges of Collioure, Saint-Elme and Port-Ventres of 6-29 May 1794 saw the French eliminate the last major Spanish foothold across the eastern Pyrenees at the end of the first year of the War of the Convention.

The battle of San Lorenzo (13 August 1794) was an unsuccessful Spanish attempt to lift the French siege of the important border fortress of Bellegarde.

The battle of Figueras (17-20 November 1794) was the decisive battle in the eastern Pyrenees during the War of the Convention and saw the French smash a Spanish army that was defending the Lines of Figueras, exposing Catalonia to invasion.

2 March

The combat of the bridge of Ceret (26 November 1793) was a Spanish victory on the Eastern Pyrenees front during the War of the Convention that prevented the French from taking advantage of a winter storm that had swept away all but one bridge across the River Tech.

The combat of Collioure (21 December 1793) was a Spanish victory that saw them capture a series of small ports on the French coast and convinced the French army of the Eastern Pyrenees to retreat into winter quarters around Perpignan.

The battle of Le Boulou (30 April-1 May 1794) was a French victory in the eastern Pyrenees that forced the Spanish to retreat back across the border a year after they had first crossed into France.

27 February 2009

The combat of Mont Louis (5 September 1793) was a minor French victory during the War of the Convention that prevented a small French army under General Dagobert from being trapped in the mountains and distracted Spanish attention from the more important fighting around Perpignan.

The combat of Peyrestortes (17 September 1793) was a French victory that ended a short-lived blockade of Perpignan in the early phases of the War of the Convention.

The battle of Truillas (22 September 1793) was a major Spanish victory in the eastern Pyrenees that saw them defeat a French attempt to drive them away from Perpignan and back towards the mountains.

The combat of Espolla, 27 October 1793, was a Spanish victory that ended a poorly conceived French attempt to capture the port of Roses early in the War of the Convention.

26 February 2009

The Rhine and German fronts saw as much fighting as any other during the War of the First Coalition, but they get far less attention than the fighting in the Austrian Netherlands or in Italy.

The battle of Neuwied (18 April 1797) was the only significant fighting during General Hoche's brief time in charge of the Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse, and saw him fight his way out of the French-held bridgehead at Neuwied and force the Austrians to abandon their positions north of the River Lahn.

The battle of Diersheim (20-21 April 1797) was a major French victory won by General Moreau on the Upper Rhine that came two days after Napoleon had successfully negotiated the Preliminary Peace of Leoben, which ended hostilities between France and the Austrian Empire.

The affair of Gruningen of 21 April 1797 was a minor incident during the Austrian retreat after their defeat at Neuwied on 18 April that is remembered because during it General Ney was captured by the Austrians.

The combat of Mas-d'Ru (19 May 1793) was an early Spanish victory during the War of the Convention that saw them defeat a French force that was attempting to defend a position seven miles to the south-west of Perpignan.

The siege of Bellegarde (May-25 June 1793) was an early Spanish success during the War of the Convention which saw them capture the important French border fortress of Bellegarde, on the main road across the eastern Pyrenees from Catalonia to Perpignan.

The battle of Perpignan (17 July 1793) was the first significant Spanish failure during their campaign at the eastern end of the Pyrenees during the War of the Convention.

24 February 2009

The combat of Giessen (16 September 1796) was a diversionary Austrian attack on the left wing of the French position on the Lahn that helped the Archduke Charles fight his way across that river further to the west, at Limburg.

The combat of Limburg (16 September 1796) was an indecisive clash between the Archduke Charles of Austrian and the French right wing on the Lahn under General Marceau. Although Marceau prevented the Archduke from crossing the Lahn, on the night after the battle General Castelvert, on his right, abandoned his position and Marceau was forced to retreat.

The second battle of Altenkirchen (19 September 1796) was actually the final act in a three day long rearguard action in which General Marceau made sure that the Archduke Charles of Austria was unable to interfere with the retreat of General Jourdan and the Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse from the River Lahn to Altenkirchen.

23 February 2009

Lazare Carnot (1753-1832) was the French politician and general most responsible for the creation of the armies that saved the infant French Republic, won the War of the First Coalition and that were used to great effect by Napoleon.

Jacques-Philippe Bonnaud (1757-1796) was a French general of the War of the First Coalition who served with the Army of the North and the Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse, before dying of wounds suffered at the combat of Giessen.

The battle of Amberg (24 August 1796) was a chance for a major Austrian victory that saw the Archduke Charles miss a chance to destroy General Jourdan's Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse.

The combat of Burgebrach (29 August 1796) was a minor engagement during General Jourdan's retreat from Amberg that ended as an Austrian victory, but that also helped Jourdan reach relative safety at Schweinfurt

The battle of Würzburg (3 September 1796) was the biggest victory won by the Archduke Charles in his successful campaign against the French invasion of Germany in 1796, and prevented General Jourdan from making a stand at any significant distance to the east of the Rhine.

19 February 2009

The Battle of Adwa (also called Adowa and Adua) was fought over two days (1st / 2nd March 1896) between Ethiopian forces under Emperor Menelik II and invading Italian forces, and was the deciding battle in the First Italo-Ethiopian war and a turning point in modern African history with a European Colonial power being defeated and Ethiopia being recognised as a sovereign nation state by the European powers

The combat of Forchheim (7 August 1796) was a victory won by General Kléber during his brief period in command of the Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse that forced the Austrian army of General Wartensleben to abandon its position around Forchheim on the River Rednitz and retreat south to Nuremburg.

The combat of Neukirchen (17 August 1796) was an unnecessarily costly clash between General Nay's advance guard and a strong Austrian force that was one of the last French successes during General Jourdan's invasion of Germany in the summer of 1796.

The combat of Augsberg (17 August 1796) was a costly skirmish fought between the advance guard of Championnet's division and a strong Austrian force posted at Augsberg, a small village five miles to the south of what was then the main road between Nuremburg and Amberg.

The combat of Wolfring (20 August 1796) was the last French success during General Jourdan's second invasion of Germany in 1796.

The combat of Deining (22 August 1796) was the first of two delaying actions fought by General Bernadotte which gave General Jourdan and the Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse a chance to escape from a dangerous position on the River Naab.

The combat of Neumarkt (23 August 1796) was the second of two delaying actions fought by General Bernadotte which gave General Jourdan and the Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse a chance to escape from a dangerous position on the River Naab.

18 February 2009

The combat of Wilnsdorf (4 July 1796) was a minor French victory that came shortly after General Jourdan's second crossing of the Rhine in the summer of 1796.

The combat of Offheim (7 July 1796) was a French victory during General Moreau's advance from his bridgehead over the Rhine at Neuwied up to the line of the Lahn.

The combat of Ober-Mörlen (9 July 1796) was a minor French victory during General Jourdan's advance from the Lahn to the Main early in his second campaign in Germany in 1796.

The battle of Freidberg (10 July 1796) was a French victory won fifteen miles to the north of Frankfurt on Main that forced the Austrians to abandon their last positions north of the Nidda and the Main and retreat to Offenbach, on the south bank of the Main.

The combat of Bamberg (4 August 1796) was a rearguard action fought during General Wartensleben's retreat along the Main during General Jourdan's second invasion of Germany in 1796.

17 February 2009

The battle of Emmendingen (19 October 1796) was an Austrian victory that removed any chance that General Moreau's Army of the Rhine-and-Moselle might have been able to retain a foothold on the eastern bank of the Rhine at the end of his retreat from southern Germany.

The battle of Schliengen (24 October 1796) was a generally successful French rearguard action that allowed General Moreau to retreat safely across the Rhine at Huningue.

The siege of Huningue (26 October 1796-5 February 1797) saw the Austrians eliminate the last French foothold on the east bank of the Upper Rhine in the aftermath of the unsuccessful French invasions of Germany in 1796.

The siege of Kehl (28 October 1796-10 January 1797) saw a sizable French garrison defend a strongly fortified camp on the east bank of the Rhine opposite Strasbourg for three months before the camp was evacuated after prolonged Austrian attacks.

16 February 2009

The combat of Kamlach or Mindelheim, 13 August 1796, was a minor victory for the extreme right wing of General Moreau's army during his advance into southern Germany in the summer of 1796.

The battle of Friedberg (24 August 1796) was one of the last major successes during General Moreau's campaign in southern Germany in the summer of 1796, and forced the Austrians under General Latour to abandon the line of the River Lech.

The combat of Langenbruck (1 September 1796) was an unsuccessful Austrian counterattack that came close to the end of General Moreau's successful advance into southern Germany in the summer of 1796.

The combat of Zell (14 September 1796) saw the defeat of a poorly planned Austrian attack on General Moreau's army of the Rhine-and-Moselle just before the start of his retreat across southern Germany in the autumn of 1796.

The combat of Schussenreid (30 September 1796) was a small scale rearguard action fought during General Moreau's retreat from southern Germany after the failure of the French offensive across the Rhine in the summer of 1796.

The battle of Biberach (2 October 1796) was a French victory that resulted from a daring decision by General Moreau to launch a counterattack against an Austrian army that was following him on his retreat from Bavaria in the autumn of 1796.

14 February 2009

The battle of Rastatt (5 July 1796) was a minor French victory during General Moreau's invasion of Germany in the summer of 1796.

The battle of Ettlingen (9 July 1796) was an early French victory during General Moreau's campaign in southern Germany that convinced the Archduke Charles to make a fighting retreat towards the Danube

The combat of Haslach (14 July 1796) was a French victory that pushed the Austrians out of most of their remaining positions in the southern Black Forest in the early stages of General Moreau's invasion of southern Germany.

The combat of Canstadt (21 July 1796) was a minor French victory that forced the Archduke Charles to abandon his position on the Necker and continue his retreat towards the Danube.

The battle of Neresheim (11 August 1796) was a French victory that was the result of a rare error of judgement made by the Archduke Charles during his otherwise victorious campaign in Germany in 1796.

12 February 2009

The combat of Siegburg (1 June 1796) was the first move in the French offensive across the Rhine that was meant to be their main campaign of 1796.

The first battle of Altenkirchen (4 June 1796) an early success during the French invasion of Germany in the summer of 1796, and saw General Kléber force the Austrians to abandon their positions around Altenkirchen and retreat to the Lahn

The battle of Wetzlar (15-16 June 1796) was the first victory won by the Archduke Charles during his successful campaign in Germany in 1796, and forced General Jourdan and the Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse to retreat back across the Rhine.

The combat of Uckerath (19 June 1796) was a hard-fought but unnecessary rear guard action fought by General Kléber during the French retreat after their defeat at Wetzler

The combat of Renchen (26 June 1796) was a minor French victory that helped expand General Moreau's bridgehead across the Rhine in the early stages of his invasion of Germany.

11 February 2009

Jean-Charles Pichegru (1761-1804) was a French general of humble origins who rose to high rank in the armies of the French Republic but who then turned against the Revolution, became a Royalist counter-revolutionary and died after attempting to overthrow Napoleon

The battle of Höchst (11 October 1795) was a manoeuvre battle that forced General Jourdan to abandon his invasion of Germany and retreat back across the Rhine.

The siege of Mannheim of 10 October-22 November 1795 was a result of the failure of the French offensive across the Rhine in the autumn of 1795.

The combat of the Pfrim (10 November 1795) was an Austrian victory that forced General Pichegru to fall back to his last defensive postion north of Mannheim.

The combat of Kreutznach (10 November 1795) was the second of two combats fought in a single day by General Marceau in an attempt to lift the pressure on the isolated Army of the Moselle and the Rhine in the aftermath of the Austrian breakout from Mainz.

The combat of Stromberg (10 November 1795) was a diversionary action fought in the aftermath of the failure of the French invasion of Germany in the autumn of 1795.

The combat of Frankenthal (13-14 November 1795) was an Austrian victory that forced General Pichegru to abandon his last defensive position north of Mannheim and that led to the fall of the city.

10 February 2009

The battle of Kaiserslautern (23 May 1794) was the only Prussian contribution to the Allied campaign of 1794, and was a minor victory that saw them push their front line from the Rhine at Mannheim to Kaiserslautern and the northern end of the Vosges.

The combat of Platzberg and Trippstadt (13-14 July 1794) was a minor French victory in the northern end of the Vosges close to Kaiserslautern.

The combat of Heidelberg (25 September 1795) was an Austrian victory that ended any chance that the French could take advantage of the unexpected surrender of Mannheim five days earlier.

9 February 2009

The battle of Pirmasens (14 September 1793) was a costly defeat for the French on the west bank of the Rhine in the aftermath of the fall of Mainz.

The storm of the lines of Wissembourg (12-13 October 1793) was an Allied victory on the Rhine front late in 1793 that briefly threatened the entire French position in Alsace.

The battle of Kaiserslautern (28-30 November 1793) was a poorly handled French attack on the Prussian army of the Duke of Brunswick that was an inauspicious start to the career of Lazare Hoche as commander of the French Army of the Moselle.

The battle of Froeschwiller (18-22 December 1793) was the first victory won by General Lazare Hoche in his role as Commander of the Army of the Moselle in the autumn of 1793.

The battle of The Geisberg or Wissembourg (26 December 1793) was a French victory that forced the Austrians and Prussians to abandon their last foothold in Alsace.

6 February 2009

Joseph Alvinczy, Freiherr von Berberek (1735-1810) was a successful Austrian commander who is rather unfairly best known for his two failures to lift the siege of Mantua in 1796-97.

Peter Vitus Freiherr von Quosdanovich (1738-1802) was an experienced Austrian general who is best known for his part in the four unsuccessful Austrian attempts to raise the siege of Mantua in 1796-97.

Philipp Freiherr von Vukassovich (1755-1809) was an Austrian general of Croat birth who rose to high rank as a result of his performance during the campaigns in Italy in 1796-7 and 1799. He fell from grace in 1805 but was recalled in 1809 and died leading his brigade at the battle of Wagram

Dagobert Sigismund Graf Würmser (1724-1797) was an Alsatian officer who spent most of his military career in Austrian service, eventually rising to the rank of Field Marshal. He is best known for his two failures to raise Napoleon's siege of Mantua in 1796-97 but before that he had been successful against the French on the Rhine.

5 February 2009

The battle of Verona (26 March 1799) was the first battle of the War of the Second Coalition in Italy, and saw the Austrians repel a French attack on Verona

The battle of Magnano (5 April 1799) was a French defeat early in the War of the Second Coalition that ended any chance of their expelling the Austrians from northern Italy before Russian reinforcements could reach the area.

The battle of Cassano (27 April 1799) was an Austro-Russian victory outside Milan that saw them force their way across the River Adda, making the fall of the city inevitable.

The battle of the Trebbia (17-19 July 1799) was a major Allied victory over the French Army of Rome that further weakened an already poor French position in Italy at the start of the War of the Second Coalition.

4 February 2009

Sometimes known as Iskender Bey, Gjergj Skanderbeg is the national hero of Albania and is also sometimes called the Dragon of Albania.

3 February 2009

Napoleon Bonaparte's fame as a military commander can be dated back to his campaign in Italy in 1796-97, where as the young and relatively unknown commander of a ragged and poorly supported army he managed to defeat a series of much larger Austrian and allied armies, conquer most of northern Italy, and force the Austrians to the negotiating table.

The battle of Rivoli (14 January 1797) was the most comprehensive of Napoleon's victories in Italy during his campaign of 1796-97. At the end of the pursuit that followed the victory the French had captured more than half of an Austrian army of 28,000, despite being significantly outnumbered at the start of the campaign.

The battle of La Favorita (16 January 1797) was a French victory that ended the fourth and final Austrian attempt to lift the siege of Mantua.

The Peace of Bologna (23 June 1796) ended Napoleon's first invasion of the Papal States, carried out to satisfy the French Directory.

The Peace of Tolentino (19 February 1797) ended the second of Napoleon's invasions of the Papal States during his first campaign in Italy.

2 February 2009

The battle of Caldiero (12 November 1796) was a rare French defeat during Napoleons' campaign in Italy in 1796-97, and saw an Austrian army under Field Marshal Joseph Alvinczy repel a French attempt to push them back from the approaches to Verona during the third Austrian attempt to lift the siege of Mantua.

The battle of Arcola (15-17 November 1796) was the decisive battle during Napoleon's defeat of the third Austrian attempt to raise the siege of Mantua, and saw Napoleon extricate himself from a very dangerous position.

30 January 2009

The siege of Mantua (4 June-30 July 1796 and 24 August 1796-2 February 1797) was the focal point of the third phase of Napoleon's campaign in Italy in 1796-97. During the eight month long siege the Austrians made four separate attempts to relief Mantua, each of which ended in failure

The battle of Castiglione (5 August 1796) was a French victory that effectively ended the first Austrian attempt to lift the siege of Mantua, and was an early example of a battle in which Napoleon brought several different columns together on the same battlefield.

The battle of Rovereto (4 September 1796) was a series of scattered engagements between Napoleon's army advancing up the Adige valley on its way to join the Army of the Rhine on the Danube and an Austrian force under Field Marshal Davidovich that was defending the area around Trento.

The battle of Calliano (5 September 1796) was the second of a series of clashes between Napoleon's army advancing along the Adige valley towards Germany and an Austrian covering force under Field Marshal Davidovich that was defending the area around Trento.

The engagement at Lavis (6 September 1796) was a minor clash between one of Napoleon's divisions under General Henri Vaubois and an Austrian army under Field Marshal Davidovich that had been defending the Adige valley.

The battle of Primolano (7 September 1796) was a minor French victory in the valley of the Brenta valley that was the first stage in the defeat of Field Marshal Würmser's second attempt to raise the siege of Mantua.

The battle of Bassano (8 September 1796) was a French victory won at the point where the River Brenta emerged from its mountain valley onto the plains north-west of Venice, and which ended the second Austrian attempt to lift the siege of Mantua.

The battle of San Giorgio (14-15 September 1796) was the disastrous end to the second Austrian attempt to raise the siege of Mantua.

29 January 2009

The battle of Fombio (7-9 May 1796) was a small scale engagement fought as Napoleon's army crossed the River Po.

The battle of Borgetto (30 May 1796) was the final French victory in the second stage of Napoleon's campaign in Italy in 1796-97, and forced the Austrian army of Field Marshal Jean-Pierre Freiherr Beaulieu to retreat into the Tyrol, temporarily abandoning most of northern Italy to the French

The first battle of Lonato (31 July 1796) was an early setback during the first Austrian attempt to lift Napoleon's siege of Mantua.

The second battle of Lonato (3 August 1796) saw the final defeat of one of the three Austrian columns attempting to lift Napoleon's siege of Mantua.

28 January 2009

Marshal Jean Mathiue Philibert Sérurier (1742-1819) was an aristocratic general and survivor of the ancien regime who supported the French Revolution (and survived the experience), before playing an important part in both Napoleon's first victorious campaign in Italy in 1796-7 and his rise to power in 1799.

Amédée Emmanuel François Leharpe was a Swiss émigré who fought in the French Army of Italy at the start of Napoleon's campaign in Italy in 1796-7.

Jean Joseph Guieu (1758-1817) was a French general who played a part in Napoleon's first successful campaign in Italy in 1796-7.

The battle of Lodi (10 May 1796) was a key moment in the career of Napoleon Bonaparte, and a victory that he would later state convinced him that he could achieve great things.

27 January 2009

The battle of Ceva (16 April 1796) was a rare setback for Napoleon during the first stage of his campaign in Italy in 1796.

The battle of Mondovi (19-21 April 1796) was a French victory that saw Napoleon's Army of Italy break out of the Apennines onto the plains of Piedmont, and that convinced King Victor Amadeus to seek peace

The Armistice of Cherasco (28 April 1796) was Napoleon Bonaparte's first diplomatic success, and saw Piedmont leave the First Coalition.

Michael Freiherr von Colli-Marchini (1738-1808) was an Austrian general best known for his unsuccessful period in command of the army of Sardinia (Piedmont) during Napoleon's first campaign in Italy in 1796.

Barthélemy Catherine Joubert (1769-1799) was one of the most successful French generals during the Wars of the French Revolution, and a good example of someone who rose more rapidly through the ranks than would have been possible before the revolution.

26 January 2009

The battle of Montenotte (11-12 April 1796) was the first of a series of remarkable victories in northern Italy that firmly established Napoleon Bonaparte as one of the most important figures in revolutionary France.

The battle of Millesimo (13-14 April 1796) was a minor French victory during Napoleon Bonaparte's first campaign in Italy in the spring of 1796, and saw a French force under General Augereau eventually overcome Piedmontese resistance at Millesimo and Cosseria.

The two day long battle of Dego (14-15 April 1796) was the decisive moment in the first stage of Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in Italy in 1796.

22 January 2009

Adam Philippe, comte de Custine (1704-1793) was one of a number of early French commanders during the War of the First Coalition to be executed for treason as a result of military failures.

Jean Nicholas Houchard was one of a series of French generals who were executed for their military failures during the Revolutionary terror, in his case despite having recently successfully raised the siege of Dunkirk.

The siege of Nieuport (4-18 July 1794) was one of the more controversial events during the Allied retreat from Belgium into the Netherlands after the French victory at Fleurus (26 June)

The siege of Sluys (or L'Ecluse) of 28 July-25 August 1794 was an early step in the French conquest of the Netherlands in the aftermath of the collapse of the Allied position in Belgium (War of the First Coalition).

The battle of Boxtel (14-15 September 1794) was a minor incident during the Allied retreat from Belgium after the battle of Fleurus that is chiefly remembered for being the first time Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington, came under fire.

21 January 2009

Franz Sebastian de Croix, Graf von Clerfayt (1733-98) was a senior Austrian general in the early years of the War of the First Coalition, and fought through the entire campaign in the Austrian Netherlands in 1792-94, before defeating a French offensive across the Rhine in 1795.

The battle of the Ourthe (18 September 1794) was the first of two battles that forced the Austrians to abandon their last foothold in the Austrian Netherlands and retreat behind the Rhine.

The battle of the Roer (2 October 1794) was the second of two battles that forced the Austrians to abandon their last foothold in the Austrian Netherlands and retreat to the line of the Rhine.

The siege of Maastricht of 19 September-4 November 1794 saw the French capture one of the last Austrian-held strongholds close to the Austrian Netherlands, completing the French conquest of the area.

20 January 2009

The three sieges of Charleroi between 30 May and 25 June 1794 were at the heart of the French offensive on the Sambre in the summer of 1794, and the defeat of an Allied relief army at Fleurus on 26 June was the decisive moment of the entire two year long campaign in the Austrian Netherlands.

The battle of Fleurus (26 June 1794) was the decisive battle in the two year long campaign in the Austrian Netherlands between the forces of revolutionary France and the powers of the First Coalition.

19 January 2009

The battle of Willems (10 May 1794) was an unsuccessful French attempt to continue their offensive in western Flanders, which had begun successfully with the capture of Menin and a victory over the Austrians at Mouscron (29 April).

The battle of Courtrai (11 May 1794) was a minor French victory over the Austrian army in western Flanders that forced the main Allied army to move west in an attempt to restore the situation, and thus led directly to the French victory at Tourcoing (17-18 May).

The battle of Tourcoing (17-18 May 1794) saw the failure of an over elaborate Allied plan designed by General Mack to annihilate the French Armée-du-Nord.

The battle of Tournai (22 May 1794) was an unsuccessful French attempt to take advantage of their victory at Tourcoing on 17-18 May.

16 January 2009

The siege of Maubeuge (mid September-17 October 1793) ended a series of Allied successes against the French border fortifications, and was raised by the great French victory at Wattignies on 15-16 October which demonstrated that the new revolutionary armies were becoming increasingly capable.

The battle of Wattignies (15-16 October 1793) was a French victory that forced the Allies to lift the siege of Maubeuge, and removed the threat of an immediate Allied invasion of France.

The siege of Landrecies (17-30 April 1794) was the first Allied operation of 1794 in northern France (War of the First Coalition). Although the siege was successful, it did nothing to advance the Allied cause, which was soon threatened by a powerful French offensive further west in maritime Flanders

The battle of Villers-en-Cauchies (24 April 1794) saw a small force of Austrian and British cavalry break up a much larger French force that was moving into a position from where it could threaten the Allied army besieging Landrecies (War of the First Coalition).

The battle of Landrecies or Beaumont-en-Cambresis (26 April 1794) saw the defeat of a major French attempt to lift the siege of Landrecies, the first Allied offensive action on the Flanders front in 1794 (War of the First Coalition).

The siege of Menin (27-30 April 1794) was an early French victory during their campaign in maritime Flanders in the spring of 1794.

The battle of Mouscron (29 April 1794) was the first significant French victory during their attack into western Belgium at the start of 1794, the campaign that would eventually expel the Allies from the former Austrian Netherlands.

15 January 2009

The siege of Quesnoy (19 August-11 September 1793) was the last of a series of successful Allied sieges on the northern border of France in the summer of 1793 that saw the French lose control of a number of key border fortifications, but at the same time gave them the time to raise new mass armies, and which did little to advance the Allied cause

The battle of Avesnes-le-Sec (12 September 1793) saw a sizable French infantry column virtually destroyed by an Austrian cavalry attack, and demonstrated that the new conscripted French infantry could still be vulnerable.

The battle of Menin of 15 September 1793 was an Austrian victory over the French army of General Houchard that helped to restore the Allied position in Belgium after the French victories at Hondschoote (6-8 September 1793) and two days earlier over the same ground at Menin (13 September 1793).

The siege of Nieuport (22-29 October 1793) was an unsuccessful French attempt to capture the channel ports being used by the British Army in Belgium in 1793, and came in the aftermath of the French victory at Wattignies on 15-16 October

14 January 2009

The battle of Famars or Valenciennes, 23 May 1793, was an Allied victory on the borders of France which prepared the way for the siege of Valenciennes.

The siege of Valenciennes of 24 May-28 July 1793 was one of the last Allied successes in the campaign on the borders of France during the summer of 1793, but the slow pace of the siege gave the French time to recover from the disasters of the spring, and the year ended with a series of French victories.

The siege of Dunkirk (23 August-8 September 1793) was a British failure that demonstrated the poor condition of the British army at the start of the War of the First Coalition, and marked the beginning of a period of French success in Belgium and northern France

The battle of Hondschoote (8 September 1793) was a victory for the new mass armies of the French Republic, and forced an Allied army under the Duke of York to abandon the siege of Dunkirk.

The battle of Menin (13 September 1793) was a second victory in five days for the French army of General Houchard, and saw the French defeat the Dutch army under William V, prince of Orange, briefly knocking them out of the war.

13 January 2009

Auguste Marie Henri Picot, comte de Dampierre, was one of the more successful aristocratic generals of the French Revolutionary Wars, combining military ability with a dedication to the revolution.

The siege of Condé of April-10 July 1793 was part of an overly cautious Allied campaign on the borders of France in the spring and summer of 1793 that gave the French a chance to recover from the disasters that had befallen their armies earlier in the spring

The battle of Condé or St. Amand, 8 May 1793, was an unsuccessful French attempt to lift the Allied siege of Condé-sur-l'Escaut, and ended with the death of the French commander, General Auguste Picot, comte de Dampierre.

The siege of Mainz of 19-21 October 1792 was the first of three sieges of the city in as many years, and saw the French win an easy victory during their first Rhineland campaign in 1792.

The siege of Mainz of 14 April-23 July 1793 saw a Prussian army recapture this key city on the west bank of the Rhine, which had fallen into French hands after a three day long siege in 1792.

The siege of Mainz of 14 December 1794-29 October 1795 was an unsuccessful French attempt to recapture a city which they had briefly held between October 1792, when it had fallen after a three day siege, and 23 July 1793, when the starving defenders had surrendered to the Prussians.

12 January 2009

Charles François Dumouriez was an important French military commander and politician in the early phases of the French Revolution and the War of the First Coalition, winning crucial victories at Valmy and Jemappes

The siege of Maastricht of 23 February-3 March 1793 was the first step in the southern half of General Dumoiriez's planned invasion of the Netherlands, but ended in failure after the Austrians launched a counterattack across the Roer on 1 March.

The battle of Aldenhoven, 1 March 1793, was the first success during the Austrian counterattack in Belgium in the spring of 1793 which saw them temporarily drive the French out of their conquests of 1792.

The battle of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) of 2 March 1793 was the second of two defeats that destroyed the French position in southern Belgium, and forced them to abandon their first siege of Maastricht.

The battle of Neerwinden, 18 March 1793, was a major Austrian victory over the armies of Revolutionary France that helped to temporarily expel the French from the Austrian Netherlands, and caused the downfall of General Charles Dumouriez, the victor of Jemappes.

9 January 2009

The siege of Lille of 29 September-7 October 1792 was the main Austrian contribution to the Allied invasion of France at the start of the War of the First Coalition, but ended in failure after news of the French victory at Valmy (20 September) forced the Austrians to retreat.

The battle of Jemappes, 6 November 1792, was the first major offensive battlefield victory for the armies of the infant French Republic, and saw the French Armée du Nord, containing a large number of new volunteer soldiers, defeat a regular Austrian army and capture Brussels.

8 January 2009

The minor battle of Baisieux of 29 April 1792 was the first battle of the War of the First Coalition, and marked the start of twenty three years of warfare. It came only nine days after the French had declared war on Austria on 20 April, and ended in a humiliating defeat for the armies of revolutionary France.

The siege of Longwy (20-23 August 1792) was the first military success during the Austrian and Prussian invasion of France at the start of the War of the First Coalition.

The siege of Verdun (29 August-2 September 1792) was the second and last military success during the Austrian and Prussian invasion of France at the start of the War of the First Coalition.

The battle of Valmy, 20 September 1792, was the first major battle of the War of the First Coalition, and saved the infant French Republic from early destruction.

Go to updates from: January 2015 onwards2014201320122011July-December 2010January-June 2010June-December 2009 January-June 20092008October-December 2007 July-September 2007January-June 200720062005