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30 December

The Vultee Aircraft Corporation was a short-lived company, originally formed as a subsidiary of the Cord Corporation in 1932. It became an independent company in 1939, but merged with Consolidated in January 1943 to form Consolidated-Vultee, or Convair.

The Vultee Vengeance was a dive bomber originally purchased by the French, and that entered production for the RAF, but that didn't reach service until the concept of the dedicated dive-bomber had been discredited

The Vultee Vengeance dive-bomber was produced in large numbers for the RAF, but was virtually obsolete by the time it entered service, and only served in the Far East

The Royal Australian Air Force was the second most important operator of the Vultee Vengeance dive-bomber, receiving a large number of aircraft both from British orders and directly from the United States, and using it in combat over New Guinea.

The Vultee A-31 Vengeance was the designation given to early Vengeance dive-bombers produced on lend-lease orders, which required all military equipment to have an official American designation.

The Vultee A-35 Vengeance was the designation given to the last 930 Vengeances, armed with the standard American 0.50in machine guns instead of the 0.30in guns used on the A-31 Vengeance.

21 December

The Hawk 75 was the first modern monoplane fighter to be designed by Curtiss, coming after a long series of successful Hawk biplanes. It entered American service as the P-36, the first modern monoplane fighter to be used in large numbers by the Army Air Corps, but it earned most fame with the French Armée de l'Air, where as the Hawk 75 it was the most successful fighter during the Battle of France

The Curtiss Hawk 75A-C1 was the designation given to around 266 Curtiss Model 75s that formed the most effective part of the French fighter forces during the German invasion of 1940.

The Curtiss Model H75A was the main export version of the P-36/ Hawk 75, and saw extensive service with the French Armée de l'Air in 1940, as well as serving with the RAF and SAAF as the Mohawk, and in China, Argentina, Norway, the Netherlands and Finland.

The Curtiss Model 75H was a simplified version of the Hawk 75 built with a fixed undercarriage and designed for export to smaller powers

The Curtiss Model 75J was the designation given to a single demonstrator aircraft when it was equipped with an external mechanical supercharger

The Curtiss Model 75K was a study for a version of the Hawk 75/ P-36 that was to have been powered by a 910hp Pratt & Whitney R-2180 Twin Hornet. None were built.

The Curtiss Model 75M was a version of the Hawk 75 with a fixed undercarriage, thirty of which were produced by Curtiss and another 82 in China.

Twelve Curtiss Model H75Ns were ordered by Siam (Thailand). These were similar to the Model 75Ms produced in China, with a non-retractable undercarriage and powered by an R-1830 Cyclone engine

The Curtiss Model H75O was a version of the Hawk 75 produced for Argentina

The Curtiss Model 75Q was the designation given to two demonstrator machines similar to the earlier Model 75H, with a fixed undercarriage and the same Wright R-1820 Cyclone engine

The Curtiss Model 75R was the third designation given to a Curtiss-owned Hawk that was used to test external superchargers

The Curtiss Mohawk I was the designation given to a small number of Hawk H75A-1s that escaped to Britain after the German victory in France

The Curtiss Mohawk II was the designation given to a small number of Hawk H75A-2s that escaped from France to Britain after the German victory in June 1940

The Curtiss Mohawk III was the designation given to twenty Hawk H75A-3s originally ordered by France but taken over by the RAF after the fall of France.

The Curtiss Mohawk IV was the most numerous version of the Hawk 75 to enter RAF service, and saw front line service with the RAF in India and with the South Africa Air Force in East Africa.

The Curtiss P-36A was the main US Army Air Corps version of the Curtiss Model 75

The designation Curtiss P-36B was temporarily given to a single P-36A that was used to test 8:1 supercharger gearing

The Curtiss P-36C was the second and final production version of the P-36C built for the US Army Air Corps

The Curtiss XP-36D was the designation given to P-36A 38-174 early in 1939 when it was armed with two 0.30in machine guns in each wing, in the same way as in the French H75A-2s

The Curtiss XP-36E was a single P-36A (38-147) that was given the heaviest armament carried by any American version of the aircraft

The Curtis XP-36F was a single P-36A (38-172) that had a 23mm Madsen cannon mounted under each wing

The Curtiss P-36G was the designation given to thirty Hawk H75A-8s ordered by Norway just before the German invasion of 1940

The Curtiss XP-42 was an experimental version of the P-36 that was developed in an attempt to reduce the drag caused by radial engines.

9 December

The Henschel Hs 122 was a tactical reconnaissance aircraft developed to replace the Heinkel He 46, and which became the basis of the Henschel Hs 126

The Henschel Hs 126 was the Luftwaffe's main short range reconnaissance aircraft in the early years of the Second World War, taking part in the invasion of Poland, the campaign in the west in 1940 and the first year of the invasion of the Soviet Union.

The Henschel Hs 128 was a dedicated high-altitude and supercharger research aircraft that made its maiden flight just before the start of the Second World War.

The Henschel Hs 130 was a high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft developed from the experimental Hs 128

The Henschel Hs 123 was the second dive-bomber to be used by the Luftwaffe, replacing the Heinkel He 50, before being replaced by the famous Ju 87.

The Henschel Hs 129 was a dedicated ground attack aircraft, and a capable 'tank killer', but was never available in large enough numbers to have any significant impact

The Henschel P.76 was a design for a larger version of the Hs 129A that would have solved some of that aircraft's main problems

The Henschel Hs 117 'Schmetterling' (Butterfly) was a ground-to-air guided missile that almost entered service in the last days of the Third Reich.

The Henschel Hs 297 was the original designation given to a Henschel proposal for an air-to-ground missile made in 1941

The Henschel Hs 296 was a guided missile that used elements from three earlier Henschel missiles

4 December

The siege of Saticula (316-315 BC) was a Roman success that marked the resumption of hostilities in the Second Samnite War after a short period of truce.

The two sieges of Plistica of 316-315 and 315 BC saw a Samnite army make two attempts to capture the city, which was allied with Rome, eventually taking it by assault.

The battle of Lautulae (315 BC) was the second major Samnite victory during the Second Samnite War, but one that didn't produce any long term advantage

The siege of Sora (315 and 315-314 BC) saw the Romans recapture the city after a pro-Samnite revolt (Second Samnite War)

The battle of Tarracina of 314 BC was a Roman victory that restored the situation after the Samnite victory at Lautulae in the previous year, and that eliminated a Samnite threat to Latium

The siege of Bovianum of 314-313 BC was a short-lived  Roman attempt to take advantage of their victory at Tarracina in 314

The Etruscan War of 311/10-308 BC was a short conflict between Rome and some of the inland Etruscan cities that for a brief period saw Rome facing a war on two fronts, against the Etruscans to the north and the Samnites to the south.

The siege of Sutrium of 311/10-310/9 BC saw the first fighting in the brief Etruscan War of 311/10-308 BC, and saw the Etruscans fail in their attempt to capture this key border city

The battle of Perusia, 310/309 BC, was a Roman victory that forced several key Etruscan cities to make peace with Rome (Etruscan War, 311/308 BC)

The battle of Lake Vadimo (310 BC) was a major Roman victory that broke the power of the Etruscan cities involved in the short Etruscan War of 311/10-308

The battle of Mevania, 308 BC, was a final Roman victory in the Etruscan War, although it was fought against the Umbrians

2 December

No.94 Squadron spent the Second World War serving as a fighter squadron based in and around the eastern Mediterranean.

No.95 Squadron was formed in 1941 to operate the Short Sunderland flying boat from bases in West Africa, where it remained until the end of the war.

No.100 Squadron went through two very different incarnations during the Second World War, first as a torpedo bomber equipped with the obsolete Vickers Vildebeest, and then as a Lancaster squadron with Bomber Command.

No.111 Squadron was the first RAF squadron to receive the Hawker Hurricane, and served as a fighter squadron throughout the Second World War, taking part in the campaign in France in 1940, the Battle of Britain, Operation Torch and the invasions of Italy and the south of France.

No.112 Squadron served as a fighter squadron during the Second World War, first as a Gladiator equipped squadron in North Africa and Greece, then as a Tomahawk and Kittyhawk squadron in North Africa, Sicily and Italy, and finally as a Mustang squadron.

1 December

The Heinkel He 59 was a large twin-engined biplane floatplane that had been designed in 1930 to serve as either a bomber or reconnaissance aircraft, and that saw some limited service at the start of the Second World War.

The Heinkel He 60 was a sturdy single-engined twin-float biplane that was used as coastal and marine reconnaissance aircraft, as well as operating from German battleships and cruisers.

The Heinkel He 114 was a disappointing single engined biplane floatplane designed to replace the Heinkel He 60 as a shipboard reconnaissance aircraft.

The Heinkel He 115 was the most successful German floatplane of the Second World War, and served as a reconnaissance and attack aircraft.

27 November

On 27 August 1939 the Heinkel He 178 became the first aircraft to take to the skies powered entirely by a turbojet engine, twenty months before the first flight by a British jet aircraft.

The Heinkel He 162 Spatz, better known as the Volksjäger, or People's Fighter, was a single-engined jet fighter went from a basic design to its maiden flight in three months at the end of 1944, but that had barely entered service before the end of the Second World War.

The Heinkel He 280 was the first jet powered fighter aircraft to take to the skies, although it never entered mass production

The Roman siege of Neapolis (Naples) of 327-326 BC was the first fighting in what developed into the Second Samnite War (327-304 BC).

The battle of Imbrinium (325 BC) was an early Roman victory in the Second Samnite War most famous for a violent dispute between the Dictator L. Papirius Cursor and his Master of the Horse. 

According to Livy the Romans won a significant battlefield victory in Samnium during 322 BC (Second Samnite War), at an unnamed location, and with either a specially appointed Dictator or the consuls for the year in command.

The battle of the Caudine Forks (321 BC) was a humiliating defeat inflicted on the Romans by a Samnite army in the Apennine Mountains (Second Samnite War).

23 November

The Heinkel He 65 was a short-lived design for a high speed passenger aircraft that was abandoned in favour of the He 70

The Heinkel He 70 was designed as a high-speed four seat passenger aircraft, and with its streamlined fuselage and elliptical wings was a forerunner of  many later Heinkel military aircraft, not least the He 111, early versions of which used a very similar wing

The Heinkel He 170 was an export version of the military version of the high speed He 70, originally designed as a prestige airline for Lufthansa.

The sole Heinkel He 270 was a final attempt to produce a useful military version of the fast He 70 passenger aircraft

The Heinkel He 119 was an unusual twin-engined high speed reconnaissance and bomber aircraft that used a pair of engines to power a single propeller

20 November

The Heinkel He 45 was a biplane developed as a bomber in the period before Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, but that entered service as a reconnaissance aircraft in the newly public Luftwaffe.

The Heinkel He 46 was a short-range reconnaissance and army co-operation aircraft that was designed as a biplane but entered service as a parasol wing monoplane

The Heinkel He 49 was the designation given to the first three prototypes of the aircraft that entered service as the Heinkel He 51, the first fighter aircraft to be used by the Luftwaffe after its official formation in April 1935.

The Heinkel He 50 was a biplane dive bomber developed for the Japanese Navy before being taken up by the Luftwaffe

The Heinkel He 51 was the first fighter aircraft to be used by the Luftwaffe after its official formation in April 1935

The Heinkel He 52 was a high-altitude version of the He 51, the first fighter aircraft to serve with the new Luftwaffe after its official formation

The Heinkel He 66 was the designation given to a small number of Heinkel He 50 dive-bombers produced for export to Japan and China

18 November

The Latin War of 340-338 BC was a major step in the road that led to Roman control of the Italian peninsula, and that saw a major change in the relationship between the Roman republic and her former Latin allies.

The battle of Veseris (or Vesuvius) of 340 BC was the first major battle of the Latin War of 340-338 BC and was a Roman victory made famous by the execution of the young Manlius Torquatus by his father, the consul Manlius Torquatus and the self-sacrifice of the consul Decius Mus.

The battle of Trifanum (340 BC) was a Roman victory that ended the Campanian phase of the Latin War of 340-338 BC.

The battle of the Fenectane Plains (339 BC) was a Roman victory in the second year of the Latin War of 340-338 BC

The battle of Astura was one of two Roman victories during 338 BC that ended the Latin War of 340-338 BC

The battle of Pedum (338 BC) was the decisive battle of the Latin War of 340-338BC and saw the Romans defeat a Latin army sent to protect Pedum and capture the city in the same day

16 November

The First Samnite War (343-341 BC) was the first of three clashes between Rome and the Samnite hill tribes, and ended in a Roman victory that saw the Republic begin to expand into Campania.

The battle and siege of Capua of 343 B.C. triggered the First Samnite War (343-341 B.C.), the first of three wars between Rome and the Samnites.

The battle of Mount Gaurus, 343 B.C., was the opening battle of the First Samnite War (343-341 B.C.), and was a hard fought Roman victory.

The battle of Saticula (343 B.C.) was a Roman victory that saw a rare example of the Roman army fighting at night in an attempt to avoid a disaster.

The battle of Suessula (343 B.C.) was the final major clash during the First Samnite War (343-341 B.C.), and was a major Roman victory

We also open a picture gallery devoted to the Anglo-Dutch Wars

14 November

The Junkers Ju 60 was a single engined transport aircraft produced in 1932 that was the precursor of the Ju 160, which saw use with the Luftwaffe during the Second World War.

The Junkers Ju 89 was a long range bomber that was developed in 1935-36, part of an early German attempt to develop a strategic bomber force that was abandoned early in 1937.

The Junkers Ju 90 was a four engined transport aircraft that was developed from the Ju 89 heavy bomber

The Junkers Ju 160 was a single engined transport aircraft developed from the Ju 60 and that same service with the Luftwaffe during the Second World War.

The Junkers Ju 252 was one of a number of aircraft designed in an attempt to replace the aging Ju 52/3m, but only a small number were produced, and for most of the Second World War the Luftwaffe was left without a modern transport aircraft.

The Junkers Ju 287 was a revolutionary design for a fast jet bomber with swept-forward wings that flew in prototype before the end of the Second World War.

The Junkers Ju 322 Mammut (Mammoth) was a massive all-wooden glider built to the same specifications as the more successful Messerschmitt Me 321.

The Junkers Ju 352 Herkules was a wooden version of the Ju 252 transport aircraft, itself developed in an attempt to replace the Ju 52/3m.

The Junkers Ju 390 was one of three long-range bombers designed to bomb New York from bases in Europe, and on one test flight actually reached within 12 miles of the city.

12 November

The Junkers Ju 86 was a disappoint medium bomber developed at the same time as the Heinkel He 111, and that had been phased out of front line service by the start of the Second World War

The Junkers Ju 86A was the first production version of the Ju 86 medium bomber, but suffered from poor stability and was soon replaced by the Ju 86B.

The Junkers Ju 86B was the designation given to civil versions of the Ju 86 medium bomber that were intended for the German market

The Junkers Ju 86C was a civil version of the Ju 86 that was given the same 42cm fin at the back of the fuselage as the Ju 86D bomber

The Junkers Ju 86D was the second production version of the Ju 86 bomber and differed from the Ju 86A mainly in having a 42cm extension at the rear of the fuselage.

The Junkers Ju 86E was the first military version of the Ju 86 to be powered by BMW radial engines in place of the diesel engines of earlier versions

The Junkers Ju 86G was the final version of the aircraft to be produced as a standard medium bomber, and was given a new nose that greatly improved visibility from the cockpit.

The Junkers Ju 86K was the designation given to the export version of the Ju 86 bomber. At lease eight different versions were produced, and were sold to Sweden, South Africa, Hungary, Austria, Chile, Portugal and Bolivia

The Junkers Ju 86P was a high altitude bomber and reconnaissance aircraft that gave an extra lease of life to the otherwise unsuccessful Ju 86 medium bomber.

The Junkers Ju 86R was an improved version of the Ju 86P high altitude bomber and reconnaissance aircraft, capable of reaching 14,800m (48,500), an increase in service ceiling of 10,000ft over the earlier aircraft.

The Junkers Ju 86Z was the designation given to civil versions of the Ju 86 built for the export market. It was produced in at least five versions, including one that was later used against the Axis powered by the South Africa Air Force.

The Junkers Ju 186 was a design for a high-altitude research plane based on the Ju 86 bomber

The Junkers Ju 286 was to have been a six engined high-altitude bomber based on the Ju 86

9 November

No.1 Squadron, IAF, was the only squadron of the Indian Air Force to be formed before the outbreak of the Second World War, and served as an army co-operation squadron and then a fighter-bomber squadron over Burma.

No.2 Squadron, IAF, was an army co-operation and reconnaissance squadron that saw a short period of front line service over Burma between December 1944 and May 1945.

No.3 Squadron, IAF, served on the North West Frontier for most of the Second World War, only spending two months early in 1945 operating over Burma.

No.4 Squadron, IAF, served as a fighter-bomber squadron over Burma between April 1944 and April 1945, before taking part in the Allied occupation of Japan.

No.6 Squadron, IAF, served as a tactical reconnaissance and ground-attack squadron for five months over the winter of 1943-44, before moving to the North West Frontier for the rest of the war.

No.7 Squadron, IAF, served as a ground attack squadron over Burma between July 1944 and May 1945, first with the Vultee Vengeance and later with the Hawker Hurricane.

No.8 Squadron, IAF, served over Burma from December 1943 until the end of the war, first as a dive-bomber squadron, and then from January 1945 as a Spitfire equipped fighter squadron.

No.9 Squadron, IAF, was a fighter-bomber squadron that took part in the campaign in Burma between April 1944 and April 1945.

No.10 Squadron, IAF, was a ground-attack squadron that served in Burma from December 1944 until July 1945.

No.12 Squadron, RIAF, was a post-war fighter squadron that became a transport squadron before Indian independence.

No.101 Squadron, IAF, was a short-lived coastal defence squadron, formed in April 1942 and disbanded in November.

No.104 Squadron, IAF, was a coastal patrol squadron that operated over the Indian Ocean from April-June 1942.

5 November

No.27 Squadron, S.A.A.F., served as a coastal reconnaissance unit from South Africa, before moving to Algeria during 1944 to fly anti-submarime patrols.

No.28 Squadron, S.A.A.F., was a transport squadron that served in the Mediterranean from its formation in 1943 until the autumn of 1945.

No.30 Squadron, S.A.A.F., was a medium bomber squadron that operated in Italy from August 1944 until the end of the Second World War.

No.31 Squadron, S.A.A.F., was a heavy bomber squadron that operated from bases in the Mediterranean from its formation in 1944 until the end of the war.

No.34 Squadron, S.A.A.F., was a heavy bomber unit that operated from Italy from July 1944 until the end of the Second World War.

No.40 Squadron, S.A.A.F., was first formed as an army co-operation squadron, but spent most of the Second World War serving as a tactical reconnaissance unit equipped with single engined fighters.

No.41 Squadron, S.A.A.F., was formed as an army co-operation squadron during 1940, serving in East Africa, then spent most of 1943-44 operating as a fighter unit in the eastern Mediterranean.

No.44 Squadron, S.A.A.F., was a a transport squadron that operated in the Mediterranean from July 1944 until the end of 1945.

No.60 Squadron, S.A.A.F., was a photographic survey and reconnaissance squadron that operated in East Africa and the Mediterranean.

4 November

No.21 Squadron, S.A.A.F., was a medium bomber squadron that operated the Maryland, Baltimore and Marauder bombers in North Africa, Sicily and Italy.

No.22 Squadron, S.A.A.F., was a maritime patrol squadron that spent most of its existence operating from South Africa before moving to Gibraltar in June 1944.

No.24 Squadron, S.A.A.F., was a medium bomber squadron that operated in the Western Desert, Sicily and over Italy between 1941 and the end of the Second World War.

No.25 Squadron, SAAF, was formed as a coastal reconnaissance unit, and spent two years patrolling off the South African Coast, before moving to the Mediterranean, where it joined the Balkan Air Force.

No.26 Squadron, S.A.A.F., was an Wellington equipped reconnaissance unit that flew anti-submarine patrols from West Africa from 1943 until the end of the war.

2 November

No.9 Squadron, S.A.A.F., was a short-lived fighter squadron that spend its entire existence in the Eastern Mediterranean.

No.10 Squadron, S.A.A.F., was a fighter squadron that operated in Egypt and Libya for a short period during 1944.

No.11 Squadron, S.A.A.F. went through two incarnations during the Second World War, first as an army co-operation squadron in East Africa, and later as a Spitfire-equipped fighter squadron in the Eastern Mediterranean.

No.12 Squadron, S.A.A.F., spent most of the Second World War operating as a bomber squadron, first in Italian East Africa, and then in North Africa, Sicily and Italy.

No.15 Squadron, S.A.A.F., was a bomber squadron that served in East Africa, North Africa, as an anti-shipping and submarine unit over the Aegean and as a day bomber squadron in Italy.

No.16 Squadron, S.A.A.F., went through three incarnations during the Second First World, first as a coastal reconnaissance unit, then as a bomber unit in East Africa and finally as a maritime patrol squadron in the Mediterranean.

No.17 Squadron, S.A.A.F., went through two incarnations during the Second World War - a short-lived period as a transport squadron in 1939 and a longer period as a maritime patrol squadron.

No.19 Squadron, S.A.A.F., had two short incarnations during the Second World War, first as a transport squadron in 1939 and later as a ground attack squadron operating over the Balkans.

31 October

No.4 Squadron (S.A.A.F.) operated as a fighter-bomber squadron, taking part in the desert battles between Operation Crusader and El Alamein, the advance into Tunisia, and the invasions of Sicily and Italy.

No.5 Squadron (S.A.A.F.) was a fighter squadron that took part in the fighting in North Africa in 1942 and early 1943, the invasion of mainland Italy and took part in raids over the Balkans.

No.7 Squadron (S.A.A.F.) was a fighter squadron that took part in the fighting in North Africa from the summer of 1942 until the German surrender in Tunisia, then served in the eastern Mediterranean before moving to Italy in the spring 1944.

30 October

No.1 Squadron (S.A.A.F.) took part in the campaigns in East Africa, North Africa, Sicily and Italy, most of the time providing escorts for Allied bombers.

No.2 Squadron (S.A.A.F.) was a fighter squadron that served in East Africa, North Africa and Italy, sometimes providing fighter support for the Allied armies, but more often operating as a fighter-bomber squadron.

No.3 Squadron (S.A.A.F.) was a fighter squadron that took part in the fighting in East Africa and in Italy, after arriving in North Africa just as the fighting there came to an end.

9 October

The First Gallic Invasion of Italy of 390 B.C. was a pivotal event in the history of the Roman Republic and saw the city occupied and sacked for the last time in eight hundred years.

The battle of the Allia (18 July 390 B.C.) was one of the most embarrassing defeats in Roman history, and left the city defenceless in the face of a Gallic war band.

The sack of Rome (390 B.C.) was the worst recorded disaster in the history of the early Roman Republic, and saw a Gallic war band led by Brennus capture and sack most of the city, after winning an easy victory on the Allia

The battle of the Trausian Plain (c.390-384 B.C.) probably saw an Etruscan army from the city of Caere defeat all or part of the Gallic war band that was responsible for the sack of Rome

6 October

The battle of Lake Regillus (499 or 496 BC) was a narrow Roman victory over the Latin League early in the life of the Republic that helped to prevent the last of the kings of Rome from regaining his throne.

The First Veientine War (483-474 B.C.) was the first of three clashes between Rome and her nearest Etruscan neighbour, the city of Veii.

The Second Veientine War (437-434 or 428-425 B.C.) was fought for control of the crossing over the Tiber at Fidenae, five miles upstream from Rome.

The battle of the Anio (437 or 428 B.C.) was a Roman victory early in the Second Veientine War that was won after Lars Tolumnius, king of Veii, was killed in single combat

The battle of Nomentum (435 or 426 B.C.) was a Roman victory over a combined army from Veii and Fidenae that was followed by a successful Roman attack on Fidenae, and possibly by the end of the Second Veientine War.

The siege of Fidenae (435 or 426 B.C.) saw the Romans capture the town only five miles upstream on the Tiber and eliminate the last Veientine enclave on the right bank of the Tiber.

The Third Veientine War (405-396 B.C.) saw the Roman Republic finally capture and destroy their closest rival, the Etruscan city of Veii, after a siege that lasted for ten years

The ten year long siege of Veii (405-396 B.C.) was the main event of the Third Veientine War and saw the Romans finally conquer their nearest rival, the Etruscan city of Veii.

2 October

The Breguet 690 was a three-seat twin-engined fighter produced in response to a French Air Ministry specification of 1934 but that entered produced as the Br 691 two-seat attack bomber.

The Breguet 691 AB2 was a two-seat attack bomber developed from the Br 690 twin engined fighter

The Breguet 692 AB2 was the designation given to a version of the Breguet 693 two-seat attack bomber that would have been powered by two 980hp Gnôme & Rhône 14N radial engines.

The Breguet 693 AB2 two-seat attack bomber was one of the newer aircraft designs to be in service with the French Armée de l'Air during the Battle of France of 1940, and was a re-engined version of the Br 691

The Breguet 694 was a three-seat reconnaissance aircraft based on the Br 693 two-seat attack bomber

The Breguet 695 was a version of the Br 691/603 two-seat attack bomber that was powered by two Pratt & Whitney engines in an attempt to make up for a shortage of French built aircraft engines during pre-war attempts to increase the strength of the Armée de l'Air

The Breguet 696 was a two-seat bomber based on the Br 693 two-seat attack bomber

The Breguet 697 was the designation given to a standard Br 691 attack bomber given more powerful engines in an attempt to prove that the aircraft could be used as a heavy fighter

The Breguet 698 Bp2 was the designation given to a design for a dive bomber based on the Br 691 two-seat attack bomber

The Breguet 699 B2 was the designation given to a bomber version of the Br 693 two-seat attack bomber that would have been powered by two 825hp Pratt & Whitney SB4G radial engines

The Breguet 700 C2 (Destroyer) was the designation given to a heavy fighter that would have been based on the Br 691 two-seat attack bomber, which had itself been developed from the Br 690 twin-engined fighter

30 September

The Bloch MB.200 was a twin-engined day bomber that entered service with the Armée d l'Air in 1934, and was still in use in small numbers at the start of the Second World War.

The Bloch MB.210 BN5 five-seat night bomber was the most numerous French bomber at the start of the Second World War, although it was already in the process of being replaced by more modern aircraft, and had declined in importance by the start of the Battle of France in May 1940

The Bloch MB.211 BN4 was the designation given to the second prototype of the Bloch 210 night bomber to reflect a change of engine from air cooled radials to liquid cooled inline engines.

The Bloch MB.212 was the designation given to the prototype Bloch 211 four-seat night bomber after its inline engines were replaced with Hispano-Suiza air-cooled radial engines during 1936.

29 September

The Amiot 340 was a three-seat twin engined bomber based on the graceful Amiot 370 racing aircraft and which was the basis for the Amiot 350 family of bombers

The Amiot 350 was one of a number of variants on the Amiot 351/354 twin-engined bomber that were designed in an attempt to use as many different engine types as possible.

The Amiot 351 was one of only two members of the Amiot 350 family of twin-engined bombers to actually enter service with the French Armée d l'Air before the Battle of France

The Amiot 352 was a version of the Amiot 351/354 twin engined bomber that was to have been powered by two 1,100hp Hispano-Suiza 12Y50/51 liquid-cooled inline engines

The Amiot 353 was a version of the Amiot 351/354 twin engined bomber that would have been powered by two 1,030hp Rolls-Royce Merlin III liquid-cooled inline engines.

The Amiot 354 was the most advanced member of the Amiot 350 family of twin engined bombers to enter production

The Amiot 355 was a member of the Amiot 351/354 family that was to be powered by 1,030hp Gnôme & Rhône 14P engines as part of an attempt to use as many different types of engines as possible to speed up production of the entire family of aircraft.

The Amiot 356 was a version of the Amiot 351/354 twin engined bomber that was to be powered by 1,130hp Rolls-Royce Merlin X engines

The Amiot 357 was to have been a high-altitude pressurized bomber based on the Amiot 350 family of twin engined aircraft.

28 September

The Amiot 140 was a twin-engined stressed skin bomber that was the precursor of the Amiot 143, one of the French bombers in service at the time of the German invasion in 1940

The Amiot 141 was the designation given to a modified version of the prototype Amiot 140M twin engined bomber that was never built.

The Amiot 142 was a prototype for a version of the Amiot 143 twin engined bomber that would have been powered by liquid cooled engines.

The Amiot 143 was one of the most numerous French bombers at the outbreak of the Second World War, but was virtually obsolete by the start of the German offensive in the west in May 1940 and the four bomber groups still equipped with the type suffered heavy losses

The Amiot 144 was designed in an attempt to improve the performance of the twin engined Amiot 143M bomber.

The Amiot 145 was the designation given to a proposed version of the Amiot 144 that was to be powered by two 1,100hp Hispano-Suiza 14Har inline engines in an attempt to improve the poor performance of the Amiot 144

The Amiot 146 was the designation given to a proposed version of the Amiot 144 that was to be powered by two 1,100hp Gnôme & Rhône 18Lars radial engines in an attempt to improve the poor performance of the Amiot 144

The Amiot 147 was the designation given to a proposed version of the Amiot 144 that was to be powered by two 880hp Hispano-Suiza 12Ydr inline engines, possibly in an attempt to improve the poor performance of the Amiot 144

11 September

The Light Tank Mark I of 1930 was the first light tank to be ordered into production for the British Army, although only a very small number were produced, and the type was used for experiments and trials

The Light Tank Mark IA was the second light tank to be ordered by the British Army, and was a slightly improved version of the Mark I.

The Light Tank Mark II was the first light tank to be produced in significant numbers for the British Army, although only sixteen of the basic Mark II were produced, alongside 29 Mark IIAs and 21 Mark IIBs.

The Light Tank Mark IIA was the designation given to twenty nine Mark IIs built by the Royal Ordnance Factory at Woolwich during 1931.

The Light Tank Mark IIB was the designation given to twenty one Mark IIs built by Vickers-Armstrong during 1931.

The Light Tank Mark III was a slightly modified version of the Mark IIA, produced by the Royal Ordnance Factory at Woolwich.

The Light Tank Mark IV was the last two-man light tank to be produced for the British Army, and the first in which the armoured hull was used as the chassis

The Light Tank Mark V was the first three-man light tank to be produced for the British Army, after a series of two-man tanks.

The Light Tank Mark VI was the most numerically important light tank to see service with the British Army, with 1,682 produced in four versions between 1935 and 1940.

2 September

The Japanese invasion of Burma (December 1941-May 1942) was one of their last major successes on land during the Second World War (outside China), and saw weak British and Indian forces and their Chinese allies forced out of the country in a campaign that lasted six months but that was decided much quicker.

Shojiro Iida (1888-1980) was the Japanese general in charge of the Fifteenth Army during the occupation of Thailand (1941) and the invasion of Burma early in 1942.

28 August

Few items that have come into service with the British Army have caused more controversy over their operating lives than that of the SA80 (Small Arms for the 1980s) series of weapons

The first battle of the Schooneveld (28 May/ 7 June 1673) was the first of three battles in Dutch coastal waters during 1673 that prevented the British and French from landing an invasion army in the Netherlands (Third Anglo-Dutch War).

The second battle of Schooneveld (4/14 June 1673) was the second of three battles that prevented the French and British from successfully landing an invasion army on the Dutch coast (Third Anglo-Dutch War).

The battle of Texel or Kijkduin (11/21 August 1673) was the third of three inconclusive battles that prevented the British and French from landing an invasion army on the Dutch coast, and that helped to convince the British to make peace.

25 August

'Holmes's Bonfire' of 10/20 August 1666 was a successful British attack on Dutch shipping that came in the aftermath of their victory in the battle of St. James's Day on 25/26 July.

The Medway raid of 9-14/19-24 June 1667 saw a Dutch fleet sail into the Thames and attack the British fleet in its anchorage in the Medway, causing a panic in London and winning a victory that helped bring the Second Anglo-Dutch War to an end.

The battle of Solebay (28 May/ 7 June 1672) was a Dutch naval victory early in the Third Anglo-Dutch War that prevented a planned Anglo-French invasion of the northern Netherlands

We also add reviews of Scottish Arms and Armour by Fergus Cannan and A Commanding Presence, Wellington in the Peninsula 1808-1814 by Ian Robertson

22 August

The St. James's Day Battle (25-26 July 1666) was a British victory during the Second Anglo-Dutch War that proved that the Royal Navy had not been too badly damaged during the Dutch victory in the Four Days' Battle at the start of June.

The battle of Nevis (19 or 20 May 1667) was a confused clash between the British and an Allied Franco-Dutch fleet in the West Indies that may have prevented an Allied invasion of Nevis.

The battle of Martinique (25 June 1667) was a British victory over a French fleet that came towards the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War and secured their position in the West Indies

19 August

The battle of Scheveningen (31 July 1653) was the final major battle during the First Anglo-Dutch War and ended as an English victory that confirmed their dominance won at the Gabbard Bank in June.

The battle of Lowestoft (3 June 1665 O.S./ 13 June 1665 N.S.) was the first major battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War and was a rare British victory in a war that came to be dominated by the Dutch.

The battle of Bergen (2/12 August 1665) was an unsuccessful attempt by the British to capture a Dutch convoy that had taken shelter in the neutral harbour of Bergen in Norway.

The Four Days' Battle (1-4 June 1666) was a major Dutch victory during the Second Anglo-Dutch War that saw a badly outnumbered British fleet suffer heavy casualties in one of the largest and longest battles fought during the age of sail.

18 August

The battle of Elba (28 August 1652) was a clear Dutch victory early in the First Anglo-Dutch War that gave them control of the Mediterranean.

The battle of Dungeness (30 November 1652) was the most significant Dutch victory during the First Anglo-Dutch War, and saw a fleet under Maarten Tromp win temporary control of the English Channel.

The three day long running battle of Portland (18-20 February 1653) saw the English inflict a heavy defeat on a Dutch fleet under Admiral Maarten Tromp, in the process regaining control of the English Channel, lost after the Dutch victory at Dungeness in the previous November.

The battle of Leghorn of 4 March 1653 was a disastrous English attempt to break a Dutch blockade that was preventing them from uniting the two halves of the English fleet in the Mediterranean.

The battle of the Gabbard (or Nieuwpoort) of 2-3 June 1653 was the decisive battle of the First Anglo-Dutch War. It was the first battle to involve the full fleets of both nations, and ended as a major English victory.

17 August

The battle of Goodwin Sands (or Dover) of 19 May 1652 developed from a chance encounter between two English squadrons and a Dutch fleet taking shelter off Dover, and led to the outbreak of the First Anglo Dutch War.

The action off Plymouth of 16 August 1652 was a convoy battle early in the First Anglo Dutch War in which Admiral de Ruyter successfully defended a large Dutch convoy against an English fleet.

The battle of Kentish Knock (28 September 1652) was the first major battle of the First Anglo Dutch War, and ended in a narrow English victory.

9 August

Two more book reviews: Wartime Childhood by Mike Brown and The British Soldier of the Second World War by Peter Doyle

6 August

Today we add a picture gallery on the Fireship

5 August

We add a picture gallery dedicated to the Battle of Loos, September 1915 and reviews of Fireship: The Terror Weapon of the Age of Sail by Peter Kirsch and Ancient Warfare Magazine Vol III Issue 3: Classical Heroes: The warrior in history and legend

4 August

No.180 Squadron was formed around the North American B-25 Mitchell in 1942 and operated that aircraft over Northern Europe until the end of the Second World War.

No.93 Squadron went through two incarnations during the Second World War, first using the 'Pandora' aerial mine, and then as a standard fighter squadron operation in North Africa, Italy and southern France.

31 July

No.87 Squadron spent the Second World War as a fighter squadron, first with the BEF in France, then with Fighter Command, until at the end of 1942 moving to the Mediterranean, taking part in the campaigns in North Africa and Italy and over the Balkans.

No.89 Squadron spent the entire Second World War operating as a night-fighter squadron on overseas stations, first in the Middle East and later over Burma.

No.91 Squadron was formed in 1941 from a Reconnaissance Flight, but soon became a conventional fighter squadron, flying sweeps over Occupied France, supporting the D-Day invasions and taking on the V-1 Flying Bomb.

30 July

After a short existence as a communications squadron in early 1940 No.81 Squadron spent most of the Second World War operating as a fighter squadron, serving in Russia, Britain, North Africa, Malta, Sicily, Italy and India.

No.84 Squadron had a relatively short active career during the Second World War, handicapped by a lack of aircraft or by the choice of aircraft for much of the time. After fighting in Greece between November 1940 and April 1941 the squadron moved to the Far East, and was involved in the retreat from Sumatra, but after that its active career was limited to six months flying the Vultee Vengeance over Burma in the first half of 1944.

No.86 Squadron served with Coastal Command during the Second World War, first flying anti-shipping strikes with the Blenheim and Beaufort before converting to the very long range Liberator to fly anti-submarine patrols.

29 July

The EM-2 (Rifle No.9 Mk 1) was the first bullpup-style military rifle to be adopted by the British Army

No.74 Squadron began the Second World War as a home-based Spitfire squadron, taking part in the fighting at Dunkirk and the Battle of Britain. It then spent two years in the Middle East before returning to Britain to take part in the Normandy invasions and the campaign in northern Europe, ending the war operating from bases inside Germany.

No.79 Squadron began the Second War as a home-based Hurricane squadron. After taking part in the Battle of France and the Battle of Britain the squadron moved to the Far East, and operated over Burma until the end of the war.

No.80 Squadron was a fighter squadron that spend most of the Second World War operating in North Africa and the Mediterrean before returning to Britain in 1944 to take part in the D-Day landings.

23 July

Today we add four book reviews - Roosevelt's Rough Riders by Alexandro de Quesada, The Great Islamic Conquests, AD 632-750 by David Nicolle, Operation Dragoon, 1944: France's other D-Day by Steven J Zaloga and Petersburg, 1864-65 by Ron Field

17 July

The battle of Rennell Island (29-30 January 1943) was a clash between Japanese aircraft and a US Navy task force escorting reinforcements to Guadalcanal that ended as a clear Japanese victory after they sank the heavy cruiser USS Chicago (CA-29)

The battle of Empress Augusta Bay (2 November 1943) was a night-time victory for the US Navy that defeated an attempt by the Japanese navy to interfere with the landings on Bougainville.

16 July

The USS Santa Fe (CL-60) was the fifth member of the Cleveland class of light cruisers. She went from being laid down to being commissioned in only seventeen months, five to six months quicker than the first four members of the class, and went on to earn the Navy Unit Commendation and thirteen battle stars during the Second World War

The USS Birmingham (CL-62) was a Cleveland class light cruiser than served in the Mediterranean and the Pacific during the Second World War, suffering heavy damage from a Japanese air attack in 1943 and again when the light cruiser Princeton exploded while she was alongside during the Battle of Leyte Gulf

The USS Buffalo (CL-99) was to have been a Cleveland class light cruiser, but the ship was actually completed as the light carrier USS Bataan (CVL-29)

The USS Newark (CL-100) was to have been a Cleveland class light cruiser, but on 2 June 1942, four months before work began, she became one of nine members of the Cleveland class to be converted to light aircraft carriers

The USS Newark (CL-108) was to have been a Cleveland class light cruiser, given the name after the original Newark (CL-100) was completed as the carrier San Jacinto(CVL-30).

15 July

The USS Cleveland (CL-55) was the first member and name-ship of the Cleveland class of light cruisers, the most numerous type of American cruiser of the Second World War. As the first of her class she was also the only one of the twenty nine completed ships to be launched before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

The USS Columbia (CL-56) was the second member of the Cleveland class of light cruisers to enter service. She served in the Pacific theatre throughout the Second World War, winning a Navy Unit Commendation and ten battle stars.

The USS Montpelier (CL-57) was the third member of the Cleveland class of light cruisers, and won the Navy Unit Commendation and thirteen Battle Stars for her service in the Pacific.

The USS Denver (CL-58) was the fourth member of the Cleveland class of light cruisers, and the third to win a Navy Unit Commendation for its service during the Second World War, for her part in the battle of Empress Augusta Bay

The USS Amsterdam (CL-59) was laid down as a Cleveland class light cruiser on 1 May 1941 at the Camden shipyards of the New York Shipbuilding Corps but was completed as the USS Independence, a light aircraft carrier

The USS Tallahassee (CL-61) was laid down as a Cleveland-class light cruiser in June 1941, but early in 1942 she became one of nine unfinished Clevelands that were completed as light aircraft carriers

The USS New Haven (CL-76) was laid down on 11 August 1941 as a Cleveland class light cruiser, but after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor she was one of nine incomplete Clevelands whose hulls were used as the basis for Independence class light carriers

1 July

The Northrop P-61 Black Widow was the only American-built purpose build night fighter to enter service during the Second World War, and was one of the largest and most sophisticated fighter aircraft of its era.

Although the Northrop P-61 Black Widow night-fighter didn’t enter service until mid 1944 it did see combat in both the Pacific and European theatres, and was in action for long enough to prove that it was a successful design

The Northrop F-16A Reporter was an unarmed reconnaissance aircraft based on the XP-61E Black Widow

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