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31 December 2013

The 504th Bombardment Group (Very Heavy) was a B-29 Superfortress group that took part in the bombing campaign against Japan and the mining campaign that helped to cut Japan off from the remnants of her empire.

The 505th Bombardment Group, USAAF, was a B-29 unit that took part in the strategic bombing campaign against Japan and the mining campaign that cut off the Japanese Home Islands.

30 December 2013

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.476 Vanneau was an experimental variant of the M.S.475 Vanneau V, and was given a greatly modified wing.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.477 Vanneau was an experimental variant of the M.S.475 Vanneau V that was given a Renault engine.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.478 Vanneau was the designation given to a version of the Vanneau that was to have been powered by an Italian produced Isotta Fraschini Delta engine.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.479 Vanneau was the last entry in the Vanneau family and was powered by a SNECMA 14X Super Mars engine.

20 December 2013

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.474 Vanneau IV (Plover) was a carrier-borne version of the Vanneau two-seat trainer, produced for the French Aéronavale.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.475 Vanneau V was the final production version in the Vanneau family and was a two-seat advanced trainer that remained in use from 1950 into the late 1960s.

19 December 2013

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.470 Vanneau (Plover) was the prototype of a family of two-seat trainers that served with the French air force and navy in the post-war period.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.472 Vanneau II (Plover) was the first production version of the Veaneau and was a two-seat trainer that was used by the French Armée de l'Air from 1946 until the late 1960s.

18 December 2013

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.450 was an improved version of the M.S.406 developed for a French fighter requirement of 1937 but that didn't enter production.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.530 was the last in a long series of parasol wing training aircraft to be built by Morane-Saulnier.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.1500 Epervier (Sparrowhawk) was designed in response to a requirement for a counter-insurgency aircraft for use in Algeria.

17 December 2013

The siege of Dunstanburgh Castle of December 1462 was a Yorkist victory that helped secure temporary control of the main Northumbrian castles but that was soon undone.

The siege of Norham (June-July 1463) was the most active Scottish intervention in the fighting in Northumberland in 1461-64 but ended as an embarrassing fiasco after the Lancastrian-Scottish army fled in the face of a Yorkist relief force.

13 December 2013

USS Atlanta (CL-104) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that saw action in the last months of the Second World War, winning two battle stars.

USS Dayton (CL-105) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that entered just in time to take part in the final fighting in the Pacific in 1945, and that served in the Mediterranean after the war before going into the reserve in 1949.

12 December 2013

USS Portsmouth (CL-102) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that entered service just after the end of the Second World War and briefly served in the Mediterranean before entering the reserve fleet.

USS Wilkes-Barre (CL-103) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that saw combat in the Pacific during 1945, taking part in the raids on the Japanese home islands and the fighting at Iwo Jima and Okinawa. She won four battle stars for her actions in the Pacific.

11 December 2013

The Cleveland Class Light Cruisers were the most numerous class of cruisers ever built, with 52 ordered, 29 completed as cruisers and 9 as light aircraft carriers, with 22 of the cruisers seeing service during the Second World War.

USS Amsterdam (CL-101) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that reached the Pacific Fleet just in time to take part in the last carrier strikes against the Japanese Home Islands, but that entered the reserve soon after the end of the war and remained there until she was scrapped.

9 December 2013

USS Little Rock (CL-92) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that entered service too late to participate in the Second World War but that was later converted into a guided missile cruiser (CLG-4) and served with the Mediterranean Fleet.

USS Galveston (CL-93/ CLG-3) was laid down as a Cleveland class light cruiser but was eventually completed as a guided missile cruiser and served throughout the 1960s, fighting in Vietnam.

6 December 2013

The siege of Bamburgh Castle (December 1462) was a Yorkist victory that briefly gave them control of Bamburgh Castle, on the Northumbrian coast.

The siege of Bamburgh Castle of June-July 1464 was a Yorkist victory that ended the Lancastrian campaign in Northumberland that had begun in the aftermath of the battle of Towton, and was also the first occasion when an English castle was defeated by gunpowder artillery.

3 December 2013

The siege of Alnwick Castle (July 1462) saw a Yorkist army capture the castle, which changed hands repeatedly between 1461 and 1464.

The siege of Alnwick (December 1462-6 January 1463) saw the castle captured by the Yorkists, although only after a Lancastrian and Scottish relief army had rescued the garrison.

2 December 2013

The battle of Ferrybridge (27-28 March 1461) took place on the day before the battle of Towton and saw the Yorkists force their way across the River Aire at Ferrybridge, defeating a Lancastrian attempt to hold the line of the river.

The battle of Towton (29 March 1461) was the decisive battle of the first phase of the Wars of the Roses and saw the young Edward IV defeat one of the largest Lancastrian armies to take to the field during the war.

29 November 2013

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.408 was a single-seat version of the M.S.430 training aircraft that was evaluated by the Armee de l'Air, but that wasn't accepted for service.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.430 was a two-seat training aircraft based on the M.S.405 single-seat fighter.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.433 was a design for a two-seat training aircraft that would have been based on the M.S.430 and powered by a Gnome-Rhône 7Kfs radial engine.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.435 P.2 was a two-man advanced trainer based on the M.S.405 single seat fighter that was ordered into production in 1939 but that wasn't delivered before the fall of France.

28 November 2013

The Focke-Wulf Fw 300 was originally a design for a long range civil airliner, but it was adapted for possible use as a long range reconnaissance aircraft and guided weapons carrier.

The Focke-Wulf Ta 400 was a design for a six-engined long range bomber capable of reaching the United States from Continental Europe. A wind tunnel model was produced, but the design never reached the prototype stage.

26 November 2013

The Focke-Wulf Ta 183 was a design for an advanced single-seat jet fighter that was under development towards the end of the Second World War.

The Focke-Wulf Ta 283 was a design for a twin-engined ramjet powered fighter aircraft that was under development during 1945 but that was never completed.

25 November 2013

The siege of the Tower of London (2-19 July 1460) saw the Lancastrian forces in London isolated in the Tower while the main Yorkist army moved north to victory at Northampton (Wars of the Roses)

The second battle of St. Albans (17 February 1461) was a Lancastrian victory that opened the road to London and appeared to give them a chance to take advantage of their earlier victory at Wakefield, where Richard, duke of York, had been killed.

22 November 2013

The battle of Wakefield (30 December 1460) was a major Lancastrian victory that resulted in the death of Richard, duke of York, his son Edmund of Rutland and one of his most important followers, Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury.

The battle of Mortimer's Cross (2 February 1461) was Edward, earl of March's first battlefield victory and was the start of a campaign that would end with him securely crowned as King Edward IV.

20 November 2013

The 393rd Bombardment Group was a training unit that was based in the US from its formation in 1943 until it was inactivated in 1944.

The 399th Bombardment Group, USAAF, was a training unit that was based in the United States from its formation in 1943 until it was disbanded in 1944.

The 457th Bombardment Group was a B-17 group that took part in the Eighth Air Force's strategic bombing campaign from February 1944 until April 1945.

19 November 2013

The capture of Sandwich (June 1460) was a key Yorkist success that allowed the exiled earls of Salisbury, Warwick and March to invade England from their base at Calais at the start of the campaign that ended with the great Yorkist victory at Northampton.

The battle of Northampton (10 July 1460) was a major Yorkist victory that transformed their fortunes after their disasterous failure at Ludford Bridge in 1459, and that ended with the capture of Henry VI and the death of several important Lancastrian leaders.

18 November 2013

USS Astoria (CL-90) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that fought in the Pacific from December 1944 to the end of the war, fighting off the Philippines, Okinawa and supporting attacks on the Japanese Home Islands.

USS Oklahoma City (CL-91) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that saw three months of active service in the pacific during the Second World War and that went on to be converted into a guided missile cruiser and serve in that role for nearly twenty years.

15 November 2013

The battle of Ludford Bridge (12-13 October 1459) was a humiliating defeat that appeared to have ended any hopes of a Yorkist victory in the Wars of the Roses.

The raid on Sandwich of 15 January 1460 saw a Yorkist force based at Calais attack Sandwich, capturing both a Lancastrian fleet being built in the port and the commander of the garrison (Wars of the Roses).

14 November 2013

USS Duluth (CL-87) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that joined the Pacific fleet in the spring of 1945 but was damaged in a typhoon and only entered combat in the last few weeks of the Second World War.

USS Miami (CL-89) was a Cleveland class light carrier that fought in the Pacific from June 1944 until April 1945 when she was recalled for a refit.

11 November 2013

The first battle of St. Albans (22 May 1455) was the first battle of the Wars of the Roses, and was a Yorkist victory that saw Richard, duke of York temporarily take control of Henry VI's government.

The battle of Blore Heath (23 September 1459) was the only significant Yorkist success after the resumption of open warfare in 1459, part of the first phase of the Wars of the Roses.

8 November 2013

USS Manchester (CL-83) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that was completed too late to see combat during the Second World War but that was heavily involved in the fighting in Korea. Manchester received nine battles stars for Korean service.

USS Vicksburg (CL-86) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that was used as a training ship during 1944 before joining the Pacific Fleet in 1945 in time to take part in the invasions of Iwo Jima and Okinawa and the attacks on the Japanese Home Islands.

7 November 2013

USS Houston (CL-81) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that entered combat in June 1944 during the invasion of the Marianas. She had a short combat career which ended when she was hit by a torpedo on 14 October 1944.

USS Providence (CL-82) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that entered service too late to see combat in the Second World War. She was later converted into a Guided Missile Cruiser as CLG-6 and served into the early 1970s.

5 November 2013

USS Huntington (CL-77) was laid down as a Cleveland class light cruiser but was completed as an Independence class aircraft carrier.

USS Dayton (CL-78) was laid down as a Cleveland class light cruiser, but was completed as an Independence class aircraft carrier.

USS Wilmington (CL-79) was laid down as a Cleveland class light cruiser, but was completed as an Independence class light carrier.

USS Fargo (CL-85) was laid down as a Cleveland class light cruiser but completed as an Independence class light carrier.

4 November 2013

The 'battle' of Heworth (24 August 1453) was a skirmish between the Neville and Percy families that raised tension in the north of England in the period immediately before the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses

The battle of Stamford Bridge (31 October or 1 November 1454) was a clash between the Neville and Percy families fought in the year before the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses, and a sign of the increasing instability brought on by the mental illness of Henry VI.

1 November 2013

USS Topeka (CL-67) was built as a Cleveland class light cruiser (CL-67) and in that guise fought at Okinawa and took part in the attacks on the Japanese Home Islands during 1945. She was later rebuilt as a guided-missile cruiser (CLG-8) and had another ten years of active service in that role during the 1960s.

USS Biloxi (CL-80) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that served in the Pacific from the start of 1944 to the end of the war, supporting the fast carrier task force and taking part in the invasions of Saipan, the Philippines, the Palaus and Okinawa and the battles of the Philippine Sea and Leyte Gulf.

31 October 2013

The First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) was Japan's first overseas war after she came out of isolation in the 1860s, and saw the rapidly modernised Japanese armed forces inflict an embarrassing defeat on less successfully modernised Chinese forces.

The Naval Battle of the Yalu River (17 September 1894) was a Japanese victory that saw them inflict heavy losses on the main Chinese fleet early in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95.

29 October 2013

USS Pasadena (CL-65) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that fought in the Pacific, taking part in attacks on Formosa, the Japanese Home Islands, Indo-China, the invasions of Iwo Jima and Okinawa. The Pasadena earned five battle stars during World War II.

USS Springfield (CL-66) was commissioned as a Cleveland class light cruiser (CL-66) and fought in the Pacific during the Second World War. She was later converted into a Providence class Guided Missile Cruiser (CLG-7), and her active career lasted until 1974. During her short combat career she was awarded two battle stars.

25 October 2013

The USS Mobile (CL-63) was a Cleveland class light cruiser that fought in the Pacific, supporting the fast carrier force during the island hoping campaign, including the invasions of the Gilberts, Marianas, Palau Islands, the Philippines and Okinawa. She received 11 battle stars for her service.

USS Vincennes (CL-64) was a Cleveland class light cruiser which fought in the Pacific, taking part in the battle of the Philippine Sea, the invasion of the Philippines, the battle of Okinawa and the raids on the Japanese home islands. She was awarded six battle stars for her World War II service.

24 October 2013

The 378th Bombardment Group was a short-lived anti-submarine warfare unit that served in the US during 1942.

The 380th Bombardment Group was a B-24 unit that entered combat from Australia and that was attached to the RAAF for most of its operational career, fighting over New Guinea, the Dutch East Indies, Bornea, the Philippines, Formosa and eventually Japan.

The 383rd Bombardment Group, USAAF, went through two incarnations during the Second World War, first as a training unit and then as a B-29 unit in the Eighth Air Force in the Pacific.

23 October 2013

The 346th Bombardment Group, USAAF, went through two incarnations during the Second World War, first as a US-based training unit and the second as part of the Eighth Air Force in the Far East.

The 376th Bombardment Group was a heavy bomber unit that was formed in the Mediterranean theatre and remained there until the spring of 1945, fighting in North Africa, Italy and raiding across the southern part of the Nazi Empire.

The 377th Bombardment Group was an anti-submarine group that operated for a short period in 1942.

18 October 2013

The 340th Bombardment Group, USAAF, was a B-25 Mitchell group that served in North Africa, Sicily and Italy, initially acting in support of the British Eighth Army before moving on to support the combined Allied armies in Italy.

The 344th Bombardment Group, USAAF, was a B-26 group within the Ninth Air Force and acted in support of the Allied armies invading Europe in 1944-45.

The 345th Bombardment Group, USAAF, was a B-25 unit that was heavily engaged in the fighting in New Guinea, the south-west Pacific and the Philippines.

17 October 2013

The Mitsubishi Navy 7-Shi Experimental Carrier Fighter (1MF10) was an unsuccessful design for a fighter to replace the Nakajima A2N, and was the first low wing monoplane fighter to be submitted to the Japanese Navy.

The Mitsubishi Ki-40 was a design for a long range twin-engined aircraft based on the Ki-39 fighter.

16 October 2013

Saladin's Holy War of 1187-1192 was the culmination of a lifetime of planning, and saw Saladin inflict a crushing defeat on the Crusaders at Hattin, capture Jerusalem and conquer most of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and then successfully defend most of those conquests against the forces of the Third Crusade led by Richard the Lionheart, king of England.

15 October 2013

The 323rd Bombardment Group was a B-26 Marauder unit that formed part of the Eighth and then Ninth Air Forces and took part in the campaign against German positions in occupied France before D-Day and supported the Allied armies after the invasion.

The 335th Bombardment Group, USAAF, was a training unit that served in the United States during the Second World War.

The 336th Bombardment Group, USAAF, was a training unit that was based in the US from 1942-44.

11 October 2013

Saladin (1137/8-1193) was one of the greatest leaders of the Muslim world. He created an empire that included Egypt, Syria, the Hejaz and Mesopotamia, and used his power to inflict a crushing defeat on the Crusader states, capturing Jerusalem and holding it against the forces of the Third Crusade. Despite his successes against the Crusaders Saladin gained an impressive reputation in Western Europe, where he became known as one of the most chivalrous enemies of Christendom.

10 October 2013

Saladin's Conquest of Syria, which took from 1174 to 1186, established him as the ruler of a powerful empire that included Egypt, Syria and parts of Mesopotamia, and that gave him a real chance of crushing the Crusader states.

9 October 2013

The 322nd Bombardment Group was a medium bomber group that had a disastrous introduction to combat in the spring of 1943, losing ten out of eleven aircraft on its second raid, but that went on to develop effective medium level medium bomber tactics and supported the Allied armies after the D-Day invasions.

The 333rd Bombardment Group, USAAF, had two incarnations during the Second World War, first as a training unit and then as a B-29 group in the Eighth Air Force in the Far East.

The 334th Bombardment Group, USAAF, was a training unit that served in the United States during the Second World War.

7 October 2013

The 321st Bombardment Group, USAAF, was a B-25 group that fought in North Africa, Sicily, Italy and southern France, sinking the battleship Strasbourg during that campaign.

The 330th Bombardment Group, USAAF, had two incarnations during the Second World War, first as a training unit and then as a B-29 unit that took part in the strategic bombing campaign against Japan.

The 331st Bombardment Group went through two incarnations during the Second World War, first as a replacement training unit and second as a B-29 unit with the Twentieth Air Force.

3 October 2013

The 312th Bombardment Group fought in the South West Pacific, starting as a light bomber group equipped with P-40 fighter-bombers. It soon converted to the A-20 and used these aircraft in New Guinea and the Philippines. Late in the war the group began to convert to the Consolidated B-32 Dominator, but only a handful of these heavy bombers saw combat before the end of the fighting.

The 319th Bombardment Group entered service as a B-26 unit that took part in Operation Torch and the campaign in of Italy, before at the start of 1944 it was withdraw to the US, converted to the A-26 and moved to Okinawa, where it entered combat against the Japanese in July 1945.

The 320th Bombardment Group, USAAF, was a B-26 Marauder unit that fought in North Africa, Sicily and Italy before moving to the western Front to take part in the fighting in France and Germany.

2 October 2013

The Mitsubishi Experimental Tobi-type Reconnaissance Aircraft (2MR1) was a potentially promising aircraft that was badly damaged during an official Japanese Army test flight and never entered production.

The Mitsubishi Experimental Special-purpose Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft (2MR5) was one of a series of aircraft designed for Mitsubishi by Dr Alexander Baumann of Stuttgart University.

1 October 2013

The 308th Bombardment Group was a heavy bomber unit that was based in China from March 1943 until June 1945, from where it supported the Chinese and attacked the Japanese Empire from the west.

The 309th Bombardment Group was a training group that served in the United States from early in 1942 until it was disbanded in the spring of 1944.

The 310th Bombardment Group was a B-25 Mitchell group within the Twelfth Air Force that served in North Africa, Sicily and on the mainland of Italy, mainly targeting Axis communication targets.

30 September 2013

Nur ad-Din's three campaigns in Egypt in 1164-69 led to the overthrow of the Shi'a Fatimid dynasty, the restoration of orthodox Sunni rule in Egypt, and played a major part in the rise of Saladin.

The siege of Azaz (15 May-21 June 1176) was one of a series of successes for Saladin in the aftermath of his victory at the battle of Tall as-Sultan (22 April 1176) and helped put pressure on the authorities in Aleppo.

27 September 2013

The Nakajima E12N1 Experimental 12-Shi Two-seat Reconnaissance Seaplane was Nakajima's last reconnaissance seaplane design and lacked the handling to enter service.

The Nakajima L1N1 Navy Type AT-2 Transport was the designation given to a number of Army Ki-34 twin-engined transport aircraft that were handed over to the Japanese Navy.

25 September 2013

The Nakajima J1N, allied code name 'Irving', was originally designed as a long range fighter aircraft for operations over China, but entered service as a long-range reconnaissance aircraft and later became a night fighter, when it was known as the Gekko (Moonlight).

The Nakajima J5N1 Tenrai (Heavenly Thunder) was a design for a single-seat twin-engine interceptor that reached the prototype stage during 1944 but that didn't enter production.

19 September 2013

The Nakajima Ki-82 was a design for a new aircraft to replace the disappointing Nakajima Ki-49 Donryu, but the success of the Mitsubishi Ki-67 meant that the design was never completed.

The Nakajima Ki-201 Karyu (Fire Dragon) was the Japanese Army's attempt to produce a jet fighter, and like the Navy's Kikka closely resembled the Messerschmitt Me 262.

18 September 2013

The siege of Alexandria of 29 July- 2 August 1174 was a brief and very unsuccessful attempt by the Normans of Sicily to play a part in the overthrow of Saladin, then vizier of Egypt.

The battle of Tall as-Sultan (22 April 1176) was a major victory won by Saladin during his conquest of Syria, and saw him defeat the allied armies of Aleppo and Mosul.

16 September 2013

The Nakajima Ki-49 Donryu (Storm Dragon) 'Helen' was a somewhat disappointing Japanese Army bomber that served in China, New Guinea and the Philippines, but proved to be vulnerable to Allied fighters as the war progressed and to have disappointing speed and handling.

The Nakajima Ki-80 was a version of the Ki-49 Donryu Army Type 100 Heavy Bomber designed for use by formation leaders. Two were built in October 1941, but they did not enter service.

12 September 2013

The Nakajima G5N Shinzen (Mountain Recess) was a four-engined heavy bomber that was based on the Douglas DC-4E transport aircraft.

The Nakajima G10N Fugaku (Mount Fuji) was a design for a very heavy bomber capable of reaching the United States from bases in Japan while carrying a useful payload.

11 September 2013

The siege of Ayla/ al-Aqaba (31 December 1170) was one of Saladin's earliest successes against the Crusaders and saw him gain control of a key point on the pilgrim route from Egypt to Mecca and Medina.

The siege of Montreal (21 September-October 1171) was a controversial episode of the career of Saladin after he lifted the siege, probably because his overlord Nur ad-Din was approaching with a second army.

30 August 2013

The Nakajima E4N was a reconnaissance biplane that went through two very different designs before entering service with the Japanese Navy during the 1930s.

The Nakajima E8N 'Dave' Navy Type 95 Reconnaissance Seaplane was a biplane that replaced the earlier Nakajima E4N Navy Type 90-2-2 Reconnaissance Seaplane and was a very similar design.

29 August 2013

The Nakajima D3N Experimental 11-Shi Carrier Bomber was designed to replace the Aichi Type 97 Carrier Bomber, but lost out to the Aichi D3A1.

The Nakajima E2N was a sesquiplane reconnaissance aircraft that served as a catapult based short-range reconnaissance aircraft and as a training aircraft for several years after entering production in 1927.

27 August 2013

The siege of Damietta (25 October-19 December 1169) was the main event in a failed Crusader and Byzantine attempt to conquer Egypt and undo the Syrian occupation of that country.

The siege of Darum (Mid December 1170) was part of Saladin's first major offensive against the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, and was abandoned after a relief army appeared on the scene.

26 August 2013

Sonderkraftfahrzeug or Sd.Kfz numbers were ordnance numbers allocated to German military vehicles during the period of German re-armament in the 1930s and throughout the Second World War.

The Panzerkampfwagen Neubaufahrzeuge was a design for a multi-turreted medium-heavy tank that was produced in 1934-35 but that wasn't accepted for production.

23 August 2013

The siege of Aleppo (30 December 1174-March 1175) was Saladin's first attempt to capture Aleppo and take control of Nur ad-Din's young son and heir.

The battle of the Horns of Hamah (13 April 1175) was an important battle during Saladin's campaign to gain control of Syria and saw him defeat a combined army from Aleppo and Mosul.

22 August 2013

The Nakajima C2N was a reconnaissance version of the Fokker Super Universal passenger transport aircraft, produced under license in Japan by Nakajima.

The Nakajima-Fokker Ki-6 Type 95-2 Crew Trainer was based on the Fokker Super Universal and was designed to train the crews of multi-place bomber aircraft.

21 August 2013

The Panzerkampfwagen 38(d) was a modified and expanded version of the Panzer 38(t) that was to have been used as the basis for a family of new weapons during 1945 but that never reached production.

The 15cm sIG33 (Sfl) auf Jagdpanzer 38(t) Hetzer was a modified version of the standard Hetzer anti-tank vehicle that carried a 15cm heavy howitzer.

19 August 2013

The Nakajima Ki-34 Army Type 97 Transport was a twin-engined light transport that was originally developed as a smaller version of the Douglas DC-2 for use on short range, low traffic civil airline routes.

The Nakajima Ki-68 was a design for a four-engined heavy bomber based on the Douglas DC-4E.

16 August 2013

The Jagdpanzer 38(t) Hetzer was by far the best in a series of tank hunters based on the Panzerkampfwagen 38(t) and was a totally redesigned version of the vehicle that carried a powerful 7.5cm tank gun that was carried in the superstructure of the vehicle, just as in the more famous StuG family.

The Flammpanzer 38(t) Hetzer was the designation given to twenty Jagdpanzer 38(t) Hetzers that were converted to carry flame throwers instead of their normal 7.5cm guns

14 August 2013

The Nan Ch'en ('Ornament of the South') was one of two fast but unarmoured cruisers built in the 1880s in Germany for the Chinese Nanyang fleet.

The Nan Shui ('Blessing of the South') was one of two fast cruisers built in Germany in the 1880s for the Chinese Nanyang fleet.

13 August 2013

The Nakajima Ki-8 Experimental Two-Seat Fighter was a single-engine two-seat fighter produced as a private venture in the hope that the Japanese army would be interested.

The Nakajima Ki-19 was a twin-engined heavy bomber that was developed in 1936-37, but that lost out to the Mitsubishi Ki-21.

8 August 2013

The 15cm sIG33 (Sfl) auf PzKpfw 38(t) Grille (Bison), SdKfz 138/1 was a self-propelled artillery gun that mounted the standard German 15cm heavy howitzer on the chassis of the obsolete Panzerkampfwagen 38(t).

The Munitionsfahrzeug 38(t) was an ammunition carrying vehicle produced to work alongside the 15cm sIG Grille.

7 August 2013

The battle of Babain (18 March 1167) was an inconclusive battle during Nur ad-Din's second invasion of Egypt that is best know for being Saladin's first recorded major battle.

The siege of Alexandria (April-August 1167) was Saladin's first recorded independent command, and he managed to hold the city until both sides were exhausted and a peace treaty could be negotiated.

5 August 2013

The Panzerjager 38(t) fur 7.5cm PAK 40, ausf M (SdKfz 138) was the final and best version of the Marder III anti-tank vehicle to enter production.

The Aufklarungspanzer 38(t) (SdKfz 140/1) was a reconnaissance tank that was produced in small numbers by converting existing Panzer 38(t) gun tanks.

2 August 2013

Operation Blissful, the Choiseul Raid of 27 October-4 November 1943, was a diversionary attack designed to distract Japanese attentions away from Bougainville, the next American target in the Solomon Islands.

The Australian Campaign on Bougainville lasted from November 1944 until the Japanese surrender on the island in August 1945 and saw fighting renewed on the island as the Australians attempted to clear the last Japanese strongholds.

1 August 2013

The Nakajima D2N was Nakajima's last attempt to design a dive-bomber, and was developed in cooperation with the Japanese Navy.

The Nakajima C6N Saiun (Painted Cloud) 'Myrt' was a fast long-range reconnaissance aircraft that entered service in the summer of 1944 and was almost immune to Allied interception.

30 July 2013

The Panzerjager 38(t) fur 7.62cm PAK 36(t) was the first of three variants of the Marder III and was an anti-tank vehicle produced by mounting captured Soviet guns on the chassis of the Panzerkampfwagen 38(t). 

The Panzerjager 38(t) fur 7.5cm PAK 40 ausf H (SdKfz 138) was the second version of the Marder III tank hunter and the first to be armed with a German gun.

29 July 2013

The Nakajima B4N Experimental 9-Shi Carrier Attack Aircraft was an unsuccessful Nakajima entry in a 1934 carrier bomber contest.

The Nakajima C3N was a design for a carrier based reconnaissance aircraft that reached the prototype stage but that was superseded by another Nakajima design, the B5N 'Kate'.

25 July 2013

The Nakajima Type 91 Fighter was a parasol wing monoplane that served as the main fighter aircraft for the Japanese army after its introduction in 1932.

The Nakajima Ki-4 Army Type 94 Reconnaissance Aircraft was a multi-purpose Army support biplane that was the first aircraft to be designed by a private firm but with direct Army involvement in the design process.

24 July 2013

The Panzerkampfwagen 38(t) began life as the Czech LT-38 light tank, but the vast majority of them were produced after the German takeover of Czechoslovakia and they were an important element in the German armoured forces during the invasion of France, the brief campaign in Greece and the early part of the invasion of the Soviet Union.

The TNH n.A. or Panzerkampfwagen 38(t) neuer Art (new model) was a reconnaissance tank based on the PzKpfw 38(t) that was produced in 1942 for German trials but that didn’t enter production.

23 July 2013

The Panzerkampfwagen 35(t) began life as the Czechoslovak LT-35, but was taken over by the German army and was used with some success in Poland and France, before being phased out in the face of superior Soviet armour during 1942.

The Flakpanzer 38(t) ausf M (SdKfz 140) was a stop-gap anti-aircraft vehicle produced by mounting a single 20mm cannon on the chassis of Panzer 38(t) tank.

22 July 2013

The Koiari Raid (29 November 1943) was an unsuccessful attempt by the US Marines on Bougainville to interrupt a possible Japanese supply line to the south of the American beachhead on Empress Augusta Bay..

The invasion of Puruata Island (1-2 November) took place on the same day as the main Allied invasion of nearby Bougainville and saw a force of Marine raiders capture this small island close to the main American beachhead.

19 July 2013

The Ching Ch'ing was one of five fast un-armoured cruisers built for the Chinese Nanyang fleet, based at Shanghai.

The Huan T'ai was the third of a series of light cruisers built in China for the Chinese Nanyang fleet, and remained in service for fifteen years before lost in a collision with the liner Empress of India.

18 July 2013

No.20 Fighter Squadron, RNZAF, spent two spells on Bougainville, where it supported the fighting on the ground and took part in the campaign against Rabaul. It also took part in the campaign against Rabaul during a short spell on Green Island during 1944 and a longer spell based on New New Britain in 1945

No.21 Fighter Squadron, RNZAF, took part in the long campaign against Rabaul, both from bases on Bougainville and Green Island and supported the Australian offensive on Bougainville.

15 July 2013

The Doflug D-3802/ Morane-Saulnier M.S.540 was developed in Switzerland from the M.S.450 and was basically an improved version of the M.S.406.

The Doflug D-3803 was the final member of the Morane-Saulnier M.S.405/ M.S.406 family, and was an improved version of the D-3802 developed by Dornier in Switzerland.

4 July 2013

The Mitsubishi Experimental 8-Shi Two-seat Fighter (Ka-8) was produced in response to work on two-seat fighters in Europe and the United States, but was abandoned after the second prototype disintegrated in the air.

The Mitsubishi Experimental Short Range Reconnaissance Aircraft (2MR7) was a private venture design produced just before the more successful 2MR8, which entered service as the Army Type 92 Reconnaissance Aircraft.

3 July 2013

Operation Cherryblossom, the invasion of Bougainville (1 November 1943-March 1944) was the last major operation during the Solomon Islands campaign and saw the Americans occupy a secure bridgehead on an Island that the Japanese had decided to make a bastion of their defensive line.

2 July 2013

The Tsi Yuen was a protected cruiser that served with the Chinese navy until 1895 before being taken over by the Japanese.

The Kai Che was the first of five fast cruisers built for the Chinese Nanyang fleet during the 1880s. All five were un-armoured cruisers of composite construction that were obsolete by the time they were completed.

1 July 2013

No.18 Fighter Squadron, RNZAF, took part in the invasions of the Treasury Islands and Bougainville in 1943, and spent much of 1944 and 1945 supporting the American and Australian campaigns on that island. It also spent some time on Green Island, taking part in the long campaign against Rabaul.

No.19 Fighter Squadron, RNZAF, took part in the battle against the Japanese counterattack on Bougainville in March 1944, the campaigns to neutralise Kavieng and Rabaul and helped provide air cover at Los Negros, the most westerly base used by the RNZAF in the Pacific.

25 June 2013

The Chao Yung was a protected cruiser built for China by Armstrongs, and that was sunk at the battle of the Yalu River of 1894. She was the sister ship of the Yang Wei¸ also lost at the Yalu.

The Yang Wei was a protected cruiser built for China by Armstrongs, and that like her sister ship Chao Yung was sunk at the battle of the Yalu River in 1894.

24 June 2013

The Focke-Wulf Fw 186 was a gyroplane that was developed in 1937-38 to compete with the Fieseler Fi 156 Storch, but that never entered production.

The Focke-Achgelis Fa 336 was a design for a powered version of the Fa 330 gyro kite.

21 June 2013

The Focke-Achgelis Fa 284 was a design for a helicopter 'flying crane' designed to move heavy cargos suspended below the aircraft.

The Focke-Achgelis Fa 330 Backstelze (Water Wagtail) was the most numerous and simplest of Focke's rotor craft and was a simple unpowered gyro kite designed to increase the viewing distance from a U-boat.

17 June 2013

The naval battle of Guadalcanal (13-15 November 1942) was a series of connected engagements that saw the defeat of the last major Japanese attempt to bring reinforcements to Guadalcanal and was the most important of the six naval battles that were fought around Guadalcanal.

The battle of Tassafaronga (30 November 1942) was the last of six naval battles to be fought around Guadalcanal, but although it ended as a notable Japanese victory it came during a minor supply mission and had little impact on the long-term course of the fighting.

14 June 2013

No.16 Fighter Squadron, RNZAF, took part in the invasion of New Georgia, the American and Australian campaigns on Bougainville and the long campaign to neutralise Rabaul.

No.17 Fighter Squadron, RNZAF, took part in the fighting around Guadalcanal in 1943, supported the invasion of Vella Lavella, the campaigns on Bougainville and the long campaign to neutralise Rabaul. It ended the war providing fighter cover on Los Negros, the most westerly Pacific base to be used by the RNZAF.

13 June 2013

The Focke-Achgelis Fa 225 was the prototype of a rotary wing glider, combining the rotor from a Fa 223 with the fuselage of a DFS 230 freight glider.

The Focke-Achgelis Fa 269 was a design for a convertiplane that would have taken off and landed like a helicopter but flown in level flight like a standard fixed-wing aircraft.

7 June 2013

The Focke-Achgelis Fa 223 Drache (Dragon) was a twin-rotor helicopter that entered service in small numbers late in the Second World War.

The Focke-Achgelis Fa 224 was to have been a two-seat sports helicopter based on the experimental Focke-Wulf Fw 61/ Focke-Achgelis Fa 61, the first practical helicopter in the world.

6 June 2013

The Hai An was one of the largest warships built in China before the 1930s, and was a three-masted steam frigate that had a rather undistinguished career.

The Yu Yuen was a fully rigged steam frigate that was one of the largest warships built in China before the 1930s, but that was sunk by the French early in 1885.

5 June 2013

No.14 Fighter Squadron, RNZAF, took part in the fighting in the South Pacific, serving on Guadalcanal, during the invasions of New Georgia and Bougainville and the long campaigns to neutralise Rabaul and Kavieng.

No.15 Fighter Squadron, RNZAF, fought in the South Pacific, helping to defend Guadalcanal and taking part in the invasions of New Georgia and Bougainville and the later Australain campaign on Bougainville well as the long campaign to neutralise the Japanese base at Rabaul.

31 May 2013

The Chen Yuan ('Striking from far away') was one of two battleships ordered from Germany by China, and fought in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95, eventually being captured by the Japanese.

The Ting Yuen ('Eternal Peace') was one of two battleships built for China by the Vulcan yard at Stettin, and fought in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95.

30 May 2013

The battle of Phung-Tao or Asan (25 July 1894) was an encounter battle between Chinese and Japanese naval forces that took place before the official outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95.

The battle of Songhwan (29 July 1894) was Japan's first overseas battle for three hundred years, and saw the Japanese army in Korea defeat a Chinese force on the road to Asan in a battle that took place several days before the official outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95.

28 May 2013

No.7 General Reconnaissance Squadron, RNZAF, was a short-lived squadron that flew patrols from the northern tip of New Zealand during 1942 and early 1943.

No.8 Bomber Reconnaissance Squadron, RNZAF, went through two incarnations during the Second World War. The first was a home-based squadron that was disbanded early in 1943 while the second incarnation spent two months in the combat zone early in 1945 when it took part in the campaign to isolate Kavieng.

No.9 Bomber Reconnaissance Squadron, RNZAF, was formed overseas in July 1942 in response to an American request for assistance. The squadron flew anti-submarine patrols from New Caledonia, then Espiritu Santo in 1942-43. During 1944 it was posted to Bougainville where it flew patrols and attacked Japanese targets on the island and in 1945 it took part in the campaign to isolate Kavieng.

27 May 2013

The battle of Cape Esperance (11-12 October 1942) was a clash between American and Japanese forces both covering supply convoys heading towards Guadalcanal.

The battle of the Santa Cruz Islands (26 October 1942) was an indecisive carrier battle during the Guadalcanal campaign that ended with one American carrier sunk and two Japanese carriers damaged, but that had little impact on the fighting on the island.

23 May 2013

No.5 Flying Boat Squadron, RNZAF, went through two incarnations during the Second World War. In the first it operated the Short Singapore flying boat from Fiji during the period in which there was a real danger of a Japanese invasion. The second began in July 1944 when the squadron was reformed and equipped with the Consolidated Catalina. This incarnation of the squadron flew a mix of anti-submarine patrols and shipping escort missions from Espiritu Santo.

No.6 Flying Boat Squadron, RNZAF, spent most of its existence operating from Guadalcanal, from where it searched for Japanese submarines, took part in air-sea rescue missions and acted as an emergency transport unit.

22 May 2013

The Focke-Wulf Fw 61/ Focke-Achgelis Fa 61 was the first practical helicopter in the world, and was a twin-rotor machine that made quite an impact when it was flown through the Deutschlandhalle in February 1938.

The Focke-Achgelis Fa 266 Hornisee (Hornet) was the first genuine transport helicopter in the world, and was an enlarged version of the Focke-Wulf Fw 61/ Focke-Achgelis Fa 61. Soon after making its maiden tethered flight the Fa 266 was taken over by the Germany military and became the Fa 223 Drache.

21 May 2013

The battle of Savo Island (9 August 1942) was a crushing Japanese victory in the waters just off Guadalcanal that saw them sink four Allied cruisers and helped to isolate the US Marines fighting on Guadalcanal.

The battle of the Eastern Solomons (24-25 August 1942) was the second battle in the series of six naval actions linked to the fighting on Guadalcanal and was a carrier battle that ended as a minor American victory.

16 May 2013

The land battle of Vella Lavella (15 August-7 October 1943) was one of the first examples of the leapfrogging strategy that carried the Americans across the vast distances of the Pacific.

Operation Goodtime - the invasion of the Treasury Islands (27 October 12 November 1943) - was a preliminary operation before the main invasion of Bougainville Island in the Solomon Islands.

14 May 2013

No.3 Bomber Reconnaissance Squadron, RNZAF, was one of the longest serving New Zealand squadrons of the Pacific War. It fought on Guadalcanal late in 1942, flew regular patrols in support of the fighting on New Georgia during 1943, took part in the Bougainville campaign during 1944 and the long campaign to isolate Rabaul in late 1944 and 1945.

No.4 Bomber Reconnaissance Squadron, RNZAF, spent most of the Pacific war based on Fiji, from where it flew anti-submarine patrols. Late in 1944 it moved to Emirau where it spent two tours flying a mix of maritime patrols and bombing raids on the Japanese base at Rabaul.

10 May 2013

No.1 Bomber Reconnaissance Squadron, RNZAF, flew a mix of maritime reconnaissance and bombing missions from bases on Guadalcanal, New Georgia, Green Island and Emirau, searching for submarines and attacking the Japanese bases on Bougainville and at Rabaul and Kavieng.

No.2 Bomber Reconnaissance Squadron, RNZAF, flew maritime patrols from Munda during 1944 and took part in the campaign against Rabaul during 1945, flying a mix of reconnaissance missions and bombing raids.

6 May 2013

The action off Horaniu (18 August 1943) was an unsuccessful American attempt to prevent the Japanese from establishing a barge base at Horaniu, on the northern coast of Vella Lavella.

The battle of Vella Lavella (6 October 1943) was a Japanese naval victory that allowed them to evacuate nearly 600 men from the north-western coast of Vella Lavella.

2 May 2013

Operation Toenails - the invasion of New Georgia (30 June-5 August 1943) - was the first major Allied offensive in the Solomon Islands after Guadalcanal was declared to be secure.

The battle for Wickham Anchorage (30 June-3 July 1943) was a short but hard-fought battle that saw American troops defeat a smaller Japanese force on Vangunu Island, and that allowed the Americans to use Wickham Anchorage.

1 May 2013

The battle for Enogai Inlet (5-11 July 1943) was the first and most successful operation carried out by the Northern Landing Group on New Georgia and saw them capture a Japanese coastal gun battery as well as block the important trail from Bairoko to Munda.

The battle of Bairoko (20 July 1943) was the second major operation carried out by the Northern Landing Group on New Georgia, and ended in a rare Japanese victory after the poorly coordinated American attack was repulsed.

30 April 2013

Today we add the first eleven pictures to our Solomon Islands gallery

29 April 2013

We open a new picture gallery for the Solomon Islands campaign with six new maps.

26 April 2013

The invasion of Rendova Island (30 June 1943) was the first major step in the US invasion of the New Georgia group and was carried out in order to establish a base for the attack on the Japanese base at Munda on the main island.

The battle of Viru (30 June-1 July 1943) was an early success for the US troops invading New Georgia, the first major US offensive in the Solomon Islands after the end of the fighting on Guadalcanal.

25 April 2013

The Douglas OD-1 was the designation given to two O-2C observation aircraft that were ordered by the US Navy.

The Douglas BT-1 was one of the first basic trainers produced for the USAAC and was a modified version of the Douglas O-2K observation aircraft.

The Douglas BT-2 was a basic trainer originally produced by converting O-32 observation aircraft but that was later produced from new.

24 April 2013

The Douglas O-38 was numerically the most important in the family of biplane observation aircraft that began with the Douglas O-2.

The Douglas XA-2 was a ground attack aircraft that was based on the O-2 biplane observation aircraft.

22 April 2013

The battle of Baanga Island (12-22 August 1943) saw the Americans occupy a small island near Munda after unexpectedly fierce Japanese resistance.

The battle of Arundel Island (27 August-20 September 1943) was both part of the mopping up operations after the fall of Munda on New Georgia, and of the operations to isolate the remaining Japanese base on Kolombangara.

12 April 2013

The battle of Munda (2 July-5 August 1943) was the most important and most costly part of the wider American assault on New Georgia and saw them capture the main Japanese base and airfield on the island after a hard-fought month long campaign.

11 April 2013

The Douglas O-29 was an unarmed staff transport similar to the O-2K, and based on the O-2H observation aircraft.

The Douglas O-32 was an unarmed staff transport that was very quickly turned into a basic trainer as the BT-2.

The Douglas YO-34 was a single experimental aircraft similar to the earlier O-22 but with a Curtiss Conqueror engine.

10 April 2013

The Douglas O-22 was an experimental version of the O-2H observation aircraft, with a swept back upper wing and a radial engine.

The Douglas O-25 was developed from the O-2H observation biplane, and had the Liberty engine of the original aircraft replaced by a Curtiss Conqueror.

9 April 2013

The Douglas O-8 was a single aircraft based on the O-2 but powered by a Curtiss radial engine in place of the Liberty engine of the original.

The Douglas O-9 was a single aircraft based on the O-2 observation aircraft, but powered by a geared Packard engine in place of the Liberty engine of the original.

The Douglas XO-14 was a single example of a scaled down version of the O-2H observation aircraft.

8 April 2013

The battle of Kolombangara (13 July 1943) was fought in an unsuccessful attempt to prevent the Japanese getting more reinforcements from their main base at Rabaul to Vila, on the south-eastern shore of Kolombangara Island.

The battle of Vella Gulf (6 August 1943) was a clear American victory that crushed one of the last attempts by the 'Tokyo Express' to get reinforcements to the remaining Japanese garrisons in the New Georgia Islands.

5 April 2013

The 302nd Bombardment Group was a bomber training unit that served in the United States from 1942-1944.

The 304th Bombardment Group was formed as a standard bombardment unit, but briefly served as an antisubmarine warfare unit in November and December 1942 before being inactivated at the end of December.

The 307th Bombardment Group was a heavy bomber unit that took part in early raids on Wake Island before moving to the South West Pacific, where it spent the rest of the war operating over Japanese held island chains and the Philippines.

4 April 2013

Operation 'I' or 'I-Go' (7-16 April 1943) was the Japanese Navy's attempt to compensate for the loss of Guadalcanal by launching a series of massive aerial assaults on the American's new advanced bases.

The battle of Kula Gulf (6 July 1943) was an inconclusive naval clash between American and Japanese forces transporting troops to the New Georgia theatre in which both sides lost ships and the Japanese achieved their main aim of landing reinforcements on Kolombangara.

3 April 2013

Operation Cleanslate - the unopposed occupation of the Russell Islands on 21 February 1943 - was one of the first steps in the Allied advance along the Solomon Islands and the long campaign to isolate the major Japanese base at Rabaul.

The action of Kula Gulf (6 March 1943) was a minor American naval victory that was triggered by a change encounter between two Japanese destroyers attempting to bring supplies to their base at Vila on Kolombangara and an American task force that was bombarding the same base.

2 April 2013

The Douglas O-2 was the first in a long series of observation biplanes that with nearly 900 produced were amongst the most important American military aircraft of their era.

The Douglas O-7 was a version of the Douglas O-2 observation aircraft that was powered by a Packard engine in place of the original Liberty engine.

28 March 2013

The 98th Bombardment Group was a Liberator group that served in the Mediterranean theatre from August 1942 until the end of the Second World War.

The 99th Bombardment Group was a B-17 group that served in North Africa and as a strategic bomber unit from bases in Italy.

27 March 2013

The 88th Bombardment Group was a heavy bomber unit that served as a training unit based in the United States.

The 90th Bombardment Group was a Liberator group that took part in the campaigns in the south-west Pacific and the Philippines

26 March 2013

The Douglas O-35 was a twin-engined monoplane observation aircraft that was ordered in small numbers as a test aircraft, and that took part in the Air Corps air mail operation of 1934.

The Douglas XO-36 was the designation originally given to the airframe that was completed as the prototype Douglas XB-7 light bomber.

The Douglas B-7 was the company’s first monoplane bomber, and although it wasn't produced in large numbers did help the US Army Air Corps convert from the older biplanes.

22 March 2013

The 45th Bombardment Group was a home based bomber unit that operated off the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts during the first year after the American entry in the Second World War.

The 46th Bombardment Group was a home-based bomber group that flew a few anti-submarine patrols in 1942 before becoming a training unit.

The 47th Bombardment Group was a medium bomber unit that served in North Africa, Italy and the south of France, acting as a night intruder mission from June 1944.

21 March 2013

The 40th Bombardment Group was a B-29 bomber group that took part in the early Superfortress campaign from India and China before moving to Tinian early in 1945 to join the main bomber offensive against Japan.

The 41st Bombardment Group was a B-25 bomber unit in the Seventh Air Force that took part in the fighting in the Marshall Islands, Tinian and Guam in 1943-44 and the air campaign over Japan in 1945.

20 March 2013

The 38th Bombardment Group was a B-25 group that took part in the long campaigns in New Guinea and the Marshall Islands and supported the invasion of the Philippines.

The 39th Bombardment Group began the Second World War as a training unit before becoming a B-29 Superfortress unit and taking part in the strategic bombing campaign against Japan

19 March 2013

The 25th Bombardment Group was part of the American garrison in the Caribbean from 1940 until 1944 when it returned to the US before being disbanded.

The 29th Bombardment Group entered the Second World War as a heavy bomber group based in the Caribbean, before reformed as a B-29 unit and taking part in the strategic bombing campaign against Japan.

18 March 2013

The Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. D VI was a parasol wing fighter that was due to replace the S.S.W. D IV biplane in production, but that appeared too late and didn’t undergo flight tests until 1919.

The Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. DDr II was the designation given to a proposed version of the unusual DDr I triplane that would have been powered by the Siemens-Halske Sh III engine.

The Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. E IV was the designation given to a version of the S.S.W. E III that would have had a circular fuselage cross section.

15 March 2013

The Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. D V was a two-bay biplane based on the earlier S.S.W. D III/ D IV series.

The Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. DDr I was an unusual triplane fighter powered by a pair of engines mounted on the centre line, one pusher and one tractor engine.

The Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. E III was a monoplane fighter based on the S.S.W. E I, but that was powered by an Oberursel engine in place of the Siemens rotary engine used on the E I.

14 March 2013

The 19th Bombardment Group was a heavy bomber group that was caught up in the Japanese invasion of the Philippines and Java and formed part of the defensive forces in Australia during 1942. It then returned to the US where in the spring of 1944 it was reformed as a B-29 group, returning to combat against Japan in February 1945

The 21st Bombardment Group was a home-based bomber group that mainly served as a training unit.

13 March 2013

The 13th Bombardment Group was a short-lived formation that took part in the antisubmarine campaign off the US east coast during 1942.

The 16th Bombardment Group was a B-29 group that took part in the last few months of the strategic bombing campaign against Japan.

The 17th Bombardment Group was a B-26 group that took part in Operation Torch, and the invasions of Sicily, Italy and Southern France.

11 March 2013

The 3rd Bombardment Group was a light bomber group that took part in the long campaign in New Guinea and the reconquest of the Philippines, before flying a few missions over Japan before the end of the war.

The 9th Bombardment Group was a bombardment group that spent much of the war in Panama, the Caribbean and the US, before moving to Tinian at the start of 1945 where it spent the last year of the war operating B-29s against Japan.

8 March 2013

The Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. D III was a biplane fighter powered by the unusual Siemens-Halske Sh III engine, and that served as a home defence interceptor in Germany late in the First World War.

The Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. D IV was the final Siemens fighter to see active service during the First World War and was a development of the earlier D II and D III but with modified wings.

6 March 2013

The Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. D I was a single engined scout based very closely on the successful French Nieuport scouts, but that reached the front too late to have any significant impact.

The Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. D.II was ordered as a test bed for the new Siemens-Halske S.H. III rotary engine.

5 March 2013

The siege of Capua (October-2 November 1860) was the first major contribution that the Piedmontese regular army made to the conquest of the Kingdom of Naples, after Garibaldi and his army had conquered Sicily, occupied Naples and defeated the last major Bourbon counterattack on the Volturno (1 October 1860).

The siege of Gaeta (3 November 1860-13 February 1861) was the last stand of Francis II, Bourbon King of Naples. After a siege that lasted 100 days he was forced to surrender, but by then his kingdom had already voted to join with Piedmont.

4 March 2013

We complete our No.256 Gallery, with the last twenty three pictures from Gary Burt.

28 February 2013

New picture gallery for No.256 Squadron, based around pictures sent to us by Gary Burt

27 February 2013

New picture gallery for No.143 Squadron, based around pictures sent to us by Colin Bain

26 February 2013

The Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W E I was the first Siemens fighter to be ordered into production during the First World War, and was a shoulder-wing monoplane similar in appearance to the more famous Fokker eindeckers.

The Siemens-Schuckert Werke S.S.W. E II was a variant on the earlier E I monoplane scout, but using an Argus inline engine in place of the Siemens rotary engine of the E I.

22 February 2013

The Curtiss B-2 Condor was a twin engined bomber produced in the late 1920s and that was the last bomber produced for the US Army by Curtiss and was a development of the Curtiss-Martin NBS-1.

The Curtiss O-40 Raven was a sesquiplane observation aircraft produced in tiny numbers for the US Army in the early 1930s.

19 February 2013

The Curtiss-Martin NBS-1 was a twin engined biplane bomber of the early 1920s that was designed by Glenn Martin but produced by Curtiss, Aeromarine and L.W.F.

The Curtiss NBS-4 was an improved version of the Curtiss-Martin NBS-1 Night Bomber that was produced in prototype form before being superseded by the Curtiss B-2 Condor

18 February 2013

The Second War of Italian Independence (1859-61) was the most significant of the four wars, and resulted in the establishment of a Kingdom of Italy that contained all of Italy apart from the Venetia and the area around Rome.

The battle of the Volturno (1 October 1860) was the last major clash during Garibaldi's invasion of the Kingdom of Naples, and saw him defeat a major Neapolitan counterattack that if successful would have forced him to abandon Naples and might have allowed Francis II to save his throne.

15 February 2013

The battle of Castelfidardo (18 September 1860) was the most significant battle during the brief Piedmontese invasion of the Papal States and split the Papal field army into several weak fragments.

The siege of Ancona (18-29 September 1860) was the last major action during the brief Piedmontese invasion of the Papal States in 1860, and saw the fall of the only port that might have been used by an Austrian expeditionary force, greatly reducing the risk of foreign intervention in the war.

14 February 2013

The battle of Milazzo (20 July 1860) was won by Garibaldi over a strong detachment of Neapolitan troops based in a fortress town west of Messina, opened up the road to the straits of Messina, and helped cleared his way to cross to the Italian mainland

The battle of Cathedral Squadron, Reggio (Battaglia di Piazza Duomo) of 21 August 1860 was Garibaldi's first victory after he crossed from Sicily to the mainland of Italy and helped secure him a foothold on the mainland.

13 February 2013

The Curtiss XF14C was the last piston engine fighter to be designed by Curtiss, but by the time the prototype was completed it was no longer needed and didn't enter production.

The Curtiss XF15C was a mixed-power carrier fighter, using a jet engine for high speed and a piston engine for the shorter take-off length and better fuel economy.

12 February 2013

The Curtiss F12C/ XS4C/ XSBC (Model 73) was a two-seat parasol wing aircraft that went through a series of designations before being destroyed in a crash. The aircraft was originally ordered by the Navy on 30 June 1932 as a two-seat fighter, largely based on the O-40 Raven observation aircraft.

The Curtiss XF13C was a prototype for a fighter aircraft that could be converted between a parasol wing monoplane and a biplane while in service, reflecting uncertainty in some Naval circles about the best configuration for a fighter aircraft

11 February 2013

The battle of Melegnano (8 June 1859) was a costly action during the Austrian retreat after their defeat at Magenta (4 June 1859) and was a result of a French attempt to discover if the Austrians were planned to abandon all of Lombardy, or were planning to make a stand

The battle of Solferino (24 June 1859) was the decisive battle of the first phase of the Second War of Italian Unification and was a hard fought French and Piedmontese victory that defeated an Austrian counterattack and forced Franz Josef to retreat back into the Quadrilateral fortresses of north-eastern Italy.

8 February 2013

The battle of Turbigo (3 June 1859) saw the French secure two crossing points over the Ticino River, allowing them to get a foothold in Austrian Lombardy

The battle of Magenta (4 June 1859) was the first decisive battle of the Second War of Italian Independence and was a badly managed encounter battle that ended as an Austrian defeat, and that forced them to evacuate Lombardy, surrendering it to Napoleon III and Piedmont.

7 February 2013

The battle of Montebello (20 May 1859) was the first major clash between French and Austrian forces during the Second War of Italian Unification and saw a French division force part of the Austrian IX Corps to retreat.

The battle of Palestro (30-31 May 1859) was a Piedmontese victory over the Austrians that helped cover the movement of their French allies from their original position on the Austrian left to a new position on the weaker Austrian right, and that prepared the way for the first major Allied victory of the Second War of Italian Independence, at Magenta.

6 February 2013

The Curtiss F7C Seahawk was designed in response to a 1927 contest to produce a naval fighter, but despite being placed into production was only ever used by the Marines at Quantico.

The Curtiss F9C Sparrowhawk was a small biplane fighter that gained great fame after being used as a parasite fighter on the US airships Akronand Macon.

5 February 2013

The Navy TS-1 was a small scout aircraft that was the first US Navy fighter specifically designed to operate from an aircraft carrier.

The Curtiss F4C was a version of the Navy TS-1 scout that used an aluminium frame in place of the wooden frame on the earlier aircraft.

1 February 2013

The battle of Calatafimi (15 May 1860) was the first of Garibaldi's victory during his invasion of Sicily in 1860 and saw his 'Thousand' defeat a somewhat larger Neapolitan army that had been sent from Palermo to block the roads to the Sicilian capital.

The battle of Palermo (27-30 May 1860) was the most important moment in Garibaldi and The Thousand's conquest of Bourbon Sicily, and saw them seize the island's capital despite being massively outnumbered by the garrison.

30 January 2013

The Curtiss O2C was the designation given to the later models of the F8C Helldiver after it was redesignated as a land based observation aircraft.

The Curtiss XS3C-1/ XF10C-1 was the designation given to a single O2C-2 after it was rebuilt to serve as a possible scout or fighter.

29 January 2013

The Curtiss OC Falcon was the US Navy's version of the O-1 Falcon two-seat observation aircraft, and was originally produced as the F8C attack aircraft.

The Curtiss F8C Helldiver was the first purpose-built dive bomber to be produced for the US Navy, and despite originally sharing its designation with the Navy's version of the O-1 Falcon observation biplane was actually an entirely new design.

28 January 2013

The Curtiss XO-18 was the designation given to a single O-1B that was used to test the Curtiss Chieftain engine.

The Curtiss O-26 was the designation given to a single O-1E Falcon when it was used to test a Prestone-cooled geared Curtiss V-1570-11 Conqueror engine.

The Curtiss O-39 Falcon was a version of the O-1 Falcon two-seat observation aircraft that was powered by the Curtiss Conqueror engine.

25 January 2013

The Curtiss O-13 Falcon was the designation given to a small number of O-1 and O-11 Falcon two-seat observation aircraft that were given the Curtiss V-1570 Conqueror engine.

The Curtiss XO-16 was the designation given to an experimental version of the O-1 Falcon with a modified fuselage

24 January 2013

The Curtiss O-11 Falcon was a version of the O-1 observation aircraft that was produced for the National Guard, and used surplus Liberty engines.

The Curtiss XO-12 Falcon was the designation given to the last O-11 Falcon when it was used to test the Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp air cooled radial engine.

22 January 2013

The Curtiss O-1 Falcon was a two-seat biplane observation aircraft that remained in service for more than a decade, from the early 1920s until the mid 1930s, and that was the first in a sizable family of similar aircraft.

The Curtiss XBT-4 was the designation given to a single O-1E Falcon when it was converted to act as a possible basic trainer.

21 January 2013

The Curtiss XP-10 was produced in response to a US Army requirement for a high altitude interceptor, but offered little improvement over the standard Hawk biplane and the single prototype was soon scrapped.

The Curtiss XP-31 Swift was Curtiss’s first monoplane fighter, but despite some advanced features it was a disappointing design and lost out to the Boeing P-26.

18 January 2013

The Curtiss Hawk III was the export version of the US Navy's Curtiss BF2C-1, but without the metal wing structure that caused such problems for the Navy.

The Curtiss Hawk IV was a single example of a much improved version of the Hawk biplane, but only one was ever built.

17 January 2013

The battle of Palestrina (9 May 1849) was the first of two victories won by Garibaldi over a Neapolitan force that was taking part in the siege of Rome (30 April-2 July 1849).

The battle of Velletri (19 May 1849) was the second of two victories won by the defenders of Rome over a Neapolitan force that was taking part in the siege of the Rome of April-July 1849).

16 January 2013

The combat of Laveno (30 May 1859) was a rare defeat for Garibaldi during his Alpine Campaign of 1859 and saw him fail to take an Austrian stronghold on Lake Maggiore

The battle of Tre Ponti (15 June 1859) was the last battle during Garibaldi’s Alpine Campaign of 1859 and was a drawn battle in which the retreating Austrians were unable to defeat Garibaldi's isolated force of volunteers.

15 January 2013

The battle of Varese (26 May 1859) was Garibaldi’s first success during his Alpine campaign of 1859 and saw his volunteers repulse an Austrian force that attempted to push him out of Varese.

The battle of San Fermo (27 May 1859) was Garibaldi’s second victory in two days and forced an Austrian army under General Karl von Urban to abandon Como.

14 January 2013

The Curtiss Hawk I was the designation retrospectively given to a number of early Hawk biplane fighters after the development of the Hawk II.

The Curtiss Hawk II (or Goshawk) was an export version of the Hawk biplane fighter that sold in significant numbers, as well as being the basis for the Navy's F11C Hawk.

10 January 2013

The Curtiss AT-4 was an unsuccessful attempt to produce an advanced trainer by fitting a less powerful engine in a standard P-1 airframe.

The Curtiss AT-5 was produced in an attempt to create an advanced trainer by fitting a lower powered engine in the fuselage of a standard pursuit aircraft.

9 January 2013

The Curtiss BFC was the designation given to the early versions of the Curtiss F11C with fixed undercarriage in March 1934.

The Curtiss BF2C was the first service version of the standard Hawk fighter to have a retractable main undercarriage, but suffered from excessive vibration and was withdrawn from service after only a year.

7 January 2013

The Curtiss F6C Hawk was the first version of the US Army's P-1/ P-6 Hawk fighter to see service with the US Navy and evolved from a standard land-based fighter into a dedicated Naval aircraft.

The Curtiss F11C Goshawk was the last version of the Hawk biplane fighter to be produced for the US Military, and was similar to the earlier F6C but with a Cyclone engine in place of the Wasp engine used on the older fighter.

4 January 2013

General Charles-Antoine-Louse-Alexis, comte Morand (1771-1835) was one of Napoleon’s best divisional commanders, commanding the 1st Division in Davout’s corps during the main battles of 1806-1813.

General Louis-Vincent-Joseph le Blond, comte de Saint-Hilaire (1766-1809) was one of Napoleon’s best divisional commanders and died just after being promised promotion to Marshal.

3 January 2013

The Curtiss XP-22 was an experimental version of the P-6A Hawk that became the basis for the P-6E.

The Curtiss P-23 saw a major change to the design of the Hawk biplane fighter, with a totally new fuselage, tail, nose, engine and landing gear.

2 January 2013

The Curtiss YP-20 was a development machine that went through several designation and three engines before emerging as the prototype for the P-6E.

The Curtiss XP-21 Hawk was the designation given to two P-3 Hawks when they were used to test the Pratt & Whitney Wasp Jr engine.

1 January 2013

Clovis I, king of the Franks, (r.481-511) was the founder both of the Merovingian dynasty and of a powerful Frankish kingdom. During his reign he turned his kingdom from a small power in Flanders into a major kingdom that stretched from Aquitaine to the Rhine and English Channel.

The siege of Arles (507-508) saw the Visigothic defenders of the city fight off a Frankish and Burgundian army until the Ostrogoths of King Theodoric arrived and lifted the siege.

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