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31 December 2014

The Nieuport 13 was a two-seat biplane similar to the Nieuport 12, but originally built with a lower powered engine, possibly for use as a trainer.

The Nieuport 14 was two-seat observation biplane that was also used as a bomber, but that had a short front line career and was only produced in small numbers.

30 December 2014

The battle of Ravenna (11 April 1512) was a French victory over a Spanish army that might have helped secure a French victory over the forces of the Holy League if the young French commander, Gaston de Foix, duke of Nemours, hadn't been killed late in the day.

The battle of Marignano or Melegnano (13-14 September 1515) was a French victory that restored their rule of the Duchy of Milan after a brief period of Swiss dominance, and that was probably the high point of Francis I's career in Italy (Francis I's First Invasion of Italy).

29 December 2014

Operation Chronicle, the invasion of Woodlark and Kiriwina Islands, saw Allied troops occupy two undefended islands off the north-eastern corner of New Guinea at the start of the campaign to neutralise the key Japanese base at Rabaul. 

The battle of Wau (28-30 January 1943) saw the defeat of the last Japanese attempt to advance towards Port Moresby

19 December 2014

USS Quincy (CA-39) was a New Orleans class heavy cruiser that served with the Neutrality Patrol in the Atlantic and fought at Guadalcanal, before being sunk during the battle of Savo Island of 9 August 1942.

USS Vincennes (CA-44) was a New Orleans class heavy cruiser that took part in the Neutrality Patrol, the Doolittle raid, the battle of Midway and the invasion of Guadalcanal before being sunk at the battle of Savo Island (9 August 1942).

18 December 2014

Charles VIII of France (1470-98, reigned 1483-98) began the long series of French invasions of Italy (Italian Wars), paying a great cost for his temporary occupation of Naples.

Christian III of Denmark (1503-1559, r.1533/4-59) made Lutheranism the official state church of Denmark and sided against the Emperor Charles V during the Fourth Hapsburg-Valois War (1542-44).

17 December 2014

The Nieuport 24 was a development of the Nieuport 17 single seat fighter that saw the introduction of a new tail, but that was otherwise similar to the older fighter.

The Nieuport 25 was a version of the standard Nieuport sesquiplane fighter that was powered by a number of more powerful engines, ending up with a 200hp Clerget model, but problems with the new engine combined with the limits of the basic design meant that it didn’t enter production.

16 December 2014

The siege of Novara (3-6 June 1513) was the highpoint of the French invasion of Milan of 1513, and was ended by the arrival of strong Swiss reinforcements who defeated the French in battle outside Novara (6 June 1513).

The battle of Novara (6 June 1513) was one of the last victories won by the famous Swiss infantry, and saw them overwhelm a French army that had temporarily occupied most of the Duchy of Milan.

15 December 2014

The 10th Reconnaissance Group served with the Ninth Air Force in Europe from May 1944 until the end of the fighting, helping to support the D-Day landings, the advance across France and the invasion of Germany.

The 11th Photographic Group was a mapping unit that produced photographic maps of the US and many of the operational theatres of the Second World War.

The 25th Bombardment Group (Reconnaissance) was mainly used for meterological flights, but also carried out some more general reconnaissance duties.

12 December 2014

The Elkton III Plan was the Allied plan for the reduction of the major Japanese base at Rabaul on New Ireland. It involved a two-pronged advance, with General MacArthur's forces operating on New Guinea and Admiral Halsey's in the Solomon Islands, and would be implemented as Operation Cartwheel.

Operation Cartwheel (30 June 1943- January 1944) was the name given to a series of interlocked invasions in New Guinea, New Britain and the Solomn islands originally designed as preparation for the conquest of the Japanese base at Rabaul, but that eventually led to the isolation of that base.

11 December 2014

USS Tuscaloosa (CA-37) was a New Orleans class heavy cruiser that served alongside the British Home Fleet on the Russian convoys, took part in Operation Torch, the D-Day landings and Operation Dragoon then swapped to the Pacific for the invasions of Iwo Jima and Okinawa.

USS San Francisco (CA-38) was a New Orleans class heavy cruiser that was present when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, and that fought in the Solomon Islands, at the battle of Cape Esperance, the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, in the Aleutians, during the invasions of Makin, the Marshall Islands, the invasions of Saipan and Tinian, the battle of the Philippine Sea and the invasions of Iwo Jima and Okinawa.

9 December 2014

The Treaty of Blois (September 1504) ended fighting between Louis XII of France and the Emperor Maximilian, and was followed by a series of other treaties that between them ended the Second Italian War (1499-1503).

The Treaty of Blois of October 1505 was the second of two treaties of Blois that restored peace after the Second Italian War of 1499-1503.

8 December 2014

The Nieuport 21 was a variant of the successful Nieuport Type 17 fighter, but with a less powerful engine and enlarged ailerons.

The Nieuport 23 was a slightly modified version of the successful Nieuport 17 single seat fighter, and was used alongside the earlier aircraft.

5 December 2014

Maurice, Duke and Elector of Saxony (1521-53) was a German prince best known for betraying the Protestant cause in the 1540s before turning on Charles V at the start of the 1550s and forming an alliance with the French.

Georg von Frundsberg (1473-1528) was a German mercenary leader who fought for the Hapsburg emperors Maximilian I and Charles V during a career that lasted for thirty years and saw him take part in the great Imperial victory at Pavia.

4 December 2014

The battle of the Bismarck Sea (2-4 March 1943) saw repeated Allied air attacks almost totally destroy a Japanese convoy attempting to get reinforcements from Rabaul to the bases at Lae and Salamaua on the north-east coast of New Guinea.

The battle of Cape Saint George (25 November 1943) was the last significant naval battle during the Solomon Islands campaign and saw an American destroyer squadron defeat a similar Japanese force that was attempting to carry reinforcements to Buka on Bougainville.

1 December 2014

USS Astoria (CA-34) was a New Orleans class heavy cruiser that fought at the battles of the Coral Sea and Midway, before becoming one of three members of the class to be lost at the Battle of Savo Island in August 1942.

USS Minneapolis (CA-36) was a New Orleans class cruiser that fought at the Coral Sea, Midway, Guadalcanal and Tassafaronga, the invasions of the Gilbert and Marshall Islands, the battle of the Philippine Sea, the invasions of the Mariana Islands, the Palau Islands and the Philippines, the battle of Leyte Gulf and the early part of the invasion of Okinawa.

28 November 2014

The 7th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was allocated to the Eighth Air Force and operated from bases in England from the summer of 1943 to the end of the Second World War.

The 8th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) served in India from March 1944 until the end of the Second World War.

The 9th Reconnaissance Group was a home-based training unit that operated in the United States from October 1943 until May 1944.

27 November 2014

The New Orleans class heavy cruisers were the last in a series of related treaty cruisers that began with the Pensacola class and were the first to carry armour designed to stop 8in shells.

USS New Orleans (CA-32) was the name ship of the New Orleans class of heavy cruisers and fought at the battles of the Coral Sea, Midway, Guadalcanal, the Philippine Sea and Leyte Gulf and during the invasions of the Gilbert Islands, the Marshal Islands, Hollandia, the Palau Islands and Okinawa.

25 November 2014

The Nieuport 17 was the most famous in the series of Nieuport fighters, and was a redesigned version of the original Nieuport 11, with larger wings and a more powerful engine.

The Nieuport 20 was a variant of the Nieuport 12 two-seater that was produced in small numbers for the RFC late in 1916.

24 November 2014

The battle of the Garigliano (28-29 December 1503) was the second of two major Spanish victories won in Naples during 1503 that saw the French expelled from the south of Italy.

The battle of Agnadello (14 May 1509) was the only major battle of the War of the League of Cambrai, and was a Venetian defeat that caused the Republic to temporarily abandon many of its mainland possessions.

21 November 2014

Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome, king of Navarre (1518-62) was a French nobleman who played a minor part in the Hapsburg-Valois Wars, before being killed at the siege of Rouen (First War of Religion).

Charles II, 8th Duke of Bourbon, Count of Montpensier, known as the 'Constable of Bourbon', was a French nobleman who fought for both sides during the Italian Wars, after arguing with Francis I of France.

19 November 2014

The Battle of the Philippine Sea or 'Great Marianas Turkey Shoot (19-20 June 1944) was the first major naval battle in the Pacific since 1942 and was a crushing American victory that permanently destroyed Japanese naval aviation, leaving their carriers as hollow shells for the rest of the war

18 November 2014

The Nieuport 12 was a larger and more powerful version of the Nieuport 10, designed to overcome the earlier aircraft's lack of power when used as a two-seat scout.

The Nieuport 16 was a version of the Nieuport 11 'Bébé' that was powered by an 110hp Le Rhône engine instead of the 80hp engine of the original aircraft.

14 November 2014

The Treaty of Granada (11 November 1500) was an agreement between Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon to split the Kingdom of Naples between them.

The siege of Gaeta (June-October 1503) was an unsuccessful Spanish attempt to capture one of the last French strongholds in Naples in the aftermath of the great Spanish victory at Cerignola in April 1503

12 November 2014

The 4th Reconnaissance Group was the only reconnaissance unit to serve with the Thirteenth Air Force and took part in the advance across the southern Pacific, moving from its early bases on New Caledonia to Morotai in the Moluccas Islands, an advance of around 3,000 miles.

The 5th Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) arrived in the Mediterranean Theatre at the start of the long Italian campaign and carried out operations across most of southern Europe and in support of D-Day.

The 6th Reconnaissance Group was one of two reconnaissance groups to serve with the Fifth Air Force in the Pacific, supporting the campaigns in New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, Borne and the Philippines.

11 November 2014

USS Portland (CA33) was the name ship of the Portland class of heavy cruisers and was heavily involved in the Pacific War, fighting at Midway, the Coral Sea, off Guadalcanal, in the Aleutians, the Gilbert and Marshall Islands, supporting operations on New Guinea, at Peleliu, and taking part in the battle of Leyte Gulf and the invasion of Okinawa.

USS Indianapolis (CA-35) was a Portland class cruiser that fought in the Aleutians, the Gilbert and Marshall Islands, Saipan, the battle of the Philippine Sea, Tinian, Guam the Carolines, Iwo Jima and Okinawa, but is best know for being sunk after parts of the first Atomic bomb to Tinian.

7 November 2014

Gaston de Foix, Duke of Nemours (1489-1512) was a French commander in Italy whose period of dramatic success was cut short by his death towards the end of the battle of Ravenna.

Marshal Odet de Foix, count of Lautrec (1485-1528) was a French commander of the Italian Wars most famous for suffering a heavy defeat at La Bicocca in 1522.

6 November 2014

The Morane-Saulnier Type BB and Type BH were almost identical biplane reconnaissance aircraft that were produced for the RFC during 1915.

The Morane-Saulnier Type P (MoS 21) was a two-seat parasol wing reconnaissance aircraft that was produced early in 1916 and was one of the more successful Morane-Saulnier aircraft of the First World War.

5 November 2014

The Morane-Saulnier Type AC (MoS 23) was a shoulder winged single-seat fighter of 1916 was developed from a string of earlier designs, and that was only produced in small numbers.

The Morane-Saulnier Type AN (MoS 31 to MoS 34) was a two-bay biplane that was developed late in the First World War. Its disappointing performance, combined with the end of the war, meant that the type never entered production.

4 November 2014

Prospero Colonna (1452-1523) was a successful Italian commander of the Italian Wars who spent much of the later part of his life fighting against the French, and who rose to command the Imperial armies in Italy at the end of his career.

Giovanni de Medici (1498-1526) was the most able soldier produced by the Medici family, and was the father of Cosimo I, the first grand duke of Tuscany.

30 October 2014

The Boeing Y1C-18 was the military designation given to a single Boeing Monomail (Model 200) that was evaluated by the USAAC.

The Boeing C-73 was the military designation given to a number of Model 247 twin-engine transport aircrafts that were taken into military service early in the Second World War.

29 October 2014

Guillaume Gouffier, Lord of Bonnivet, Admiral of France (c.1488-1525) was a French commander who performed well battle early in his career, but who proved to be an ineffective commander when given control of the French army in Italy in 1523-24.

Gaspard II de Coligny, Admiral of France (1519-1572) was a successful French commander during the later stages of the Italian Wars who became a Huguenot leader in the French Wars of Religion and who was killed during the St Bartholomew's Day Massacre of August 1572.

28 October 2014

The Boeing Y1B-9A was an early monoplane bomber originally developed as a private venture in 1930-31 but that failed to gain any production orders.

The Boeing/ Stearman XA-21 was a twin-engine attack aircraft that was one of the most advanced aircraft to emerge from the Stearman Company.

23 October 2014

The 1st Photographic Group was formed in June 1941 to expand photographic mapping in the USAAF and to provide long-range photographic reconnaissance similar to the British model.

The 2nd Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a home-based training unit that operated for two years from May 1942 until May 1944.

The 3rd Reconnaissance Group (USAAF) was a reconnaissance unit that served in the Mediterranean, supporting the campaigns in Tunisia, Sicily and mainland Italy.

22 October 2014

Bernard Stuart, Seigneur of Aubigny, was a French general from a family of Scottish origins, and was a fairly unsuccessful French commander in the early phases of the Italian War.

Pierre Terrail, seigneur of Bayard (1475-1524) was a French military leader who earned an impressive reputation during the Italian Wars and become known as the 'Fearless and blameless knight', while later commanders of promise were sometimes called the 'New Bayard'.

21 October 2014

The Boeing XN2B-1 was an experimental trainer produced by fitting an experimental Fairchild-Caminez engine to a Boeing Model 64 primary trainer.

The Boeing Model 76 was an export version of the Model 75 'Kaydet' trainer, given more powerful engines and light armament and used as combat trainers and attack aircraft.

16 October 2014

The Nieuport 10 was designed as a two-seat biplane reconnaissance aircraft, but most were converted into single-seat fighters, making it the first in the long series of Nieuport fighters that served with the British, French, American, Italian and Russian air services during the First World War.

The Nieuport 11 was a single seat scout that entered French service at the start of 1916 and that helped defeat the 'Fokker scourge', the period of German air dominance won by the famous Fokker monoplanes.

15 October 2014

Bartolomeo d'Alviano (1455-1515) was an Italian condottiere who fought both for and against the French in the early stages of the Italian Wars.

Andrea Doria (1466-1560) was one of the most successful Italian leaders of the long-running Italian Wars and was a very able naval leader who ended his life as ruler of Genoa.

Francesco II Gonzaga, Marquess of Mantua (1466-1519) was an Italian general best known for commanding the Italian army at the battle of Fornovo in 1495 when he was commander of the armies of Venice, but who also spent many years in the French service as well as briefly fighting for the Pope.

14 October 2014

The Boeing-Stearman PT-17 was the USAAF designation for all Model 75 primary trainers powered by Continental engines.

The Boeing-Stearman PT-18 was the USAAF designation for all Model 75 primary trainers powered by Jacobs engines.

The Boeing-Stearman PT-27 was the designation for 300 Model 75 primary trainers produced to go to Canada under Lend-Lease.

10 October 2014

The USS Kentucky (BB-66) would have been the last of six Iowa class battleships. She was incomplete at the end of the Second World War, and although work continued on her intermittently until the mid-1950s with some proposals to complete her as a missile battleship she was eventually sold for scrap in 1958.

The Montana class of battleships were the last and largest class of battleships ordered by the US Navy, but work was cancelled before any of the five ships had even been laid down.

9 October 2014

Alexander VI (c.1431-1503, Pope 1492-1503) was one of the worst examples of a Renaissance Pope, seen as more interested in the power of his family, Italian politics and patronising the arts than in religion.

Pope Clement VII (1478-1534, Pope 1523-1534) was Pope during most of the First and Second Hapsburg-Valois Wars in Italy, and was seen as a weak, vacillating Pope whose actions or inactions led to the sack for Rome of 1527 and the English split with Rome of 1534.

8 October 2014

The Boeing-Stearman PT-13 was the USAAF designation for all Model 75 primary trainers powered by Lycoming engines.

The Boeing-Stearman N2S was the designation given to all US Navy versions of the Boeing-Stearman Model 75 Primary Trainer.

7 October 2014

Charles IV, Duke of Alencon (1489-1525) was an unimpressive French commander during the Italian Wars who became a scapegoat for the major defeat at Pavia in April 1525.

John Stuart, second duke of Albany (c.1481/4-1536) was a Scottish nobleman who served Francis I of France during the war that ended in disaster at Pavia in 1525.

3 October 2014

The Italian Wars (1494-1559) saw a prolonged period of struggle between the major European powers for control of Italy. It began with a French attempt to press a claim to the Kingdom of Naples, but soon expanded into a general clash between the houses of Valois and Habsburg, and in particular between Francis I of France and the Emperor Charles V.

2 October 2014

USS Wisconsin (BB-64) was an Iowa class battleship that served in the Pacific in 1945, served as a bombardment ship during the Korean War and was reactivated during the 1980s, fighting in the First Gulf War of 1991.

USS Illinois (BB-65) was the fifth member of the Iowa class of fast battleships. She was incomplete at the end of the Second World War, was cancelled in August 1945 and scrapped in place in the ship yard.

1 October 2014

The 37th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a fighter unit that served as part of the defense force of the Panama Canal from 1940 until 1943.

The 361st Fighter Group (USAAF) provided fighter escorts for the Eighth Air Force's strategic bombing campaign and also carried out a number of ground attack missions.

The 364th Fighter Group (USAAF) entered combat as a fighter escort unit, protecting the Eighth Air Force's heavy bombers, but later added ground attack duties to its role.

30 September 2014

The Fourth Hapsburg-Valois War (1542-44) was the last conflict between Francis I of France and the Empire Charles V, and was a drawn conflict that ended with the restoration of the pre-war status quo.

The fifth and final Hapsburg-Valois War (1551-59) was the last in the series of clashes between the Hapsburg and Valois dynasties that began under Francis I and Charles V.

29 September 2014

The Morane-Saulnier Type H was a successful pre-First World War single seat sports aircraft that served with limited success early in the war.

The Morane-Saulnier Type V was a variant of the Type N, a shoulder-winged monoplane fighter, but powered by a 110hp engine in place of the original 80hp engine, and with an endurance of 3 hours.

26 September 2014

USS New Jersey (BB-62) was an Iowa class fast battleship that fought in the Pacific during the Second World War, and as a shore bombardment ship during the Korean and Vietnamese Wars, before being reactivated for a final time in the 1980s.

Because of its role in the Japanese surrender USS Missouri (BB-63) is the most famous of the Iowa class battleships, but it only really served during the last eight months of the war in the Pacific, and went on to see action in Korea (receiving more battle stars for Korea than for the Second World War) and after a long gap in the First Gulf War of 1991.

23 September 2014

The Boeing-Stearman Model 75 'Kaydet' was the main primary trainer used by the USAAF and US Navy with just over 8,500 complete aircraft built by the time production ended in 1945.

The Boeing-Stearman NS was a primary trainer that was the first of what became the Boeing-Stearman Model 75 Kaydet family to enter service with the US military.

22 September 2014

The Second Hapsburg-Valois War or War of the League of Cognac (1526-30) was an unsuccessful attempt to reduce the power of Charles V in Italy after his crushing victory at Pavia in 1525, and is perhaps best known for a disastrous sack of Rome in 1527.

The Third Hapsburg-Valois War (1536-38) was an inconclusive clash triggered by the death of the last Sforza duke of Milan, and that ended as a minor French victory.

19 September 2014

The Iowa class of battleships were the largest and fastest class of American battleships ever completed. Four of the six planned ships were completed, and all four saw some service in the Second World War.

USS Iowa (BB-61) was the name ship of the Iowa class of fast battleships, and she and her sister New Jersey were the only members of the class to see extensive service in the Pacific during the Second World War.

18 September 2014

The Morane-Saulnier Type G was a pre-First World War two-seat sports plane that achieved numerous successes, but that provided to be an ineffective military aircraft.

The Morane-Saulnier Type G (1915) was a somewhat mysterious design that appears to have been an attempt to revive the pre-war Type G but as a single-seat fighter aircraft.

16 September 2014

Francis I's First Invasion of Italy (1515-16) was the most successful of his many campaigns in Italy, and saw him defeat the Swiss at Marignano and take control of the Duchy of Milan, expelling Massimiliano Sforza.

The First Hapsburg-Valois War (1521-26) was the start of a quarter of a century of conflict between Francis I of France and the Emperor Charles V and ended with the disastrous French defeat at Pavia in February 1525), which saw the French position in Italy collapse, never really to recover.

15 September 2014

The 24th Pursuit Group was a fighter group that was destroyed during the Japanese invasion of the Philippines, but that was kept on the official list of active organizations for the rest of the war.

The 31st Fighter Group (USAAF) was one of the first units of the Eighth Air Force to enter combat, but was then transferred to the Twelfth Air Force to take part in Operation Torch and spent the rest of the war operating in the Mediterranean theatre.

The 32nd Fighter Group (USAAF) was a short-lived group that formed part of the defence force for the Panama Canal.

12 September 2014

The siege of Barletta (August 1502-April 1503) saw a French army under the Duke of Nemours loosely blockade a smaller Spanish army under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba in the port of Barletta in Apulia, but the French failed to press their advantage before Cordoba was reinforced

The battle of Cerignola (26 April 1503) was the first great victory for Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba (El Gran Capitán) and forced the French to abandon the city of Naples.

11 September 2014

The Boeing AT-15 Crewmaster was a composite construction bomber trainer that was ordered into production before being cancelled in favour of the all-wooden Fairchild AT-21.

The Boeing XBT-17 was a design for a training aircraft that used as little aluminium as possible.

9 September 2014

The Boeing XF7B was the first low-wing monoplane with a retractable undercarriage to be tested by the US Navy.

The Boeing XF8B was a multi-purpose fighter and attack aircraft developed in response to a US Navy specification issued in 1943. It was far more advanced than the last generation of Boeing fighter aircraft, which had appeared in the mid 1930

8 September 2014

The LVG D.V was a fast but hard-to-control experimental fighter produced by LVG during 1918, and that didn't enter production.

The LVG D.VI was the last in a series of experimental fighters produced by LVG and underwent testing in the last week of the First World War.

5 September 2014

The siege of Capua (July 1501) was part of the French invasion of Naples in the summer of 1501 (Second Italian War)

The siege of Taranto (Autumn 1501-March 1502) was the last stand of the Aragonese dynasty of Naples after it was attacked by a Franco-Spanish alliance (Second Italian War).

4 September 2014

Albrecht, duke of Wurttemberg (1865-1939) was one of a number of Royal generals who held high command in the German Army during the First World War.

Oskar von Hutier (1857-1934) was a German general best known for being the first test out new infiltration tactics on a large scale at Riga in 1917, and who also commanded an army during Ludendorff's series of offensive in the west in 1918.

3 September 2014

The Boeing XP-32 was the designation given to a un-built version of the YP-29 that would have been powered by a 700hp Pratt & Whitney engine.

The Boeing XF6B/ XBFB was the last biplane fighter produced by the company, but despite being considered as both a fighter and a fighter-bomber didn't win a production order.

2 September 2014

The 16th Fighter Group (USAAF) formed part of the defence force for the Panama Canal from 1932 until it was disbanded in 1943.

The 18th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a fighter unit that suffered heavy losses at Pearl Harbor but recovered to operate over the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, the Dutch East Indies, the Philippines and Formosa.

The 21st Fighter Group (USAAF) served as part of the Seventh Air Force on Hawaii during 1944, before moving to Iwo Jima early in 1945.

1 September 2014

The siege of Novara (5-21 March 1500) was Ludovico Sforza's last success in his attempt to expel the French from the Duchy of Milan (Second Italian War/ Italian War of Louis XII).

The battle of Novara (8 April 1500) was an easy French victory that ended an attempt by Ludovico Sforza to expel them from the Duchy of Milan (Second Italian War/ Italian War of Louis XII).

28 August 2014

The LVG D.III was the third in a series of experimental biplane fighters produced by LVG and the first to have a gap between the fuselage and the upper wings.

The LVG D.IV was a somewhat unlucky fighter, suffered from two engine failures that destroyed the two prototypes, ending development of the type.

27 August 2014

The LVG D 10 was an unusual experimental fighter design with a tall but narrow fuselage that filled the entire gap between the upper and lower wings.

The LVG D.II was the first LVG designed fighter to get an official designation, and was a more orthodox design than the earlier D 10.

26 August 2014

The War of the League of Cambrai (1508-1510) was fought between Venice and an alliance that included the Emperor Maximilian, Pope Julius II, Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon, and that despite never coordinating its attacks managed to conquer large parts of the Venetian mainland empire before falling apart.

The War of the Holy League (1510-1514) saw Pope Julius II form a league to oppose his French allies of the League of Cambrai, and saw the French suffer a series of defeats that forced them to withdraw from Milan.

22 August 2014

The Second Italian War or Italian War of Louis XII (1499-1503) began with the French conquest of Milan, which was followed by a joint Franco-Spanish campaign in Naples, and that ended with a war between the former allies that began the long period of Spanish rule in Naples.

The siege of Alessandria (25-29 August 1499) was the main military action during the French invasion of Milan in 1499, and the fall of the city helped force Ludovico Sforza to flee from Milan (Second Italian War/ Italian War of Louis XII).

21 August 2014

The Boeing P-26 was the first all-metal production fighter and the first monoplane pursuit aircraft to enter service with the USAAC, but it was very much a transitional design, with its open cockpit, fixed landing gear and externally braced wings all belonging more to biplane era.

The Boeing YP-29 was developed between the Model 248 (the prototype for the P-26) and the Model 266, the production version of the P-26, but despite being a rather more modern design it didn't enter production.

20 August 2014

Wilhelm Groener (1867-1939) was a German general who was head of the railway section in 1914 and played a major part in the success of the German mobilization.

General Max von Hausen (1846-1922) was a German general who commanded the Third Army from the start of the First World War until the end of the battle of the Aisne.

19 August 2014

The Boeing XP-15 (Model 202) was a parasol wing fighter designed as a private venture at a time when Boeing was also working on more radical designs.

The Boeing XF5B-1 (Model 205) was the US Navy's version of the experimental parasol wing XP-15 (Model 202), and like the Army version didn't enter production although the Navy did use it for experimental flights for three years.

18 August 2014

The battle of Fornovo (6 July 1495) was an unsuccessful attempt by an Italian army to stop Charles VIII of France during his retreat from Naples in the summer of 1495.

Ferdinand II, King of Naples (1467-1496) was the penultimate member of the independent Aragonese dynasty of Naples.

15 August 2014

The Morane-Saulnier Type N was a shoulder-winged single seat fighter that was the first dedicated fighter aircraft to serve with the French.

The Morane-Saulnier Type I was a variant of the Type N fighter aircraft that was powered by a 110hp engine and had an endurance of 1 ½ hours.

14 August 2014

The 1st Fighter Group was a long standing US fighter group that briefly served with the Eighth Air Force in Britain before moving to North Africa to support Operation Torch.

The 8th Fighter Group was a long range fighter group that supported Allied operations from New Guinea to the Philippines, ending the war with raids on the Japanese home islands.

The 15th Fighter Group (USAAF) spent most of the Second World War as part of the defence forces for Hawaii, before moving forward to Iwo Jima early in 1945 to take part in the battles of Iwo Jima, Okinawa and the attacks on the Japanese Home Islands.

12 August 2014

The First Italian War/ Italian War of Charles VIII (1494-96) was an unsuccessful French attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples, and helped trigger over half a century of warfare in Italy, which ended with Spain as the dominant power.

The battle of Seminara (28 June 1495) saw the first appearance of the great Spanish general Fernández Gonsalo de Cordoba in Italy, and was a rare defeat at the hands of the French (First Italian War).

11 August 2014

Otto von Emmich (1848-1915) was a German general who commanded 10th Corps during the siege of Liege, the first battle of the First World War.

General Ludwig von Falkenhausen was the German commander during the battle of Vimy Ridge, one of the few clear-cut Allied victories of 1917.

8 August 2014

The Morane-Saulnier Type L was a parasol winged two-seat reconnaissance aircraft, most famous for being the aircraft used by Rolland Garros when he achieved the first successful victory by an aircraft with a fixed forward firing machine gun.

The Morane-Saulnier Type LA was an improved version of the Type L parasol wing reconnaissance aircraft and saw service with the French air service and the RFC during 1915.

7 August 2014

The Boeing F4B was the last Boeing biplane fighter to be produced for the US Navy, and the final variant, the F4B-4, was also the last production Boeing biplane fighter for any customer.

The Boeing P-12 was the US Army's version of the Navy's F4B, and was part of the last generation of biplane fighters to see service.

5 August 2014

The T78 90mm Gun Motor Carriage was a design for a self-propelled gun that would have carried a 90mm gun on the chassis of the M24 Chaffee light tank

The T81 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage was a project to mount one 40mm Bofors anti-aircraft gun and two .50in machine guns on the chassis of the T65E1 Gun Motor Carriage.

The T96 155mm Mortar Motor Carriage was a design for a vehicle that would have carried a T36 155mm mortar on the chassis of the M24 Chaffee Light Tank.

4 August 2014

Fritz von Below (1853-1918) was a German general who came to prominence on the Eastern Front before commanding the Second Army on the Somme during the fighting of 1916 and the First Army on the Aisne in 1917.

General Maximilian von Prittwitz (1848-1918) was the German general in command in East Prussia at the start of the First World War, but he was removed from command very quickly after briefly recommending a full-scale retreat.

1 August 2014

The M37 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage was developed to provide a lighter, more mobile replacement for the M7 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage.

The T38 Mortar Motor Carriage was a variation on the M37 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage, armed with a 4.2in mortar in place of the howitzer.

31 July 2014

The LVG B.III was a dedicated trainer based on the earlier B.I and B.II unarmed biplane reconnaissance aircraft.

The LVG E.I on 1915 was the first original fighter design produced by LVG, which was better known for its observation biplanes.

29 July 2014

The LVG B.I was the most important German reconnaissance aircraft at the start of the First World War, and remained a significant aircraft for most of 1915 before being replaced by more modern designs.

The LVG B.II was an important German reconnaissance aircraft of 1915, and was an improved version of the pre-war B.I.

28 July 2014

The 1st Air Commando Group was formed to support Wingate's Raiders behind enemy lines in Burma and was a mixed unit that carried out a wide range of tasks across Burma and beyond.

The 2nd Air Commando Group (USAAF) was one of a number of composite groups that were formed to support deep-penetration missions behind enemy lines in Burma.

The 3rd Air Commando Group (USAAF) was a composite unit that served in the Philippines from late in 1944, performing a mix of fighter, liaison and transport duties.

24 July 2014

The 352nd Fighter Group (USAAF) was a fighter unit that proved bomber escorts for the Eighth Air Force, but also carried out ground attack missions and briefly came under the control of the Ninth Air Force during the Battle of the Bulge.

The 356th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a fighter unit that served as a bomber escort group with the Eighth Air Force late in 1943 before becoming a group attack unit early in 1944.

The 359th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a fighter unit in the Eighth Air Force that flew a mix of bomber escort and ground attack missions between its combat debut in December 1943 and the end of the war in Europe.

23 July 2014

The Boeing NB (Model 21) was a US Navy trainer and the next Boeing military aircraft after their successful PW-9/ FB fighter.

The Boeing XP-9 was an unsuccessful design for a shoulder-winged monoplane fighter designed in response to USAAC specification X-1623A.

22 July 2014

The M19 40mm Gun Motor Carriage was an anti-aircraft weapon that carried a twin 40mm Bofors gun mount on a modified M24 Light Tank chassis.

The T77 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage was an anti-aircraft weapon that carried a quad .50in machine gun mounting on the back of a modified M24 Chaffee light tank.

10 July 2014

The 55th Fighter Group (USAAF) entered combat as a long range bomber escort group, and carried out that role until the end of the war in Europe. Later in the war the group carried out an increasing number of ground attack missions as well.

The 56th Fighter Group (USAAF) started the war as a home based defence and training unit before joining the Eighth Air Force in England in the spring of 1943. It spent the rest of the war flying a mix of bomber escort and ground attack missions.

The 82nd Fighter Group (USAAF) served in the Mediterranean theatre, first as a mainly ground attack unit with the Twelfth Air Force, and later as a bomber escort group in the Fifteenth Air Force.

9 July 2014

The Boeing F2B was the second generation of Boeing fighters to enter service with the US Navy, and was the first to be powered by a radial engine.

The Boeing F3B (Boeing Model 77) was the third generation of Boeing fighters to see service with the US Navy, and featured new wings, landing gear and tail units.

7 July 2014

The Battle of the Berezina (21-29 November 1812) was the last major success for Napoleon's Grande Armée during the invasion of Russia in 1812 and saw the remnants of the army escape from a Russian trap on the Berezina River and continue their march west to relative safety.

4 July 2014

The M24 Chaffee Light Tank was the best light tank to see service during the Second World War, but it arrived too late to make a significant contribution to the fighting, entering combat in small numbers late in 1944.

The M43 8in Howitzer Motor Carriage was developed from the M40 Gun Motor Carriage. It arrived too late to see significant service in the Second World War, but it was used during the Korean War.

2 July 2014

Field Marshal Hans Karl Freidrich Anton, count von Diebitsch (1785-1831) was a Prussian officer who served with the Russian army during the Napoleonic Wars and who eventually became chief of the Russian General Staff.

General Louis Baraguey d'Hilliers was a French general best known as a dragoon commander, but who served in a variety of roles from the start of the Revolutionary Wars until his death in Berlin in 1813.

1 July 2014

The Boeing AT-3 was an unsuccessful advanced trainer based on the Boeing PW-9 biplane trainer.

The Boeing XP-8 (Model 66) was an experimental design for a fighter aircraft powered by a Packard inverted inline engine.

27 June 2014

The T87 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage (Amphibious) was part of a programme to develop amphibious versions of the M18 Hellcat tank destroyer for use in the Pacific.

The T88 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage was produced in an attempt to mount a 105mm howitzer in the chassis of an M18 Hellcat tank destroyer.

26 June 2014

The second battle of Krasnyi (15-18 November 1812) was a series of clashes between the Russians and elements of Napoleon's retreating Grand Armée that ended as a French victory, but that continued the slow destruction of the army

The battle of Fiedovoisky or Viazma (3 November 1812) was the first serious Russian attack on the French column during the disastrous retreat from Moscow.

24 June 2014

The T65 Flame Tank was an experimental flame thrower tank produced by adapting a M39 Armoured Utility Vehicle.

The T86 76mm Gun Motor Carriage (Amphibious) was developed in an attempt to produce an amphibious version of the M18 Hellcat tank destroyer.

20 June 2014

The Boeing XP-4 (Model 58) was an experimental aircraft produced to test a turbo-supercharged Packard engine.

The Boeing XP-7 (Model 93) was an experimental fighter used to test the Curtiss Conqueror engine.

19 June 2014

General Pierre-François-Joseph, comte Durutte (1767-1827) was a French general whose career was harmed by his close association with Moreau, but who went on to perform well from 1809 to Waterloo.

General Mathieu comte Dumas (1753-1837) was a French general who survived the early years of the Revolution and went on to serve Napoleon as quartermaster and Intendant-Général of the Grande Armée, before writing a nineteen volume history of the fighting between 1798 and 1807.

17 June 2014

The Boeing PW-9 was the first in a long series of successful Boeing biplane fighters that saw service with the USAAC and US Navy in the 1920s and early 1930s.

The Boeing FB was the US Navy's version of the Boeing PW-9 biplane fighter and the first in a decade-long series of Boeing naval fighters.

16 June 2014

The 27th went through two different incarnations during the Second World War. As the 27th Bombardment Group it fought in the Philippines and Java in 1941-42. It was then reformed in the US and sent to North Africa, where it eventually became the 27th Fighter Group, serving in North Africa, Sicily and Italy

The 35th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a fighter unit that was caught up in the fall of the Philippines, then reformed in Australia and took part in the Allied advance across the South Pacific, eventually returning to the Philippines.

The 36th Fighter Group (USAAF) spent the first part of the Second World War as part of the defence force in the Caribbean before joining the Ninth Air Force in the spring of 1944.

13 June 2014

The 4th Fighter Group (USAAF) was formed from the Eagle squadrons, three RAF squadrons manned by American volunteers, and served with the Eighth Air Force from the autumn of 1942 until the end of the Second World War.

The 14th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a P-38 Lightning Group that fought in Tunisia and the Italian campaign, as well as providing bomber escorts for attacks across southern Europe.

The 20th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a fighter unit that served with the Eighth Air Force from late in 1943 to the end of the war in Europe, flying a mix of bomber escort, and ground attack missions.

12 June 2014

The T9 Armoured Utility Vehicle was an experimental design for a light-weight utility vehicle.

The T17 Command Post Vehicle (or Tactical Air Control Party Vehicle) was an armoured command vehicle based on the M44 Armoured Personnel Carrier, itself developed from the M18 Hellcat Tank Destroyer.

10 June 2014

General Jean-Simon baron Domon (1774-1830) was a French cavalry commander who served throughout the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and whose career survived the Bourbon restoration.

General Antoine, comte Drouot (1774-1847) was a French officer who had the rare distinction of having fought at Trafalgar and at the Waterloo, as well as commanding the Artillery of the Imperial Guard in Russia in 1812.

9 June 2014

The 509th Composite Group (USAAF) was formed specifically to drop the atomic bomb, and carried out the attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki that helped end the Second World War.

The 1st Combat Cargo Group (USAAF) was a transport squadron that operated over Burma and China from 1944 until the end of the Second World War.

The 2nd Combat Cargo Group (USAAF) was a transport unit that served with the Fifth Air Force in the Southwest Pacific from the end of 1944 onwards.

5 June 2014

General Jozef Gregorz Chlopicki (1771-1854) was a Polish general who served in the armies of Poland, France and Russia before retiring after the failed Polish uprising of 1830.

General Jan Henryk Dombrowski (1755-1818) was a Polish officer who served under Napoleon in Italy, Poland, Russia and Germany, before briefly taking service under Tsar Alexander in 1815.

3 June 2014

The M39 Armoured Utility Vehicle was a prime mover and reconnaissance vehicle based on the chassis of the M18 76mm Gun Motor Carriage (Hellcat).

The M44 Armoured Personnel Carrier was the designation given to a modified version of the M39 Armoured Utility Vehicle, itself a development of the M18 Hellcat.

2 June 2014

Napoleon's Russian Campaign of 1812 was one of the greatest disasters in military history. Napoleon invaded Russia at the head of an army of over 600,000 men but by the start of 1813 only 93,000 of them were still alive and with the army. The retreat from Moscow was one of the defining images of the Napoleonic period, and the disaster in Russia helped convince many of Napoleon's former allies to turn against him, especially in Germany.

30 May 2014

General Alexis-Joseph, baron Delzons (1775-1812) was a French general who was killed at the battle of Maloyaroslavets at the start of the disastrous retreat from Moscow.

General Joseph-Marie, comte Dessaix (1764-1834) was a French general who fought throughout the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and who rose to command a division by the end of the wars.

29 May 2014

The M18 76mm Gun Motor Carriage 'Hellcat' was the most successful American tank destroyer of the Second World War, using its mobility to compensate for its thin armour and accounting for a large number of German tanks during the fighting in 1944-45.

28 May 2014

The T42 37mm GMC was the first step in a series of designs that led to the M18 76mm Gun Motor Carriage 'Hellcat'.

The T49 57mm Gun Motor Carriage was the second step in a series of designs that led to the M18 76mm Gun Motor Carriage 'Hellcat' and was an upgunned version of the T42 37mm GMC.

The T67 Gun Motor Carriage was the third step in a series of designs that led to the M18 76mm Gun Motor Carriage 'Hellcat' and was armed with the same 75mm gun as early Sherman tanks.

27 May 2014

General Jean-Baptiste-Juvenal, comte Corbineau, 1776-1846, was a French general who served extensively during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, but who is best known for a lucky discovery that helped the remnants of the Grande Armée escape across the Berezina.

Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout, duc d'Auerstädt, prince d'Eckmühl (1770-1823) was one of the most capable of Napoleon's marshals, and earned the nickname of the 'Iron Marshal' because of the strict discipline he imposed on his men.

23 May 2014

The M15 Combination Gun Motor Carriage was an effective anti-aircraft weapon that carried a 37mm cannon and two .50in machine guns on the back of an M3 half-track and that saw combat with the US Army from the start of Operation Torch in November 1942 until the Korean War.

The M36 90mm Gun Motor Carriage was the most powerful American Tank Destroyer of the Second World War and was produced by mounting a 90mm anti-aircraft gun on the chassis of the M10 3in Gun Motor Carriage.

22 May 2014

General François Marquis de Chasseloup-Laubat (1754-1833) was one of the most important military engineers of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.

General Jean-Dominique, comte Compans (1769-1845) was a French general best known for his performance during the invasion of Russia in 1812.

21 May 2014

Jerome Bonaparte was the youngest, least serious, and probably the least able of Napoleon's brothers, but this wouldn't have been a problem if his illustrious brother hadn’t insisted on appointing Jerome to posts that were beyond his abilities.

General Edouard de Colbert, comte de Colbert-Chabanais (1774-1853) was a French cavalry commander who fought under Napoleon from the Egyptian campaign to Waterloo.

20 May 2014

The M16 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage was armed with four .50in anti-aircraft machine guns in a Maxson turret carried on a M3 half-track and replaced the twin-gun M13 in production.

The M17 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage was a lend-lease version of the M16 MGMC, and carried four .50in anti-aircraft machine guns on the chassis of an M5 half-track.

16 May 2014

The M13 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage was the first in a series of anti-aircraft weapons saw machine guns mounted on a half-track chassis, and was armed with twin .50in machine guns on the back of a M3 half-track personnel carrier.

The M14 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage carried two .50in anti-aircraft machine guns on a M5 half-track, and was produced for lend-lease with most going to Britain.

14 May 2014

The 502nd Bombardment Group was a B-29 group that entered the fighting late in the Second World War and concentrated its efforts against the petroleum industry.

13 May 2014

The battle of Vinkovo or Tarutino (18 October 1812) was an unsuccessful Russian attack on Murat's cavalry screen south of Moscow that played a part in convincing Napoleon that he would have to abandon Moscow.

The battle of Maloyaroslavets (24 October 1812) was one of the most important battles during Napoleon's invasion of Russia, and disrupted his original plans for the retreat from Moscow.

12 May 2014

Alexander I, Tsar of Russia (1777-1825) was one of the most important figures in the eventual defeat of Napoleon. His refusal to negotiation with Napoleon after the fall of Moscow eventually forced the French to begin the disastrous retreat that destroyed the Grand Army and helped encourage Germany to revolt against Napoleon.

Count Aleksey Andreyevich Arakcheyev was a controversial Russian general and minister of war under Alexander I who was responsible for a successful reform of the artillery but who was seen as a negative influence on the Tsar.

9 May 2014

The 499th Bombardment Group was one of the first B-29 groups to operate from Saipan and took part in the strategic bombing offensive against Japan from the autumn of 1944 to the end of the Second World War.

The 500th Bombardment Group was one of the first B-29 groups to operate from Saipan and took part in the strategic bombing campaign from its first mission on 11 November 1944 to the end of the Second World War.

The 501st Bombardment Group was a B-29 Group that entered the campaign against Japan late in the war and focused its efforts against the Japanese petrol industry.

7 May 2014

The M10 3in Gun Motor Carriage was the most widely used American tank destroyer of the Second World War, seeing service in Tunisia in 1943, Italy in 1943-45, north-western Europe from D-Day to the end of the war and in the Pacific.

The T72 76mm Gun Motor Carriage was designed in an attempt to arm the M10 3in GMC with the new M1 76mm gun.

6 May 2014

General Armand-Augustin Louis, Marquis de Caulaincourt, duc de Vincence, was Napoleon's chief diplomatic aide, serving as the French ambassador to Russia and representing his master in a series of peace negotiations late in the wars.

General Auguste-Jean-Gabriel de Caulaincourt (1777-1812) was the brother of Napoleon's chief diplomatic aide (Armand-Augustin Louis, Marquis de Caulaincourt), and is most famous for his death in battle at Borodino.

2 May 2014

Marshal Jean Baptiste Bessières, duc d'Istrie (1768-1813) was one of Napoleon's most loyal and popular subordinates, and spent much of his career serving with the Imperial Guard.

General Augustin-Daniel Belliard (1769-1832) was a French officer who served as a staff officer for most of his career, serving under Murat for long periods.

1 May 2014

The M22 Light Tank, Locust, was a small tank that was designed to be carried by heavy gliders or transport aircraft and used to support airborne operations.

The T94 250mm Mortar Motor Carriage was a design for a version of the M40 155mm gun motor carriage that was to be armed with a huge muzzle loaded mortar.

30 April 2014

The 488th Bombardment Group was a home based training unit that was active from October 1943 until May 1944.

The 497th Bombardment Group was a B-29 group that was one of the first to operate from Saipan and spent most of the period between October 1944 and the end of the war bombing Japan.

The 498th Bombardment Group was a B-29 group that was based on Saipan and operated against Japan from late in 1944 until the end of the Second World War.

28 April 2014

The M7 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage 'Priest' was a self-propelled gun that entered combat in North Africa late in 1942 and that served with the British and American armies from then until the end of the war, fighting on Sicily, in Italy, in Normandy and north-western Europe and in smaller numbers in the Pacific.

The M9 3in Gun Motor Carriage was a fully armoured tank destroyer that was based on the M3 medium tank chassis, but that was cancelled soon after being ordered into production.

25 April 2014

Alexander Ostermann-Tolstoy (1771-1857) was a Russian general who served in the Russian army throughout the Napoleonic Wars, but who later agued with the Tsar and spent the last years of his life in exile.

Dmitry Petrovich Neverovsky (1771-1813) was a Russian general who distinguished himself during the 1812 campaign, but who was mortally wounded at the battle of Leipzig in 1813.

24 April 2014

The 483rd Bombardment Group was a B-17 group that fought with the Fifteenth Air Force in Italy from April 1944-April 1945, mainly taking part in the strategic bombing offensive.

The 484th Bombardment Group was a B-24 group that fought with the Fifteenth Air Force in Italy from April 1944 to April 1945, mainly taking part in the strategic bombing offensive.

The 485th Bombardment Group was a B-24 group that fought with the Fifteenth Air Force in Italy from May 1944 to April 1945, mainly taking part in the strategic bombing offensive.

22 April 2014

The M12 155mm Gun Motor Carriage was one of the heaviest self-propelled guns to see service with the American Army during the Second World War, but its development was delayed by Army Ground Forces, the command responsible for developing the army in the United States.

The M40 155mm Gun Motor Carriage was a self propelled gun based on a modified M4A3 Sherman chassis. It arrived too late to see significant service during the Second World War, but as used in large numbers during the Korean War.

17 April 2014

The M3 75mm Gun Motor Carriage was an interim design for a tank destroyer with a 75mm gun mounted on the back of a M3 half-track personnel carrier.

The M5 3in gun motor carriage was the first US tank destroyer to carry a heavier gun than the 37mm anti-tank gun, but it was never a popular design and the project was abandoned before production got under way.

15 April 2014

USS Augusta (CA-31) was a Northampton class heavy cruiser that took part Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of North Africa, served with the British Home Fleet, took part in the D-Day invasion and the invasion of the South of France.

USS Houston (CA-30) was a Northampton class heavy cruiser that was lost during the disastrous attempt to defend the Dutch East Indies against Japanese invasion.

14 April 2014

The T30 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage was an interim design produced in an attempt to provide the US Army with some self-propelled guns as quickly as possible.

The T44 57mm Gun Motor Carriage was a design for a simple tank destroyer armed with the British 6pdr anti-tank gun.

The T51 25pdr Howitzer Motor Carriage was produced in response to a British request for a self-propelled mount for the 25pdr gun, similar to the M7 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage 'Priest'

11 April 2014

When Napoleon invaded Russia in the summer of 1812 his aim was to bring the Russians to battle, inflict a decisive defeat, and force them to sue for peace. That battle eventually came at Borodino on 7 September 1812, just to the west of Moscow. Although Napoleon could claim to have won the battle it was far from a decisive victory, and even the occupation of Moscow failed to bring the Russians to the negotiating table.

10 April 2014

The 469th Bombardment Group was a home-based replacement training unit.

The 470th Bombardment Group was a home based training group that was active from May 1943 to March 1944.

The 471st Bombardment Group was a home based training unit that was active from May 1943 to April 1944.

The 472nd Bombardment Group was a home-based training unit that trained crews for combat in the B-29 Superfortress.

8 April 2014

The battle of Valutino (19 August 1812) was the last chance for a major French success during Napoleon's manoeuvre of Smolensk, but a combination of inactivity by part of the French army and a stubborn Russian rearguard action meant that the opportunity was missed.

The battle of Shevardino (5 September 1812) was a preliminary battle fought two days before the battle of Borodino, and was fought over the possession of an isolated Russian redoubt built to protect the left wing of their original front line.

7 April 2014

The T64 155mm Howitzer Motor Carriage was a self propelled gun that mounted a howitzer on a lengthened M5A1 Light Tank chassis.

The M41 155mm Howitzer Motor Carriage was based on the M24 Chaffee light tank. It entered service too late to see combat in the Second World War, but was used in the Korean War.

4 April 2014

The 464th Bombardment Group was a B-24 group that served with the Fifteenth Air Force in Italy from 1944 until the end of the Second World War.

The 465th Bombardment Group was a B-24 group that served with the Fifteenth Air Force in Italy in 1944-45, taking part in the strategic bombing offensive.

The 468th Bombardment Group was one of the first B-29 groups to enter combat, at first from bases in India before moving to Tinian for the last months of the war.

3 April 2014

The first battle of Krasnyi (14 August 1812) was a successful Russian rearguard action that gave the Russians time to rush reinforcements to Smolensk thus preventing the French from gaining any advantage from Napoleon's famous Manoeuvre of Smolensk.

The battle of Smolensk (16-17 August 1812) was the disappointing end to one of Napoleon's most impressive manoeuvres, an outflanking move that promised to bring him the decisive battle he desired but ended with a costly and unsuccessful attack on the walls of Smolensk.

2 April 2014

The T27 81mm Mortar Motor Carriage was an attempt to adapt the fuselage of the M5 Light Tank to carry an 81mm mortar.

The T29 4.2in Mortar Motor Carriage was the second attempt to mount a mortar on the fuselage of the M5 Light Tank.

The T85 20mm Multiple Gun Motor Carriage combined a quad 20mm mount with the expanded M5 Light Tank chassis originally developed for the T16 4.5in Gun Motor Carriage.

31 March 2014

The T3 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage was an early attempt to produce self-propelled artillery by mounting an howitzer on the chassis of the M1 Combat Car (later the M1 Light Tank).

The T19 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage was an expedient design that mounted a standard 105mm howitzer on the chassis of an M3 half-track.

The T38 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage was produced as an alternative to the T19 105mm Howitzer Motor Carriage in case the heavy 105mm howitzer couldn't be carried on the M3 half-track chassis.

28 March 2014

USS Louisville (CA-28) was a Northampton class heavy cruiser that fought at Guadalcanal, in the Aleutians, the invasion of the Marshall Islands, the Pelau Islands, the battle of Leyte Gulf and the invasion of Okinawa.

USS Chicago (CA-29) was a Northampton class heavy cruiser that had a somewhat unlucky war, being badly damaged by Japanese torpedoes twice during the fighting off Guadalcanal, returning from repairs after the first attack on time to be sunk by the second.

27 March 2014

The 461st Bombardment Group was a B-24 group that served with the Fifteenth Air Force in Italy, taking part in the strategic bombing campaign and supporting the fighting in the south of France and southern Italy.

The 462nd Bombardment Group was a very heavy bombardment group group that took part in the early B-29 campaign operating from bases in India and China before moving to Tinian to join the direct assault on Japan.

The 463rd Bombardment Group was a B-17 unit that served with the Fifteenth Air Force in Italy, taking part in the strategic bombing campaign as well as supporting the ground troops in Italy and the south of France.

26 March 2014

Richard Neville, fifth earl of Salisbury (1400-1460), was an important northern landowner who became a key support of Richard, duke of York, early in the Wars in the Roses, but who was killing after the battle of Wakefield and was overshadowed by his more famous son, Warwick the Kingmaker.

Sir Humphrey Neville of Brancepeth (c.1439-1469) was member of the Lancastrian branch of the Neville family, and was one of the northern noblemen who refused to accept the Yorkist victory after the battle of Towton and continued to resist Edward IV until he was captured and executed in 1469.

25 March 2014

The battle of Vitebsk (28 July 1812) was one of Napoleon's great missed chances during his invasion of Russia of 1812. By delaying his attack for a day he missed an opportunity to fight a major battle against Barclay de Tolly's 1st Western Army and allowed the Russians to slip away.

The action at Inkovo (8 August 1812) was a minor Russian victory during a short-lived Russian offensive that came soon after the main Russian armies had united at Smolensk.

24 March 2014

The battle of Mogilev or Mohilev (23 July 1812) was the first significant fighting during Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812 and was a minor French victory that prevented General Bagration's Second Western Army from moving north to join with Barclay de Tolly's First Western Army.

The battle of Ostrovno (25-26 July 1812) was a rearguard action fought between Ostermann-Tolstoy's rearguard of Barclay de Tolly's 1st Western Army and Murat's advance guard of the Grande Armée. The Russians were eventually forced to retreat into Vitebsk, but they held up the French for two days.

21 March 2014

George Neville, archbishop of York, 1432-1476, was a brother of Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, and played a part in both the establishment of the Yorkist dynasty in 1460-61 and his brother's revolts in 1469-71.

Owen Tudor (c.1400-1461) was a member of an ancient Welsh princely family, related to Owain Glyn Dwr. His secret marriage to Catherine of Valois, Henry V's widow, brought him to national prominence and he became the founder of the house of Tudor.

20 March 2014

The M4 37mm gun motor carriage was the original designation for the M6 37mm gun motor carriage (Fargo).

The M6 37mm gun motor carriage was the one of the first, and the cheapest, tank destroyers to see service with the US Army during the Second World War.

19 March 2014

The battle of Bosworth Field (22 August 1485) was the final  major battle of the Wars of the Roses, and saw the Lancastrian claimant to the throne, Henry Tudor, defeat and kill Richard III, the last of the Yorkist monarchs.

The battle of Stoke (16 June 1487) was the last battle of the Wars of the Roses and saw Henry VII defeat the pretender Lambert Simnel and his allies.

18 March 2014

The 458th Bombardment Group was a B-24 unit that served with the Eighth Air Force, taking part in the strategic bombing campaign as well D-Day and the Normandy campaign, the battle of the Bulge and the crossing of the Rhine.

The 459th Bombardment Group was a B-24 group that served with the Fifteenth Air Force in Italy, taking part in the strategic bombing campaign and supporting the ground troops in Italy and the south of France.

The 460th Bombardment Group was a B-24 unit that served with the Fifteenth Air Force in Italy, taking part in the strategic bombing offensive and supporting the ground troops in Italy and the south of France.

14 March 2014

The Stuart Light Tank was the British designation for the American M3 and M5 Light Tanks, the first tank to be received in large numbers after the start of Lend-Lease and an important addition to the British armoured forces in North Africa in 1941-42.

The T41 Howitzer Motor Carriage was the first attempt to mount a 75mm howitzer on the chassis of the M5 Stuart light tank.

12 March 2014

Edmund Beaufort, fourth duke of Somerset (1439-1471) was a key Lancastrian leader during their period in exile after Edward IV's victory in the first phase of the Wars of the Roses, and was executed after defeat at the battle of Tewkesbury had ended the short-lived Lancastrian revival of 1470-71.

Sir William Parr (1434-1483) was originally a member of the Neville affinity, but switched sides during Warwick's second revolt against Edward IV and was rewarded richly for his decision.

11 March 2014

The 454th Bombardment Group was a B-24 group that fought with the Fifteenth Air Force in Italy, taking part in the strategic bombing campaign and supporting the group troops fighting in Italy and the south of France.

The 455th Bombardment Group was a B-24 group that served with the Fifteenth Air Force in Italy, taking part in the strategic bombing campaign and supporting the fighting in Italy and the south of France.

The 456th Bombardment Group was a B-24 group that served with the Fifteenth Air Force in Italy, taking part in the strategic bombing campaign as well as supporting the troops in Italy and the south of France.

10 March 2014

USS Northampton (CA-26) was the nameship of the Northampton class of heavy cruisers. She fought in the Pacific early in the Second World War but was sunk at the battle of Tassafaronga on 30 November 1942.

USS Chester (CA-27) was a Northampton class heavy cruiser that fought at the Coral Sea, the invasion of the Marshall Islands, the Aleutians, the battle of Leyte Gulf and the invasion of Iwo Jima, winning eleven battle stars for her wartime service.

7 March 2014

The M8 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage was a successful attempt to mount a howitzer in the chassis of an M5 light tank, and was used in combat from late in 1943 until the end of the Second World War.

The T8 Reconnaissance Vehicle was a conversion of the M5 light tank designed to produce a reconnaissance vehicle.

6 March 2014

The T56 3in Gun Motor Carriage was the first attempt to fit a 3in gun on the chassis of the M3 light tank.

The T57 3in Gun Motor Carriage was the second attempt to fit a 3in gun on the chassis of the M3 light tank, following on from the T56.

The T65 40mm Gun Motor Carriage was an attempt to mount a 40mm Bofors gun on a modified M5 Light Tank chassis.

5 March 2014

The battle of Barnet, 14 April 1471, was the first of two victories that re-established Edward IV on the throne after he was briefly deposed late in 1470. The battle ended with the death of Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, the 'kingmaker', the man whose ambitions had caused the renewal of the Wars of the Roses after half a decade of peace.

The battle of Tewkesbury (4 May 1471) was a Yorkist victory that saw the death of the Lancastrian heir, Prince Edward, and ended any realistic chances that the Lancastrians could overthrow Edward IV.

28 February 2014

The 449th Bombardment Group was a heavy bomber unit that served in Italy from the start of 1944 to the end of the Second World War, taking part in the strategic bombing offensive.

The 450th Bombardment Group was a B-24 unit that served with the Fifteenth Air Force in Italy, taking part in the strategic bombing campaign during 1944 and 1945.

The 451st Bombardment Group was a B-24 Liberator group that was based in Italy during 1944-45 and took part in the strategic bombing campaign as well as providing some support for the tactical air force in Italy.

27 February 2014

The siege of Harlech Castle (1461-14 August 1468) is famous as the longest siege in British history. For the last four years of the siege Harlech was the only place in England or Wales in Lancastrian hands, and acted as a base for their plots.

The siege of London (12-15 May 1471) was a brief attack on the city that threatened to revive the Lancastrian cause, which had appeared to be lost after the disaster of Tewkesbury, but that failed after two attacks on the city defences were repulsed.

26 February 2014

The Northampton class heavy cruisers were improved versions of the earlier Pensacola Class, with reduced armament, a hanger for their aircraft, improved sub-division of the boiler rooms and a forecastle to give them superior sea keeping abilities.

The two Portland class heavy cruisers were slightly modified versions of the Northampton class with better protection for the magazines. Originally five were to be built but only two were completed and the rest became the first New Orleans class cruisers, with significantly improved armour.

21 February 2014

The M5 Light Tank was developed in an attempt to make sure that a shortage of the Continental engines used in the M3 Light Tank wouldn't disrupt production of light tanks.

The T16 4.5in Gun Motor Carriage was a design for a self-propelled gun that was originally to be carried on a new chassis based on that of the M5 Light Tank, but that was then modified to use the M24 Light Tank chassis, before being cancelled.

20 February 2014

The M3 Light Tank was the most numerous light tank produced in the United States during the Second World War and saw combat in the Pacific, North Africa, Italy and the European theatre as well as with the British, where it was known as the 'General Stuart', and with the Red Army.

The T18 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage was an attempt to produce a close-support vehicle to support the infantry by mounting a 75mm howitzer on the fuselage of an M3 Light Tank.

19 February 2014

The 'Loveday' of 24 March 1458 was an attempt by Henry VI to reconcile the two squabbling factions amongst his nobility. Despite a public display of unity the effort was a failure and in the following year fighting broke out again at the start of the second phase of the Wars of the Roses.

The Act of Accord (25 October 1460) was a political agreement that was meant to solve the political tension that had caused war in England in the 1450s by acknowledging Richard, duke of York, as the heir to Henry VI, but that instead helped reinvigorate the Lancastrian cause.

The Angers Agreement of July 1470 saw the forging of an unlikely alliance between Richard Neville, earl of Warwick and Margaret of Anjou and paved the way for the short-lived 'readeption government' of Henry VI.

18 February 2014

The 417th Bombardment Group (Light) was a A-20 unit that operated against the Japanese, fighting on New Guinea and in the Philippines.

The 418th Bombardment Group went through two incarnations during the Second World War, but neither one ever became fully operational.

The 444th Bombardment Group was a B-29 group that operated against Japan, first using bases in India and staging posts in China and then from Tinian.

17 February 2014

Henry VI (1421-1471) was the last monarch of the Lancastrian dynasty, and the ineffective nature of his rule played a major part in the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses.

14 February 2014

The T7 Light Tank/ M7 Medium Tank was originally designed to replace the M3 Light Tank and M5 Light Tank, but it outgrew its original purpose and was accepted for production as the M7 Medium Tank before being cancelled.

The T21 Light Tank was a design for a light tank based on the T20 Medium Tank, but that never reached the prototype stage.

13 February 2014

The Fargo Class of light cruisers were a modified version of the prolific Cleveland class, but although a large production run was planned only two were actually completed and neither of them arrived in time to fight in the Second World War.

USS Fargo (CL-106) was the name-ship of the small Fargo class of light cruisers. She entered service just after the end of the Second World War, and entered the reserve after a short post-war career.

USS Huntington (CL-107) was the second of two Fargo class light cruisers to be completed just after the end of the Second World War, and like the Fargo had a short post-war career.

11 February 2014

The Combat Car M1 and M2/ Light Tank M1 was a light tank that was produced for the US Cavalry. Alongside the infantry's Light Tank M2 it was the basis of most American light tanks until 1944, although it was only produced in fairly small numbers and never saw combat. 

The Light Tank M2 was the standard American light tank of the late 1930s, but it was obsolete by the time the United States entered the war and saw very little combat.

10 February 2014

Edward IV (1442-1483) was the first and only truly successful king of the Yorkist dynasty. He seized the throne when only eighteen and was a capable battlefield commander who gained a reputation as a lover of luxury whose reign was blighted by the revolt of Richard Neville, earl of Warwick.

6 February 2014

Thomas, Lord Stanley, Earl of Derby (c.1435-1504), is the classic example of a nobleman who changed his allegiance repeatedly throughout the Wars of the Roses, and emerged at the end of the conflict far more powerful then at the start.

Sir William Stanley (c.1435-1495) was a supporter of the House of York who is best known for siding against Richard III, the last Yorkist king, at the battle of Bosworth in 1485, effectively deciding the outcome of the battle.

5 February 2014

The 411th Bombardment Group was a training unit that was active from August 1943 until May 1944.

The 415th Bombardment Group was originally used by the School of Applied Tactics before becoming a training unit.

The 416th Bombardment Group was a medium bomber unit that fought with the Ninth Air Force, taking part in the D-Day campaign and the fighting in France, the Low Countries and Germany.

4 February 2014

The 400th Bombardment Group was a home based training unit that was active from March 1943 until April 1944.

The 409th Bombardment Group was a light bomber unit that served with the Ninth Air Force from April 1944 until the end of the war in Europe.

The 410th Bombardment Group was a light bomber unit that fought with the Ninth Air Force from May 1944 to the end of the war in Europe, supporting the D-Day invasions and the campaign that followed.

3 February 2014

Richard Neville, earl of Warwick (1428-1471) is better known as Warwick the Kingmaker, and played a major role placing Edward IV on the throne before turning against him and briefly restoring Henry VI to power in 1470-71.

31 January 2014

The two Pensacola class heavy cruisers were the first American heavy cruisers built after the First World War and were restricted by the terms of the 1921 Washington Naval Treaty.

USS Pensacola (CA-24) was the name ship of the Pensacola class of heavy cruisers and served in the Pacific during the Second World War, fighting at Midway, off Guadalcanal (where she was very badly damaged), at Tarawa, the Marshal Islands, the Aleutians, the battle of Leyte Gulf and the invasions of Iwo Jima and Okinawa.

USS Salt Lake City (CA-25) was a Pensacola class heavy cruiser that escorted the Doolittle raid, and fought at the battles of Midway and Guadalcanal, the battle of the Komandorski Islands, the invasion of the Gilbert Islands, the Marshall Islands, the second battle of the Philippine Sea and the invasions of Iwo Jima and Okinawa, winning eleven battle stars and the Navy Unit Commendation for her service during the Second World War.

30 January 2014

USS Trenton (CL-11) was an Omaha class light cruiser that served in the south-east Pacific in 1942-44 and the Aleutians from 1944 to the end of the Second World War.

USS Marblehead (CL-12) was an Omaha class light cruiser that survived the disastrous campaign in the Dutch East Indies then served in the South Atlantic for most of the war, as well as supporting Operation Dragoon, the invasion of the south of France.

USS Memphis (CL-13) was a Omaha class light cruiser that served in the South Atlantic from 1942 to the start of 1945, then moved to the Mediterranean for the rest of her career.

29 January 2014

The battle of Edgecote (26 July 1469) was the first fighting in the second phase of the Wars of the Roses and saw a rebel army supported by the earl of Warwick defeat a Royal army led by the earls of Pembroke and Devon, leaving Edward IV vulnerable to capture.

The battle of Losecote Field (or Empingham) of 12 March 1470 saw the defeat of Richard Neville, earl of Warwick's second attempt within a year to gain power over Edward IV and saw Warwick forced into exile, where he formed a surprising alliance with the Lancastrians.

23 January 2014

The battle of Twt Hill (16 October 1461) was a Yorkist victory that ended open Lancastrian resistance to Edward IV in most of Wales, leaving only Harlech in Lancastrian hands.

The siege of St. Michael's Mount (30 September 1473-February 1474) was the last military threat to Edward IV's rule, and saw two of the last Lancastrian peers hold the castle for five months before finally surrendering

22 January 2014

Sir Andrew Trollope was a professional soldier who was part of the Calais garrison early in the Wars of the Roses. He came to England with the earl of Warwick in 1459 but changed sides at Ludford Bridge in October and became a key Lancastrian commander for the rest of his career.

Thomas Percy, Lord Egremont (1422-1460) was the second son of Henry Percy, second earl of Northumberland, and was a troublesome and violent man who played a part in the increase of tension in the north of England in the years before the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses.

21 January 2014

The 396th Bombardment Group was a home based training unit that was active from February 1943 until May 1944.

The 397th Bombardment Group was a medium bomber unit that served with the Ninth Air Force and supported the D-Day invasion and the campaign that followed.

The 398th Bombardment Group was a B-17 group that served with the Eighth Air Force from May 1944 until the end of the war in Europe.

20 January 2014

The Wars of the Roses (1455-1485) were a series of fairly brief civil wars fought between the Houses of York, Lancaster and eventually Tudor and their supporters. They began as a struggle for control of the court of Henry VI but turned into a battle for the throne that was won twice, first by the Yorkist Edward IV and then after his death by the first Tudor monarch, Henry VII.

17 January 2014

The battle of Hedgeley Moor (25 April 1464) was a Yorkist victory that marked the beginning of the end of Lancastrian resistance in Northumberland.

The battle of Hexham (15 May 1464) was the final battle of the first phase of the Wars of the Roses and saw the Yorkists defeat a Lancastrian army led by Henry Beaufort, duke of Somerset, ending a dangerous Lancastrian revolt in Northumberland.

16 January 2014

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.755 Fleuret was a prototype for a two-seat jet trainer that lost out to the Fouga Magister, but that became the basis for the successful Morane-Saulnier M.S.760 Paris.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.760 Paris was a high-speed liaison aircraft and jet trainer that was used by the French military from the late 1950s until 1997 and by Argentina until 2007.

15 January 2014

Edmund Beaufort, second duke of Somerset (c.1406-1455) was a major supporter of Henry VI in the period before the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses, but he was killed at St. Albans in the first battle of the wars.

Henry Beaufort, third duke of Somerset (1436-1464) was a major Lancastrian military leader during the first phase of the Wars of the Roses. He considered the death of his father at the first battle of St. Albans as a murder that had to be avenged, and despite the best efforts of Edward IV to win him over died fighting for Henry VI.

14 January 2014

Richard Plantagenet, third duke of York (1411-1460), was a controversial figure who played a major part in the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses, although his motives for opposing the Court party are unclear. His death in 1460 came just after he had been acknowledged as heir to the throne, and cleared the way for his rather more able son Edward, earl of March, to seize the throne as Edward IV.

13 January 2014

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.730 was the first prototype for a basic trainer that eventually entered French service as the M.S.733 Alcyon (Kingfisher).

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.731 was the designation given to the M.S.730 basic trainer prototype after it was re-engined with an Argus As 10.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.732 was the designation given to the final prototypes of the aircraft that entered production as the M.S.733 Alcyon (Kingfisher) basic trainer.

The Morane-Saulnier M.S.733 Alcyon (Kingfisher) was a French basic trainer that also served as a counter-insurgency aircraft in French and Moroccan service.

10 January 2014

The 391st Bombardment Group was a medium bomber unit that served with the Ninth Air Force in Europe, supporting the D-Day invasion and the campaign that followed.

The 394th Bombardment Group was a medium bomber unit that served with the Ninth Air Force in Europe, taking part in the D-Day invasion and the campaign that followed.

The 395th Bombardment Group was a home-based training unit that was active from February 1943 until April 1944.

9 January 2014

USS Richmond (CL-9) was a Omaha class light cruiser that served in the Pacific during the Second World War, spending most of her time in the Aleutians and northern Pacific. She earned two battle stars for her service during the war.

USS Concord (CL-10) was a Omaha class light cruiser that served in the south Pacific until 1944 before moving to the Aleutians, from where she took part in the bombardment of the Japanese Kurile Islands.

7 January 2014

The 382nd Bombardment Group (USAAF) went through two incarnations during the Second World War, first as a home based training unit and then as a B-29 unit with the Eighth Air Force in the Far East.

The 386th Bombardment Group (USAAF) was a medium bomber group that served with the Eighth and then Ninth Air Forces from England, taking part in the anti V-weapon campaign and supporting the D-Day landings and the campaign in Western Europe.

The 387th Bombardment Group served with the Eighth and then Ninth Air Forces as a medium bomber unit, taking part in the anti V-weapon campaign, the D-Day invasion and the fighting in north-western Europe.

6 January 2014

USS Raleigh (CL-7) was a Omaha class light cruiser that was damaged at Pearl Harbor but returned to action in the summer of 1942 and fought in the Aleutians and the northern Pacific.

USS Detroit (CL-8) was a Omaha class light cruiser that served from Pearl Harbor, in the Aleutians and in the South East Pacific during the Second World War, earning six battle stars.

2 January 2014

USS Milwaukee (CL-5) was an Omaha class light cruiser that spent most of the Second World War serving in the South Atlantic, before being transferred to the Soviet Union early in 1944.

USS Cincinnati (CL-6) was an Omaha class light cruiser that spent most of the Second World War serving in the South Atlantic but that also took part in the invasion of the south of France.

1 January 2014

The Omaha class cruisers were the only American cruisers to be ordered during the First World War, although they weren't completed until the early 1920s.

USS Omaha (CL-4) was the nameship of the Omaha class of light cruisers, and spent most of the Second World War operating in the Atlantic, where she stopped three German blockade runners.

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