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Updates July-September 2007

29 September

The five ships of the Victoria Louise class were the only protected cruisers to serve with the German fleet during the First World War.

28 September

The Bussard class cruisers were some of the oldest warships still to be in service with the German navy at the start of the First World War.

The German Gazelle class was the first large class of modern light cruisers. This type of ship was designed to operate with the battle fleet, acting as scouts, leading torpedo attacks and defending the fleet against enemy torpedo boats and destroyers.

The Breman class light cruisers set a pattern for German cruiser design before the First World War in that they were slightly larger versions of the previous class, in this case the Gazelle Class

The two Wiesbaden class light cruisers were larger versions of the pervious Magdeburg Class, and were under construction at the start of the First World War

The second Königsberg class light cruisers were from the last pre-war German naval programme.

The Cöln class light cruisers were the last such ships built for the German navy during the First World War.

27 September

The raid on Madras of 22 September 1914 was typical of the daring that made the Emden the most famous German commerce raider of the First World War.

The raid on Penang of 28 October 1914 was one of the more daring incidents during the cruise of the Emden, the most successful German commerce raider of the First World War.

The two Karlsruhe class light cruisers were longer, heavier version of the previous Magdeburg class, carrying the same armour and armament, but with an increase in loaded weight of 600 tons

The Graudenz class of light cruisers were enlarged version of the Magdeburg class, built under the 1911 naval construction programme.

The two Pillau class light cruisers had been ordered from Germany by the Russian Navy in 1912 but were siezed at the outbreak of the First World War

26 September

SMS Königsberg was the name ship of the Königsberg class of light cruisers. She had a short career as an commerce raider, but is best known for the nine months she spent blockaded in the Rufiji River in German East Africa.

SMS Stuttgart was a Königsberg class light cruiser that served with the German High Seas Fleet, and was present at the battle of Jutland, before being turned into a seaplane carrier.

SMS Stettin was a Königsberg class light cruiser that served with the German High Seas Fleet and took part the 1914 raid on the Yorkshire coast and the battle of Jutland.

The two Dresden class light cruisers were slightly larger versions of the previous Königsberg class, carrying the same armour and armament, arranged in the same way. One of them, SMS Emden, was the most successful German commerce raider of the First World War

SMS Emden was a Dresden class light cruiser who became the best known German commerce raider of the First World War

The Kolberg class light cruisers were significantly larger than the pervious Dresden class, although were otherwise similar in appearance. They all served in home waters during the First World War

The Magdeburg class of light cruisers marked a significant break in the continuity of German light cruiser design that could be traced back through five previous classes to the Gazelle class of 1898.

SMS Magdeburg was the name class of the Magdeburg class of light cruisers. In August 1914 she ran aground in the Baltic and her copy of the main Naval code book was captured intact

25 September

The Nassau class battleships were the first dreadnoughts built in German.

The Helgoland class battleships were the second class of dreadnoughts built in Germany. They were bigger and better armed than the previous class.

The Kaiser class of dreadnought battleships represented a major advance in German battleship design with an improved layout of the main guns.

The König class battleships were improved versions of the previous Kaiser class, with all of their main guns carried in turrets on the centre line.

The two Bayern class battleships were the only dreadnoughts to be launched and completed in Germany during the First World War

Superfiring turrets are a layout of naval guns in which one turret is placed just behind and above another turret allowing both to fire directly ahead (or the rear) and to both sides.

We add a list of German cruisers classes of the First World War

The Königsberg class light cruisers were enlarged versions of the Bremen class cruisers, themselves based on the Gazelle class, considered to be the first modern light cruisers.

24 September

The German battleship fleet of 1914 was both the cause and the product of the battleship race between Britain and Germany.

The Brandenburg class was the first class of modern battleships built in Germany.

The Kaiser class of battleships set the pattern for all succeeding German pre-dreadnoughts.

The Wittelsbach class of pre-dreadnought battleships were significant as the first such ships to be built under the First Naval Act of 1898.

The Braunschweig class battleships were a significant improvement over previous German pre-dreadnaughts. They were bigger, faster and better armed

23 September

The German raid on the Yorkshire coast of 15-16 December 1914 saw the first civilian casualties on British soil since the French Revolutionary Wars. A squadron of German battlecruisers attacked Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby and then slipped past the British force sent to catch it.

The Scarborough Raid of 16 December 1914 was the most controversial part of the German raid on the Yorkshire coast of 15-16 December 1914.

The Hartlepool Raid, 16 December 1914, was the only part of the German raid on the Yorkshire coast of 15-16 December to come up against a defended port.

The Whitby Raid, 16 December 1914, was the final part of the German navy’s raid on the Yorkshire Coast of 15-16 December.

The Deutschland class battleships were the last pre-Dreadnought type battleships to be built in Germany.

22 September

The two Sentinel class scout cruisers were built to operate with the increasingly important Destroyer Flotillas, to act as scouts, lead attacks and take on enemy Destroyers.

The two Pathfinder class scout cruisers were Cammell Laird’s contribution to the eight scout cruisers built in 1903-1905.

The two Forward class scout cruisers were the Fairfield dockyard’s contribution to the series of eight scout cruisers built in 1903-1905.

The two Adventure class scout cruisers were Armstrong’s contribution to the series of eight scout cruisers built in 1903-1905.

HMS Patrol was a Pathfinder class scout cruiser, designed to work with the destroyer flotillas. She was present at Hartlepool during the German raid of 16 December 1914, and was heavily damaged during the fighting.

21 September

The battle of Albert, 1-13 July 1916, is the official name for the British efforts during the first two weeks fighting of the first battle of the Somme. As such it includes the first day of the Somme, the most costly day in British military history and one that has coloured our image of the First World War ever since

The battle of Pozières Ridge, 23 July-3 September 1916 was part of the first battle of the Somme. It was the official name given to fighting between the River Ancre and the village of Bazentin le Petit, with the village of Pozières in the centre of the line.

The battle of Guillemont, 3-6 September 1916, was the official name given to the fighting that captured the village of Guillemont during the first battle of the Somme.

The battle of Flers-Courcelette, 15-22 September 1916, was the third main phase of the battle of the Somme. It is best known as the first tank battle in history

The battle of Morval, 25-28 September 1916, was a continuation of the battle of Flers-Courcelette (15-23 September), designed to capture those objectives of the earlier battle that had not been secured during the successful advances on its first two days.

The battle of Thiepval Ridge, 26-30 September 1916, was part of the first battle of the Somme. It saw the British attack Thiepval Ridge in preparation for an attack on the Ancre.

The battle of the Transloy Ridges, 1-20 October 1916, was part of the first battle of the Somme. It was the last officially acknowledged battle fought by the Fourth Army (Rawlinson) although fighting continued on that front into November.

20 September

The battle of Bazentine Ridge, 14 July-17 July 1916, was the start of the second phase of the battle of the Somme, designed to break into the German second line.

The battle of Delville Wood, 15 July-3 September 1916, began as part of the battle of Bazentine Ridge, itself part of the first battle of the Somme.

The battle of Fromelles, 19-20 July 1916, was a minor British attack launched close to Aubers Ridge in order to prevent the Germans moving troops from their quiet sectors to the battle of the Somme.

The battle of the Ancre Heights of 1 October-11 November 1916 was part of the wider first battle of the Somme. It was fought on the left of the British line of the Somme, with the aim of pinching out a German salient on the Ancre River created by the limited British advances further along the line.

The battle of the Ancre, 13-19 November 1916, was the final phase of the first battle of the Somme. It involved an attack on the German front line as it crossed the Ancre River, a sector of the front that had first been attacked on the first day of the battle without success.

19 September

The Boadicea class scout cruisers were built to operate with destroyer flotillas, to provide slightly heavier ships that could scout ahead of the flotilla and provide protection against enemy destroyers.

HMS Boadicea was the name ship of the Boadicea class of scout cruisers. These ships had been designed to work with the destroyer flotillas, and the Boadicea served as the senior officer’s ship with the 1st Flotilla from 1909 to 1912.

HMS Bellona was a Boadicea class scout cruiser, originally built to work with the destroyer flotillas. In 1909 she became the Senior Officer’s ship of the 2nd Flotilla, made up of 25.5kt River class destroyers, and was already only just fast enough to cope

The Blonde class scout cruisers were improved versions of the Boadicea class, built at the same dockyard in Pembroke.

HMS Blonde was the name ship of the Blonde class of scout cruisers. She was designed to operate with destroyer flotillas, and did spend 1911-1912 in the Mediterranean as Senior Officer’s ship of the Seventh Flotilla

HMS Blanche was a Blonde class scout cruiser, originally designed to operate with destroyer flotillas. She began her service career with the First Destroyer Flotilla (1911-1912), but was not really fast enough for this role

18 September

Joseph Gallieni was a French general most famous for the incident of the taxis of the Marne, which saw him move troops from the garrison of Paris to the front line in a fleet of Paris taxis.

Ferdinand Foch was a French general of the First World War, who was appointed as the first supreme commander of all Allied troops during the German offensives of early 1918 and who masterminded the great series of Allied attacks that eventually ended the war

Joseph Joffre was the French commander in chief at the start of the First World War, responsible for the French victory on the Marne in September 1914.

When she was completed, in December 1906, HMS Dreadnought was the most powerful battleship in the world. She was the first all-big-gun battleship to enter service, and the first battleship to be powered by Parsons turbines

The Lowestoft Raid of 25 April 1916 saw elements of the German High Seas Fleet bombard the east coast port of Lowestoft and threaten Yarmouth.

17 September

Édouard de Castelnau was a French general of the First World War, partly responsible for the aggressive French strategy at the start of the war.

Paul Maistre was a French General who came to prominence late in the First World War. As commander of the Sixth Army he helped to restore morale after the disastrous spring offensive of 1917.

Charles Mangin was a French general who first made his name in the French colonial empire, before gaining a reputation as an aggressive but costly commander during the First World War.

Fernande de Langle de Cary was a French general who performed well during the first battle of the Marne, and during 1915, but who was made a scapegoat for the early failures at Verdun in 1916

Auguste Dubail was a French general who commanded the Eastern Army Group from the start of 1915 until he was made a scapegoat for German successes at Verdun in March 1916

15 September

The Race to the Sea of September-October 1914 was a series of battles that eventually decided the route of the Western Front although they were fought in an attempt to find an open flank.

The first battle of Picardy, 22-26 September 1914, was part of the Race to the Sea, the series of encounter battles that decided the location of the Western Front during the First World War.

The battle of Albert, 25-29 September 1914, was part of the Race to the Sea. It was a clash between the French Second Army (de Castelnau) and the German Sixth (Crown Prince Rupprecht), towards the end of the wider first battle of Picardy (22-26 September)

The first battle of Artois, 27 September-10 October 1914, was part of the Race to the Sea, a series of encounter battles that set the line of the Western Front for most of the First World War

The battle of the Grande Couronne of Nancy, 25 August-11 September 1914, saw the French defeat a German counterattack from Lorraine.

14 September

HMS Audacious was a King George V class battleship that became the first British battleship to be sunk during the First World War.

HMS Duke of Edinburgh was the name ship of the Duke of Edinburgh class of first class armoured cruisers, a class that consisted of the Duke of Edinburgh and her sister ship the Black Prince

HMS Black Prince was a Duke of Edinburgh class first class armoured cruiser sunk at the battle of Jutland after coming face to face with the main German battle fleet during the night

The Minotaur Class first class armoured cruisers were the last British first class cruisers built with mixed armament

HMS Defence was a Minotaur class first class armoured cruiser, sunk at the battle of Jutland with all hands when she came too close to the German battle ships

13 September

The Hundred Days, 18 July-11 November 1918, was the final Allied offensive of the First World War on the Western Front.

The battle of Cambrai-St. Quentin, 27 September-9 October 1918, was the main British contribution to Marshal Foch’s all out attack on the Hindenburg line (the Hundred Days). It saw three British and one French army force the Germans out of their strong defensive line and back to the River Selle.

The battle of the Selle, 17-25 October 1918, saw the British force the Germans out of a new defensive line along the River Selle that they had been forced to take up being forced out of the Hindenburg Line.

HMS Queen Mary was a British battlecruiser based on the Lion class, but with significant internal changes.

HMS Tiger was the last British battlecruiser laid down before the start of the First World War.

The word Impi is often associated in English with a Zulu regiment but in fact it just refers to any group of armed men, with the Zulu word for regiment being ibutho. This article will look at Impi in the British context as referring to a Zulu regiment

12 September

The Drake Class first class armoured cruisers were armoured versions of the earlier Powerful class.

The Monmouth Class first class armoured cruisers were designed to be significantly cheaper than the previous Drake class cruisers, while still reaching the same high speeds as that class.

The Devonshire Class first class armoured cruisers were an improved version of the Monmouth class ships with increased firepower.

The Duke of Edinburgh class first class cruisers were the first ships of that type designed by Phillip Watts, the designer of HMS Dreadnaught

The Warrior Class first class armoured cruisers were the second ships of that type designed by Phillip Watts and corrected some of the problems in the earlier Duke of Edinburgh design

10 September

After defeating two Austrian invasions, Serbia fell to a combined German, Austrian and Bulgarian invasion in October-December 1915

The Edgar Class first class protected cruisers were the oldest British first class cruisers to see active service during the First World War.

The two Powerful Class first class protected cruisers were built in response to the public reaction to the rumoured capacity of two new Russian cruisers, the Rurik and the Rossiya.

The Diadem Class first class protected cruisers were smaller, more successful, versions of the Powerful class ships.

The Cresy Class first class armoured cruisers represented an important step in the process that eventually led to the production of the battlecruiser.

9 September

The Senussi Uprising of 1915-1917 saw the British come under attack in Western Egypt.

The battle of Agagia (or Aqqaqia), 26 February 1916, saw the defeat of the Senussi Uprising along the Egyptian coast.

We add lists of British Monitor Classes of the First World War and British Battleship Classes of the First World War

Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock was the British officer commanding at the battle of Coronel, the first British naval defeat for a century

8 September

We start with a a list of British Cruiser Classes of the First World War

The Weymouth Class light cruisers of 1910-1912 directly followed on from the Bristol Class, and were only the second class of light cruisers designed for the Royal Navy since the Highflyer class of 1896-7

HMS Dartmouth was a Weymouth class light cruiser, completed in October 1911. She spent most of the First World War serving in the Adriatic, from a base at Brindisi.

HMS Falmouth was a Weymouth Class light cruiser that took part in the battle of Jutland, before being sunk by U-boats in August 1916.

HMS Yarmouth was a Weymouth Class light cruiser that spent most of the First World War with the Grand Fleet after starting the war on the China Station.

HMS Weymouth was the name ship of the Weymouth Class of light cruisers. During the First World War she took part in the hunt for the Emden, the blockade of the Königsberg in East Africa, served with the Grand Fleet and finally in the Adriatic.

7 September

The battlecruiser was a type of warship poised dangerously between the true battleship and the cruiser. They carried the big guns of the battleship, but without the armour needed to take on similarly armed ships.

HMS Invincible was the name ship of the Invincible class of battlecruisers, despite being laid down and completed last of the three. She was one of three British battlecruisers sunk at the battle of Jutland.

HMS Liverpool was a Bristol class light cruiser that spend most of the First World War in the Adriatic.

HMS Newcastle was a Bristol class light cruiser that served in a wide variety of theatres during the First World War, from China to the Adriatic.

HMS Gloucester was a Bristol class light cruiser. During the First World War she took part in the early hunts for German commerce raiders and was present at the battle of Jutland.

6 September

The second battle of Warsaw, 7-25 November 1914, was a German offensive launched to prevent a Russian invasion of Silesia in eastern Germany.

The battle of Ginchy, 9 September 1916, was part of the first battle of the Somme (1 July-18 November 1918), launched in advance of the main September offensive, the battle of Flers-Courcelette

The battle of Megiddo, 19-25 September 1918, was the climactic battle of the British invasion of Palestine of 1917-1918. It is also famous as the last great cavalry victory.

The Meuse-Argonne offensive, 26 September-11 November 1918, was the southern part of the great triple offensive that broke the German lines on the Western Front. It was also the biggest battle fought by the American Expeditionary Force during the war

HMS Bristol was a Bristol Class light cruiser that was present at the battle of the Falklands, 8 December 1914

5 September

The battle of Amiens, 8 August-3 September 1918, is often seen as the turning point on the Western Front. The Germans were forced out of the Amiens salient and all the way back to the Hindenburg Line

The battle of Bapaume, 21 August-3 September, was the second phase of the battle of Amiens, the British offensive often taken to be the turning point of the First World War on the Western Front.

The battle of Epehy, 18-19 September 1918, was a short battle fought in preparation for the great Allied attack on the Hindenburg line

Remus von Woyrsch was a German general of the First World War who fought on the Silesian border and in southern Poland

The Bristol Class light cruisers were built to fill a gap left in the Royal Navy by the adoption of the battlecruiser

4 September

Hans von Beseler was a German General and staff officer who is best known for his role in the siege of Antwerp but who went on to serve as governor general of Poland

Otto von Below was a German General of the First World War who served in a senior capacity on four different fronts – in East Prussia, Macedonia, Italy and on the Western Front.

The battle of Lake Naroch, 18-26 March 1916, was an unsuccessful Russian offensive launched around Lake Naroch in the hope of recapturing Vilna, one of the most important towns in the Russian Baltic provinces.

The battle of Kovel-Stanislav (or the Brusilov Offensive), 4 June-20 September 1916, was the best planned Russian offensive of the First World War

The battle of the Vardar, 15-29 September 1918, was the decisive battle on the Balkan Front of the First World War.

3 September

AIRCRAFT

The Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor was a long range passenger aircraft that became a dangerous anti-shipping weapons during the Second World War

The Arado Ar234 Blitz (Lightning) was the world's first turbojet bomber and the second jet aircraft to enter Luftwaffe service.

The Sikorsky S-64 Skycrane (CH-54 Tarhe) was an American heavy list helicopter of the 1960s

FIRST WORLD WAR - PALESTINE

The affair of Huj, 8 November 1917, was one of the more dramatic incidents of the British pursuit of the Turkish armies retreating after the third battle of Gaza (31 October-7 November)

The action of El Mughar, 13 November 1917, was part of the wider battle of Junction Station, which saw the British capture the railway junction that linked the Turkish Seventh Army around Jerusalem with the Eighth Army on the coast.

The battle of Junction Station, 13-14 November 1917, saw the British defeat a Turkish attempt to defend the line of the railway to Jerusalem.

The battle of Nebi Samwil, 17-24 November 1917, was the first British attempt to capture Jerusalem during their 1917 invasion of Palestine.

The fall of Jerusalem, 7-9 December 1917, saw the British achieve their main objective in Palestine after a campaign that had begun six weeks earlier at Gaza

The battle of Jaffa, 21-22 December 1917, was a minor engagement during the British invasion of Palestine of 1917 which saw the British push the Turks further away from the port of Jaffa

The defence of Jerusalem, 26-30 December 1917, was the last significant action during the British invasion of Palestine in 1917.

Today we catch up on a series of articles we've had prepared for some time

AMERICAN CIVIL WAR - CAMPAIGNS

Grierson's Raid, 17 April- 2 May 1863, was probably the most effective cavalry raid of the entire American Civil War.

The Red River Campaign was a minor Union campaign in Louisiana early in 1864 that ended in near-total failure

AMERICAN CIVIL WAR - BATTLES

The Battle of Milliken’s Bend, 7 June 1863, was a failed Confederate attempt to relieve the siege of Vicksburg

The Battle of Fort Wagner, 11 and 18 July 1863, was a failed Union attack on the defences of Charleston, famous for being the first serious action of the 54th Massachusetts Regiment

The Fort Pillow Massacre, 12 April 1864, was a Confederate victory tainted by a massacre of black prisoners after the battle.

AMERICAN CIVIL WAR - CONCEPTS

A brief history of the Battle Hymn of the Republic along with the words used at the time of the American Civil War

The concept of Contraband was used to provide a legal framework for the status of ex-slaves who escaped to Northern lines during the American Civil War

AMERICAN CIVIL WAR - BIOGRAPHIES

Biography of Nathaniel Banks, 1816-1894, one of the more succesful political generals of the civil war

Biography of Andrew H. Foote, 1806-1863, Union naval commander, famous for his achievements at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson early in the Civil War.

AMERICAN CIVIL WAR - SHIPS

The C.S.S. Sumter was a short lived Confederate commerce raider

The U.S.S. Carondolet was one of the most famous Union ironclad riverboats during the American Civil War

The U.S.S. Galena was one of three ironclad warships built for the Union after news of the Confederacy's progress on the C.S.S. Virginia reached Washington.

2 September

The battle of Rafa, 9 January 1917, was a minor British victory that ended the Sinai campaign of 1916.

The first battle of Gaza, 26-27 March 1917, saw the British come close to capturing Gaza before a lack of information forced the attack to be cancelled.

The second battle of Gaza, 17-19 April 1917, was the second British attempt to capture Gaza in under a week.

The third battle of Gaza, 31 October-7 November 1917 saw the British under General Allenby finally force the Turks out of their strong positions around Gaza.

The battle of Beersheba, 31 October 1917, was the first part of the wider third battle of Gaza. The British victory was secured by an Australian cavalry charge

1 September

The siege of Maubeuge, 25 August-7 September 1914, saw the Germans capture the French fortress of Maubeuge on the Sambre after their main armies swept past.

The battle of the Suez Canal, 3-4 February 1915, saw the defeat of a Turkish attack on the British position in Egypt.

The action of Qatia, 23 April 1916, was a minor Turkish victory over the British in the Sinai Desert

The battle of Romani (or Rumani), 3-9 August 1916, saw the defeat of a Turkish army that was attempting to come within artillery range of the Suez Canal.

The action at Magdhaba, 23 December 1916, was a minor British victory during their advance across the Sinai in 1916.

31 August

The first battle of the Isonzo, 23 June-7 July 1915, was the first of eleven Italian offensives on the Isonzo front that failed to achieve a breakthrough

The second battle of Isonzo, 18 July-3 August 1915, was a renewed Italian offensive that made some minor progress

The third battle of the Isonzo, 18 October-3 November 1915, was perhaps the least successful of the series of twelve Italian offensives on the Isonzo

The fourth battle of the Isonzo, 10 November-2 December 1915, was the final Italian offensive of 1915, and made little more progress than the previous three.

The fifth battle of the Isonzo, 9-17 March 1916, was a short lived offensive launched at the request of Britain and France

The sixth battle of the Isonzo, 4-17 August 1916, was the most succesful of the eleven Italian offensives on the Isonzo.

The seventh battle of the Isonzo, 14-17 September 1916, was the first of three short-lived offensives launched on the Isonzo front in the autumn of 1916.

The eighth battle of the Isonzo, 9-12 October 1916, was the second of three short-lived offensives launched on the Isonzo front in the autumn of 1916.

The ninth battle of the Isonzo, 1-4 November 1916, was the third of three short-lived offensives launched on the Isonzo front in the autumn of 1916.

The Tenth battle of the Isonzo, 12 May-8 June 1917, was one of the more succesful of the Isonzo battles, and saw the Italians advance towards Trieste and east from Gorizia before the offensive ran down.

30 August

The battle of the Vistula River, 28 September-30 October 1914, saw a German invasion of south western Poland defeated by a much larger Russian army.

The first battle of Warsaw, 19-30 October 1914, saw a German army retreat from Warsaw in the face of overwhelming Russian numbers

The battle of Gorlice-Tarnow, 2-10 May 1915, was a rare breakthrough battle during the First World War. The German victory at Gorlice-Tarnow threatened the entire Russian line and eventually forced the abandonment of Russian Poland

The battle of Lemberg, 20-22 June 1915, was a short-lived Russian attempt to defend Lemberg in the period after the German breakthrough at Gorlice-Tarnow

The third battle of Warsaw, 5 August 1915, saw the Germans occupy Warsaw in the aftermath of their victory at Gorlice-Tarnow.

The siege of Novo-Georgievsk, 10-20 August 1915, saw a Russian garrison 90,000 strong captured by the Germans after the fall of Warsaw.

29 August

The McDonnell F-101A Voodoo was a long range fighter with limited nuclear strike ability that entered service in 1957

The Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet was a rocket powered fighter aircraft that appeared far to late to have any impact on the course of the Second World War

The Me262 Schwalbe (Swallow) was the first jet fighter to enter combat and in doing so, earned a place in history, being the most advanced aircraft of the period to fly and achieve operational status.

We add an alternative article on the Messerschmitt Me 210, 310 and 410 aircraft, designed as replacements for the Bf 110.

Gudrun Ensslin (1940-1977) was the true female leader of the Red Army Faction, a terrorist gang better known as the Baader-Meinhof gang.

28 August

The battles of Lemberg, 23 August-12 September 1914, were a series of battles in Galicia that saw the Russians force the Austro-Hungarians back to the Carpathian Mountains.

The battle of Krasnik, 23-25 August 1914, was a minor Austrian victory during their 1914 Galician campaign.

The battle of Komarow, 26 August-1 September 1914, was a minor Austrian victory early in their invasion of Galicia.

The battle of Gnila Lipa, 26-30 August 1914, saw two Russian armies push back an Austrian army back to the west of Lemberg.

The siege of Przemysl, 24 September-11 October and 6 November 1914-22 March 1915, saw the Russians capture a major Austrian fortress on the border between Austro-Hungary and Russian Poland.

The battle of Bolimov, 31 January 1915, was a minor battle on the eastern front best known for the first use of poisoned gas during the First World War

The Second battle of the Masurian Lakes, 7-21 February 1915, was a German victory in East Prussia that pushed the Russians out of Germany but failed to achieve its wider aims.

27 August

The Ludendorff Offensives were a series of German attacks designed to win the First World War before large numbers of American troops could enter the fighting.

The Second battle of the Somme, 21 March-4 April 1918, was the first of General Ludendorff’s five great offensives launched during the spring and summer of 1918.

The First battle of Villers-Bretonneux, 30 March-5 April 1918, was part of the second battle of the Somme and saw an Australian counterattack defeat a German attack close to Amiens

The Battle of the Lys, 9-29 April 1918, was the second German offensive of 1918, aimed at the British in Flanders.

The Second Battle of Villers-Bretonneux, 24-27 April 1918, was a renewed German attack towards Amiens, defeated by a night attack.

26 August

The Malayan Emergency (1947-1960) was a British victory won against an attempted Communist revolution in Malaya.

AIRCRAFT

The Junkers Ju 290 was a long range German transport aircraft produced in small numbers as a bomber

The Heinkel He219 Uhu (Owl) was potentially one of the Luftwaffe's best and most effective night-fighters but suffered from the misjudgements of senior members of the government and the Luftwaffe

An alternative article on the Heinkel He 177 by Peter Antill.

FIRST WORLD WAR

Sir Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien, 1858-1930, was a British general of the First World War, best known for his success at Le Cateau during the retreat to the Marne.

The battle of Messines, 12 October-2 November 1914, was part of the Race to the Sea, the series of battles that decided the line of the western front. It became part of the wider battle around Ypres.

The battle of Armentières, 13 October-2 November 1914, was part of the Race to the Sea, the series of battles that decided the line of the Western Front as trench warfare took over in the autumn of 1914.

The second battle of Artois, 9 May-18 June 1915, was the main Allied offensive of 1915 on the Western Front. It ended in costly failure

The battle of Aubers Ridge, 9-10 May 1915, was the first British contribution to the wider second battle of Artois. It ended in abject failure

The battle of Festubert, 15-27 May 1915, was the second major British contribution to the wider second battle of Artois, and was an important step in the move to a war of attrition

25 August

The Battle of La Bassée, 10 October-2 November 1914, was part of the Race to the Sea and helped decided the location of the Western Front in Flanders.

The first battle of Ypres, 19 October-22 November 1914, saw the British and French defeat repeated German attempts to break their lines in an attempt to capture the channel ports.

The Battle of Langemarck, 21-24 October 1914, saw the first major German attack during the first battle of Ypres

The Battle of Gheluvelt, 29-31 October 1914, was the nearest the Germans came to breaking the British lines during the first battle of Ypres.

SMS Leipzig was a German light cruiser sunk at the battle of the Falklands, 8 December 1914

24 August

Brigadier General Charles FitzClarence, VC, was one of the few senior British officers to be killed in action during the First World War

The battle of the Yser (18 October-30 November 1914) was the northernmost battle of the Race to the Sea, the series of battles which decided the location of the Western Front after the outbreak of trench warfare on the Aisne in early September 1914

The Battle of Nonne Bosschen, 11 November 1914, was the last major German attack on the British lines during the first battle of Ypres.

The Second battle of Ypres, 22 April-25 May 1915, saw the first use of poisoned gas on the western front.

The Second battle of Arras, 9 April-17 May 1917, was the British element of the Allied spring offensive of 1917. It is best known for the capture of Vimy Ridge by the Canadian Corps.

23 August

FIRST WORLD WAR

General Sir Hubert Gough (1870-1963) was a British general who rose to command the Fifth Army during the First World War, but failed to distinguish himself in that role.

General Sir Julian Byng (1862-1935) was one of the most able British generals of the First World War. His most famous battle was the well planned victory at Vimy Ridge

General Sir (Frederick) Ivor Maxse, 1862-1958 was a British corps commander of the First World War best known for his over-rapid retreat during the Second Battle of the Somme

The battle of Broodseinde, 4 October 1917, was the last of three successful bite and hold battles launched by General Herbert Plumer during the middle phase of the third battle of Ypres

The Battle of Poelcappelle, 9 October 1917, was the first of three mud stained battles that ended the third battle of Ypres.

22 August

Today we add an article on the role of Intelligence in War

SHIPS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR

HMS Monmouth was a British light cruiser sunk at the Battle of Coronel, 1 November 1914

HMS Good Hope was a British light cruiser sunk at the Battle of Coronel, 1 November 1914

HMS Canopus was a pre-dreadnaught British battleship who missed the battle of Coronel but took part in the battle of the Falklands

SMS Scharnhorst was a German heavy cruiser who took part in the victory at the battle of Coronel, 1 November 1914, but was sunk at the battle of the Falklands, 8 December 1914

SMS Gneisenau was a German heavy cruiser who took part in the victory at the battle of Coronel, 1 November 1914, but was sunk at the battle of the Falklands, 8 December 1914

21 August

FIRST WORLD WAR

The Third Battle of Antwerp, 1-10 October 1914, was the final phase of a more prolonged period of fighting around Antwerp that had begun during the third week of August 1914 when the bulk of the Belgian army had fallen back from its initial front line to a new line based around Antwerp. It ended with the surrender of the city on 10 October.

The Battle of Cambrai, 20 November-7 December 1917, was the first large scale tank battle in history.

The Second Battle of the Marne was the turning point of the First World War on the Western Front. It began as a German offensive (the Champagne-Marne Offensive, 15-18 July) but ended with a successful Allied counter-attack (the Aisne-Marne Offensive, 18 July-5 August) which saw the German army pushed back almost to the line it had occupied before their great success during the Third Battle of the Aisne

The Champagne-Marne Offensive, 15-18 July 1918, was the last of Ludendorff’s five offensives of 1918 that had come close to breaking the Allied lines

The Aisne-Marne Offensive, 18 July-6 August 1918, was the second phase of the Second Battle of the Marne (15 July-6 August) and marked a major turning point in the fighting on the Western Front in 1918.

20 August

TERROR: Ulrike Meinhof is without doubt one of the most famous female terrorists in history. She was a co-founder of the left wing German terrorist group the Red Army Faction (RAF) which also became known as the Baader-Meinhof gang

AIR WAR: Eugene Bullard (1894-1961) was the first ever Black fighter pilot, serving with the French Air Force during the First World War.

Today we add a time line of Japanese military history to 1400 AD

SHIPS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR

The SMS Dresden was a German light cruiser of the First World War that took part in the battles of Coronel and the Falklands

The SMS Nurnberg was a German cruiser that took place in the victory at Coronel but was sunk at the Falkland Islands.

HSM Glasgow was the only Royal Navy warship to survive the Battle of Coronel (1914). She then took part in the Battle of the Falklands at which the victorious squadron from Coronel was destroyed.

HMS Indomitable was an Invincible class battle cruiser that took part in the battles of Dogger Bank and Jutland and survived the First World War

HMS Inflexible was an Invincible class battle cruiser that took part in the Battle of the Falklands and the Battle of Jutland, as well as seeing service in the Mediterranean

19 August

FIRST WORLD WAR

The Battle of Coronel, 1 November 1914, was the worst British naval defeat of the First World War

The Battle of the Falklands, 8 December 1914, saw the defeat of a squadron of German cruisers under Admiral Maximilian von Spee

The Battle of Neuve-Chapelle, 10-13 March 1915, was a small scale battle in Artois fought in advance of the main Spring offensives of 1915.

The Battle of Vimy Ridge, 9-13 April 1917, was one of the best planned battles of the entire First World War. Part of the wider Second Battle of Arras it saw the Canadian Corps capture Vimy Ridge in a single day.

The Battle of Noyon-Montdidier, 9-13 June 1918, was the fourth of General Erich von Ludendorff’s great offensives of the spring and summer of 1918

17 August

TERRORISM

Andreas Baader was probably one of the most famous terrorist leaders of the 1970s and is still well known today.

The Army of God is a good example of a low level fundamentalist terrorist groups

FIRST WORLD WAR

The Second Battle of the Aisne, 16 April-15 May 1917, was a failed French offensive that ended with the replacement of the French Commander in Chief and a general mutiny in the French army.

The Third Battle of Ypres, 21 July- 6 November 1917, was one of the more pointless and badly handled battles of the First World War, and is famous for the Passchendaele Mud

The Battle of the Menin Road Ridge, 20-25 September 1917, marked a change in British tactics during the Third Battle of Ypres and resulted in a small British victory

The Battle of Polygon Wood, 26-27 September 1917, was an Australian victory during the Third Battle of Ypres

The First Battle of Passchendaele, 12 October 1917, was an entirely unsuccessful attack during the Third Battle of Ypres

The Second Battle of Passchendaele, 26 October-10 November, was the final phase of the wider Third Battle of Ypres (often known as Passchendaele)

16 August

FIRST WORLD WAR

The Battle of Mulhouse, 7-9 August 1914, was a minor French offensive in Alsace that ended with an rapid retreat in the face of a German counterattack

The Battle of Haelen, 12 August 1914, was a minor Allied victory early in the First World War, which saw a German cavalry Corps defeated by dismounted Belgian cavalrymen.

The Battle of Loos, 25 September-14 October 1915, was the British contribution to the unsuccessful Allied autumn offensives of 1915

The Second Battle of Champagne, 25 September-6 November 1915, saw the failure of the main French effort in the autumn offensive of 1915.

The Battle of Verdun, 21 February- 18 December 1916, was the longest and bloodiest battle of the First World War. It saw the failure of a German attempt to bleed the French army white

15 August

COBRA (or Cabinet Office Briefing Room A) is the British committee that meets to decide how the Government will respond to a crisis.

TREATIES OF THE NORTHERN WARS

The Peace of Stolbovo, February 1617, ended the Swedish-Russian War of 1613-1617

The Treaty of Vienna, 1 December 1656, saw the Emperor Ferdinand III agreed to help the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania during the Northern War of 1655-60.

The Treaty of Vienna, 27 May 1657 saw the Emperor Leopold agree to provide 12,000 troops to aid the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania in the Northern War of 1655-60

FIRST WORLD WAR

The Battle of the Frontiers of France, 20-24 August 1914, refers to a series of four separate battles, stretching from the Swiss frontier to Mons in Belgium, each of which saw German armies achieve their main objectives.

The Battle of Lorraine, 14 August-7 September 1914, began as the main French offensive of 1914 and ended in a German counterattack.

The Battle of the Ardennes, 20-25 August 1914, saw the failure of a French attack into the Ardennes.

The Battle of the Sambre or Charleroi, 21-23 August 1914, was a German victory over a French army during their advance through Belgium.

The Battle of Mons, 23 August 1914, was the first battle fought by the BEF during the First World War. The BEF delayed the German advance for a day before being forced to retreat to avoid being cut off.

14 August

Today we catch up on a backlog of American Civil War battles:

The Union capture of Ship Island, 17 September 1861, gave the US Navy a useful base on the Gulf Coast

The Battle of Port Royal, 7 November 1861, was a major Union victory early in the American Civil War that demonstrated how difficult it would be for the Confederacy to defend its coastline

The Battle of Pea Ridge, or Elkhorn Tavern, 7-8 March 1862, was the biggest battle fought west of the Mississippi during the American Civil War.

The Battle of Island No. 10, 7 April 1862, was a Union victory that further reduced Confederate control of the Mississippi river

The Battle of South Mountain, 14 September 1862, was a delaying action that helped Robert E. Lee unite his army to fight at Antietam

The Battle of Old Fort Wayne, 22 October 1862, saw the defeat of a pro-Confederate Native American army.

The Siege of Lexington, 18-20 September 1862, was the high point of Confederate success in Missouri.

The Battle of Prairie Grove, 7 December 1862, was a minor Federal victory in north western Arkansas that effectively ended a period of campaigning in that part of the state

The Battle of Helena, Arkansas, 4 July 1863, was an unsuccessful Confederate counterattack aimed at relieving the pressure on Vicksburg

The Battle of Pine Bluff, 25 October 1863, was a minor cavalry battle in the aftermath of the Federal capture of Little Rock, Arkansas

The Action of the Rappahannock Redoubts, 7 November 1863, was a minor battle in the aftermath of Gettysburg

The Battle of Sabine Crossroads, 8 April 1864, was the first of two battles that ended any chance of Union success in the Red River campaign

The Battle of Pleasant Hill, 9 April 1864 was the second of two battles in two days that ended any chance of success for the Red River campaign

The Second Battle of Kernstown, 23 July 1864, was a minor Confederate victory in the Shenandoah Valley

11 August

FIRST WORLD WAR

The Battle of Le Cateau, 26 August 1914, took place during the retreat of the BEF in the aftermath of the battle of Mons and saw II Corps hold of a German attack for eleven hours

The Battle of the Ourcq River, 5-9 September 1914, was part of the First Battle of the Marne and helped to create the gap in the German line that forced them to withdraw from the Marne to the Aisne.

The First Battle of the Aisne (13-28 September 1914) marked the end of mobile warfare on the Western Front and the start of the period of static trench warfare that would last until 1918

POLISH-OTTOMAN WAR OF 1620-1621

The Battle of Cecora, 18 September- 6 October 1620, was a disastrous Polish-Lithuanian defeat at the hands of an Ottoman army

The Battle of Chocim, September to 9 October 1621 (NS), saw an Ottoman army fail to defeat a Polish-Lithuanian army camped at Chocim, foiling their planned invasion of the Ukraine.

10 August

The Siege of Tsingtao, 18 September-6 November 1914, was the only battle of the First World War to take place in the Far East and saw Japan captured the German port of Tsingtao on the coast of China.

The Third Battle of the Aisne, 27 May-3 June 1918, was the third of General Ludendorff's great offensives during the summer 1918. It saw German troops reach within forty miles of Paris before the advance was stopped.

The battle of Cantigny, 28 May 1918, was the first American offensive of the First World War.

The Battle of Château-Thierry of 3-4 June 1918 was part of the Allied response to the German Aisne offensive of 27 May-7 June 1918

The Battle of Belleau Wood, 6-26 June 1918, was part of the Allied counterattack that came at the end of the Third Battle of the Aisne and an early victory for the American army in France

The Battle of St. Mihiel, 12-13 September 1918, was the first major independent American offensive of the First World War and saw the Germans forced out of the St. Mihiel salient

9 August

For our air war theme we add an article on the Focke Wulf Fw 190, the best German piston engined fighter of the Second World War and an alternative article on the He 111 by Peter Antill.

The battle of Punitz, 28 October (Swedish Style)/ 7 November NS 1704, was a minor victory for Charles XII during the Great Northern War over a Saxon army in Poland.

The battle of Holowczyn, 4 July 1708 (NS), was a Swedish victory during Charles XII’s attempted invasion of Russia in 1708. It cleared his route to the Dnieper River

The battle of Malatitze, 31 August 1708 , was a minor battle during the Swedish invasion of Russian of 1708 which saw Peter the Great attempt to pull the Swedish army out of position

The battle of Rajowka, 10 September 1708, was a minor engagement during the Swedish invasion of Russia of 1708

The battle of Lesnaja (28 September OS, 29 September Swedish Style, 9 October NS 1708) saw the defeat of a Swedish supply column that had been attempting to catch up with Charles XII’s main army during his 1708 invasion of Russia

8 August

The battle of Erastfer, 9 January 1702, was an early Russian victory over a Swedish army during the Great Northern War

The action off Lindesnaes of 26-27 June 1714 was a frigate duel between the Swedish Olbing Galley (carrying 28 guns) and the Danish Løvendals Gallej (20) during the Great Northern War

The action off Reval of 28 July 1714 was a missed opportunity for a Russian naval victory during the Great Northern War.

The battle of Gangut, 6 August 1714, (also known as Hangö or Bengstörfjärd) was a significant Russian naval victory during the Great Northern War, won by the Russian galley fleet.

The battle of Gottska Sandö, 4 June 1719, was the first naval victory won by Peter the Great’s new deep sea navy. It came in the final stage of the Great Northern War, after the death of Charles XII of Sweden

1 August

John Winthrop Hackett Junior (1910 - 1997) was an Australian and British soldier who served at the battle of Arnhem. After the war he rose to command the British Army on the Rhine before retiring from the army to take up an academic career.

We add an article on Operation Jonathon/ Operation Thunderball/ The Entebbe Raid, 3rd/4th July 1976, one of the most daring counter terrorism operations ever conducted

The ‘Cell system’ is an effective and long established method of organisation for terrorist or resistance groups. 

The Northern War of 1655-60 was one of three wars that involved the majority of the Baltic powers of the time.

The Surrender of Ujście, 25 July 1655, saw the virtual collapse of Polish resistance to the Swedish invasion of 1655.

The Swedish Danish War, 1657-58, was a short conflict that ended with a disastrous defeat for the Danes

The Swedish-Danish War, 1658-60 saw the Danes regain some of the ground lost in the war of 1657-8

The Peace of Copenhagen of 6 June 1660 ended the Swedish-Danish War of 1658-60.

The Peace of Oliva, 3 May 1660, ended the Northern War of 1655-60

We add an alternative article on the Messerschmitt Bf 109 by Peter Antill and a brief account of the early history of the Jet fighter in the Soviet Union.

31 July

The Battle of Bornholm, 30 May 1563, was the first fighting of the Nordic Seven Years War, coming before the official start of the war.

The battle of Gotland, 11 September 1563, was an inconclusive naval clash during the Nordic Seven Years War

The battle of Gotland-Öland, 30-31 May 1564, was a chaotic two day battle during the Nordic Seven Years War that saw the destruction of the massive Swedish flagship Mars

The Action off Warnemünde, 12 July 1564, was a minor naval clash of the Nordic Seven Years War close to Rostock

The battle of Öländ, 12-13 August 1564, was a minor Swedish naval victory over a combined Danish-Lübeck fleet during the Nordic Seven Years War

30 July

The Raid on Archangel, 6-7 July 1701, was an unsuccesful Swedish attempt to attack the Russian port of Archangel by sea.

The Battle of Køge Bay, 4 October 1710, was an inconclusive naval battle during the Great Northern War. Two days after the battle itself the Swedish fleet captured a convoy of transport ships sailing into the bay

The Battle of Fladstrand, 11 May 1712, saw a Swedish squadron fail to defeat a smaller Danish force that was observing Gothernberg

The Battle of Femern, 24 April 1715 was a Danish naval victory over a Swedish squadron raiding in the western Baltic. Almost the entire Swedish fleet was captured by the Danes.

Action off Fladstrand, 10 April 1717, a minor naval encounter of the Great Northern War

The battle of Lake Ladoga (26 June 1702) was the first of two small boat actions that forced the Swedes to withdraw from Lake Ladoga

The battle of Lake Ladoga of 7 September 1702 was the second of two small boat actions that forced the Swedes to withdraw from Lake Ladoga

The Battle of Lake Peipus, 31 May 1702, was the first of three Russian attempts to sieze control of the lake

The Battle of Lake Peipus, 7 August 1703, was the second of two Russian attempts to gain control of the lake

The Battle of Lake Peipus, 17 May 1704, was the third Russian attempt to sieze control of the lake. It was successful, exposing Dorpat to Russian attack.

Today we add a series of articles by Peter Antill which give a different view on the following aircraft: Dornier Do 17, Messerschmitt Bf 110, Junkers Ju 87, Junkers Ju 88 and Junkers Ju 288

We also add an article on the Dornier Do 18 four-seat coastal reconnaissance flying boat

29 July

The Polish-Swedish War, 1600-29, was a long war for control of Livonia, complicated by the claims of Sigismund III of Poland-Lithuania to the Swedish throne which he had lost in 1599

The Battle of Kircholm, 27 September 1605, was a major Polish-Lithuanian victory during the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629

The Battle of Narva, 30 November 1700, was a major Swedish victory over a Russian army outside Narva early in the Great Northern War

The Battle of Kliszów, 19 July 1702, was an important Swedish victory early in the Great Northern War

The Battle of Fraustadt, 13 February 1706, was a major Swedish victory during the Great Northern War that brought Charles XII as close as he was ever to get to victory.

28 July

The battle of Mewe (22 September and 29 September-1 October 1626) was a lengthy battle that came late in the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629.

The battle of Dirschau (or Tczew), 17-18 August 1627, was a minor Swedish victory during the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629.

The battle of Honigfelde, 27 June 1629, (also known as Trzciana or Sztum) was the last significant battle of the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629.

The Truce of Altmark (12 September 1629) ended the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629.

The Polish-Ottoman War of 1620-21 was the first conflict between Poland-Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire for ninety years.

Noor Inayat Khan was one of the most famous SOE agents of the Second World War

27 July

The Caracole was a cavalry manoeuvre developed during the sixteenth century in an attempt to allow cavalry to use gunpowder weapons.

The Thirteen Years War (1654-67) was one of a series of wars that engulfed Poland-Lithuania in the middle of the seventeenth century.

The Siege of Smolensk, July-3 October 1654, saw Muscovy recapture Smolensk, lost to Poland-Lithuania in 1611

The treaty of Wilno (or Nimieza) ended the first period of fighting between Poland and Russia in the Thirteen Years War (1654-1667)

The Battle of Polonka, 27 June 1660, saw a Polish-Lithuanian army defeat a Muscovite army in Lithuania.

26 July

The Truce of Andrusovo ended the Thirteen Years War (1654-67) between Muscovy and Poland-Lithuania.

The Polish-Muscovite War of 1609-1619 was one consequence of the Russian Time of Troubles (1604-1613).

The battle of Klushino (4 July 1610) saw a small Polish-Lithuanian army defeat a much larger Russian and Swedish army that was attempting to relieve the siege of Smolensk (1609-1611).

The Truce of Deuline (January 1619) ended the Polish-Muscovite War of 1609-1619.

The Smolensk War (1632-1634) saw Russia attempt to reconquer lands lost to Poland-Lithuania in the truce of Deuline (1619)

The siege of Smolensk was the main action of the Smolensk War (1632-34) between Russian and Poland-Lithuania.

The Eternal Peace of Polianovka ended the Smolensk War between Russia and Poland-Lithuania.

24 July

The Livonian War (1558-1583) was a twenty five year long struggle for control of Livonia (modern Estonia and Latvia)

The siege of Pskov of 1581-82 forced Ivan IV to concede defeat against Poland-Lithuania in the Livonian War

Peace of Iam Zapolskii, 15 January 1582: Peace treaty that ended fighting in the Livonian War between the Russia of Ivan IV and Poland-Lithuania

The Nordic Seven Years War (1563-1570) was one of a series of conflicts between Sweden and Denmark-Norway that followed the collapse of the Union of Kalmar

The Siege of Älvsborg was the first fighting in the Nordic Seven Years War (1563-1570) between Sweden and Denmark-Norway.

The battle of Mared was one of only two significant land battles during the Nordic Seven Years War (1563-1570) between Sweden and Denmark

The Peace of Stettin ended the Nordic Seven Years War between Sweden and Denmark (1563-1570), and also ended hostilities between Sweden and Poland-Lithuania (Livonian War)

The Swedish Civil War of 1597-98 was the result of an attempt to secure the alliance between Poland-Lithuania and Sweden

The Kalmar War (1611-1613) was one of a series of wars between Sweden and Denmark. It was caused by rivalry between the two powers in the Baltic and by Swedish efforts to gain control of Finnmark, the area to the north of Lapland

The battle of Stångebro was the decisive encounter of the Swedish Civil War of 1597-1598 between Sigismund III, king of Poland-Lithuania and Sweden and his uncle Charles, duke of Södermanland

Peace of Knarod, January 1613: Peace treaty that ended the Kalmar War (1611-1613) between Denmark and Sweden

The Scanian War (1675-1679) is generally taken to mark the beginning of the decline of Sweden as a Great Power.

The battle of Fehrbellin saw Frederic William, elector of Brandenburg and duke of Prussia defeat a Swedish army under Karl Gustav Wrangel that had invaded Brandenburg late in 1674

The Battle of Lund took place during the Danish invasion of Scania and saw Charles XI of Sweden inflict a bloody defeat on the Danish army, preventing them from easily recapturing the Danish provinces lost in 1660 and 1645

The Peace of St. Germain (29 June 1679) ended fighting in the Scanian War between Sweden and Frederick William, elector of Brandenburg

6 July

The conquest of Cyprus (306 BC) was an early success for Demetrius Poliorcetes during the Fourth Diadoch War (307-301 BC)

The siege of Salamis was the main land action of that campaign, and saw Demetrius engage on his first big siege.

The battle of Salamis of Cyprus (306 BC) was the decisive naval victory of the invasion of Cyprus

5 July

We start today with an overview of the Diadochi Wars, 323-280 BC, the conflicts between the successors to Alexander the Great.

The Third Diadoch War saw the struggle between the successors of Alexander the Great become a struggle to prevent Antigonus Monophthalmus from reuniting Alexander’s empire.

The Babylonian War (311-308 BC?) saw Seleucus fight off an attempt by Antigonus to expel him from Babylonia

The Fourth Diadoch War (307-301) saw the final defeat of Antigonus I

Ptolemy I Soter was perhaps the most successful of the successors to Alexander the Great, founding a dynasty that ruled Egypt for nearly 300 years

Leosthenes was perhaps the last famous general to be produced by ancient Athens, commanding the Greek forces during the Lamian War that broke out after the death of Alexander the Great

4 July

Cassander, son of Antipater, was a minor figure during the reign of Alexander the Great, but after the death of his father rose to be ruler and then king of Macedonia.

Demetrius I Poliorcetes was one of the great generals of the Hellenistic era. He was the son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus, serving his father as a general and deputy.

Lysimachus was a Macedonian companion of Alexander the Great who rose to power late in life, ending his career as king of Macedonia

Seleucus I Nicator began life as a Macedonian noble and a junior officer in the army of Alexander the Great. He ended it as the founder of the Seleucid Empire, and came close to reunited Alexander's empire under his rule.

3 July

Antipater was a senior Macedonian general under both Philip II and Alexander the Great. He outlived Alexander, and played an important role in holding his empire together until his death of natural causes in 319 BC.

Antigonus I Monophthalmus (one-eyed) was one of Alexander the Great’s most important generals, and one of the most able of his successors. He came closer than any of his colleagues to reuniting Alexander’s empire during wars of the Diadochi (successors), eventually falling to a coalition that saw most of his fellow successors unite against him.

Eumenes of Cardia was a Greek who served both Philip II and Alexander the Great as secretary and archivist. In 330 he became Alexander’s principal secretary and keeper of the Royal Journal. As such he was one of Alexander’s closest associates, but his main claim to fame was his career after the death of Alexander.

2 July

Biography of Craterus, one of Alexander the Great's generals but an early casualty in the war between the successors

Biography of Perdiccas, one of Alexander the Great's senior generals and regent of the empire after his death

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