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30 June 2010

The combat of Tarvisio (18 May 1809) was minor victory during the French advance after their victory over an Austrian army led by Archduke John on the Piave River on 8 May.

The combat near Laybach of 22 May 1809 was an almost bloodless victory for the French that ended with the surrender of a large Austrian force near Laybach (modern Ljubljana)

The battle of St. Michael (25 May 1809) was a disastrous Austrian defeat that saw an entire division destroyed, dramatically reducing their ability to defend against a French invasion from Italy

29 June 2010

The combat of Ospedaletto (11 April 1809) was the first significant fighting during the War of the Fifth Coalition, and saw the Austrians under Archduke John push back part of the French Army of Italy during the early stages of their invasion of Italy

The battle of Sacile (16 April 1809) was the first major battle during the War of the Fifth Coalition, and was an Austrian victory that might have caused the French serious problems in Italy if events on the Danube had not forced the Austrians to pull their army back.

The battle of the Piave (8 May 1809) was a French victory that effectively forced the Austrians to retreat from Italy, making up for the earlier French defeat at Sacile

6 June 2010

The Hawker Sea Hawk was Hawker's first production jet aircraft, and served as the Fleet Air Arm's main fighter and ground attack aircraft during the second half of the 1950s

The Hawker P.1035 was a design for a jet fighter based on the Hawker Fury and powered by the Rolls-Royce B.41 jet engine.

The Hawker P.1040 was the direct precursor to the Hawker Sea Hawk, and the single aircraft built acted as an unarmed, un-navalised prototype for the later fighter

The Hawker P.1052 was a swept-wing version of the P.1040, the design that evolved into the Sea Hawk

The Hawker P.1072 was the designation given to the single P.1040 Sea Hawk prototype when it was given an auxiliary rocket engine in an attempt to improve its take-off performance

The Hawker P.1081 was a version of the P.1052 swept-wing Sea Hawk modified to use a straight-through jet pipe in place of the bifurcated pipe of the P.1052 and Sea Hawk

The Hawker Sea Hawk F.Mark 1 was the first production version of the Sea Hawk, and was a pure interceptor produced by both Hawkers and Armstrong Whitworth

The Hawker Sea Hawk F.Mark 2 was the second and final version of the aircraft to be produced as a pure interceptor

The Hawker Sea Hawk F.B. Mark 3 saw the aircraft develop from a pure interceptor into a capable fighter-bomber, and was the most widely used version of the aircraft

The Hawker Sea Hawk F.G.A. Mark 4 (Fighter, Ground Attack), was designed to be the definitive ground support version of the aircraft, carrying external stores on four pylons under the wings

The Hawker Sea Hawk F.B. Mark 5 was the designation given to the Sea Hawk Mk.3 when it was given a more powerful Nene Mk.103 engine in an attempt to improve its performance

The Hawker Sea Hawk F.G.A. Mark 6 was the designation given to the F.G.A.4 when it was powered by the Nene Mk.103 engine

The Hawker Sea Hawk Mark 50 was the designation given to twenty-two aircraft ordered by the Dutch in 1956

The Hawker Sea Hawk Mark 100 was a day fighter version of the aircraft produced for West Germany

The Hawker Sea Hawk Mark 101 was a bad-weather reconnaissance-fighter produced for West Germany.

The third and final over-seas customer for the Sea Hawk was the Indian Navy, which ordered a mix of ex-Fleet Air Arm aircraft, new build and former German aircraft over a ten year period

2 June 2010

Although the Hurricane was not designed as a naval aircraft, the Sea Hurricane served the Fleet Air Arm in three separate roles – shore based, catapult launched and carrier based.

The Sea Hurricane Mk IA was produced in response to the dire situation Britain found herself in by the end of 1940, and was designed to be fired from catapults carried on converted merchant ships in an attempt to provide some air cover for vulnerable convoys

The Hawker Sea Hurricane Mk IB was the first version of the aircraft to be designed for use of aircraft carriers, and was equipped with an arrester hook as well as the catapult spools and naval radio of the Mk IA

The Hawker Sea Hurricane Mk IC was similar to the Mk IB, but was armed with four 20mm cannon in place of the eight .303in machine guns of the earlier aircraft

The Sea Hurricane Mk IIC was the final major version of the aircraft to be produced in Britain, and was a conversion of the standard Hurricane Mk II, with the Rolls-Royce Merlin XX engine and armed with four 20mm cannon

The Hawker Sea Hurricane Mk XII was a naval version of the Canadian built and Packard Merlin powered Hurricane Mk XII

31 May 2010

The Enfield P14 and M1917 family of manually-operated, Mauser-style bolt action rifles originated with the Pattern 1913 Enfield (or P13) that was an experimental rifle developed due to the combat experience of the British Army during the Second Boer War (1899 – 1902)

The Sten machine carbine was a relatively simple piece of kit, being a blowback-operated sub-machinegun, firing from an open bolt with a fixed firing pin on the face of the bolt

20 May 2010

Babur (1483-1530) was the founder of the Mogul Empire, conquering large parts of northern India after spending most of his life attempting unsuccessfully to capture Samarkand.

The siege of Chanderi (22-29 January 1528) was to have been the first stage in a campaign that Babur hoped would take him to Chitor, the capital of the defeated Rana Sangha, but a rebellion forced him to abandon this plan after the fall of the place.

The battle of the Gogra River (4-6 May 1529) was the final major battle in the career of Babur, and saw him defeat Sultan Nasrat Ali of Bengal in a battle that was really only incidental to the main purpose of Babur's campaign in the east

19 May 2010

The siege of Sambal (or Sambhal) in the summer of 1526 took place during the disturbed period that followed Babur's victory at Panipat, and involved some of his nobles attempting to help one potentially hostile Afghan defeat another one.

The siege of Khandhar (1526) was a success for the Rajput Rana Sangha of Mewar in the period after Babur's victory at Panipat had overthrown the Lodi dynasty, but before Babur had secured his own authority

The battle of Bayana (1526) was a rare setback for Babur in the aftermath of his victory at Panipat on 21 April 1526

The siege of Bayana (late 1526-February 1527) was one of a series of incidents that discouraged Babur's army in the build-up to the decisive battle against Rana Sangha of Mewar at Khanua in March 1527, but that ended without the fort falling

The combat of Khanua of late February 1527 was one of a series of setbacks that discouraged Babur's army in the period before his great victory over the Rajputs at Khanua in the following month

The battle of Khanua (16 March 1527) was the second of Babur's three great victories in northern India that helped to establish the Mogul Empire

15 May 2010

The battle of Hisar-Firuza (26 February 1526) was the first clash between Babur and the forces of the Sultanate of Delhi during the campaign that ended at Panipat two months later

The battle in the Doab of 2 April 1526 was a minor victory at an unnamed location that saw Babur defeat a detachment from Ibrahim Lodi's army that had been sent across the River Jumna into the Doab

The first battle of Panipat (21 April 1526) was a major victory for Babur over Sultan Ibrahim Lodi of Delhi, won during his fifth and final expedition into Hindustan, and that helped establish the Mogul Empire.

14 May 2010

The battle of Pharwala (15 March 1519) saw Babur capture a strong fortress held by the Gakhar tribe

The siege of Sayyidpur of 1520 was the only major military action to take place in Babur's third expedition into India

The siege of Kandahar of 1520-6 September 1522 was a major victory for Babur that removed the last major obstacle in Afghanistan to his planned invasion of Hindustan

The battle of Lahore (early January 1524) was the first military success during Babur's fourth expedition into India, but the necessity to fight at all at Lahore meant that Babur's plan of campaign was already in trouble

The siege of Dibalpur (modern Dipalpur) of January 1524 was the second and final military success during Babur's fourth expedition into India, coming after his victory at Lahore earlier in the month

The battle of Sialkot of 1524 was a victory for Babur's lieutenants in the Punjab over a former ally, fought between his fourth and fifth expeditions into India.

The siege of Balkh of 1525 saw the Uzbeks capture Balkh despite Babur's efforts to defend it

The battle of Delhi of 1525 was a victory won by Sultan Ibrahim Lodi over a rebel army led by his uncle Alam Khan

11 May 2010

The battle of Ghaj-davan (12 November 1512) was an Uzbek victory over a largely Persian army that ended any chance that Babur had of retaking his ancestral home of Samarkand

The battle of Ghazni (1515) saw Babur defeat a rebellion that broke out in the aftermath of the death of his brother Nasir Mirza, who had been the ruler of that city.

The siege of Chaghansarai of 1518 was an early step in Babur's attempts to conquer an empire in Hindustan

The siege of Bajaur of January 1519 was an early success during Babur's preparations for the invasion of Hindustan, and was notable for an early use of gunpowder weapons

The Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) was a family of weapons used by the United States and a large number of other countries during the 20th Century

The Thompson SMG, made famous through its widespread use during the Prohibition Era in the United Stated (the 'Roaring '20s), was invented in 1919 by John T. Thompson (1860 – 1940)

1 May 2010

The Hawker Hunter was one of the most successful British jet aircraft, serving as the RAF's main front line fighter in the late 1950s and its main ground attack aircraft in the 1960s as well as winning large scale export orders for Hawkers. 

The Hawker Hunter F.Mark 1 was the first Rolls-Royce powered version of the Hunter fighter, and like the F.Mk.2 was very much an interim design, suffering from a lack of fuel capacity and from engine problems

The Hawker Hunter F.Mark 2 was the first version of the aircraft to be powered by the Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire engine.

The Hawker Hunter F.Mark 3 was the designation given to the first Hunter prototype, WB188, when it was modified for an attempt on the World Speed Record in 1953

The Hawker Hunter F.Mark 4 was the first major version of the aircraft, and was the first that could carry drop tanks or bombs on under-wing pylons

The Hawker Hunter F.Mark 5 was the Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire powered version of the Rolls-Royce powered Mk.4, and had the same improvements as on that version

The Hawker Hunter F.Mark 6 was the ultimate pure interceptor version of the Hunter, and also paved the way for the later ground attack aircraft that carried the aircraft into the 1960s.

The Hawker Hunter T.Mark 7 was a two-seat trainer version of the Hunter powered by the small Rolls-Royce Avon used on the F.1 and F.4 rather than the large Avon of the F.6 and later models

The Hawker Hunter F.G.A.Mark 9 was the RAF's main close support or ground attack aircraft during the 1960s, replacing the de Havilland Venom FB.4

The Hawker Hunter F.R.Mark 10 was a photo-reconnaissance version of the Hunter developed in 1956-58 and that replaced the PR versions of the Gloster Meteor and Supermarine Swift

The Hawker Hunter G.A.Mark 11 was a single-seat version of the Hunter used by the Royal Navy for weapons training

The Hawker Hunter Mark 12 was the designation given to a single two-seat trainer that was produced as an instrument trainer for the TSR-2, but that like that aircraft never entered production.

30 April 2010

The Hawker Hunter T.Mark 8 was a dual-control trainer produced for the Royal Navy for use from land bases

The Hawker Hunter Mark 50 (Hawker J-34) was the designation given to 120 Hawker F.Mk.4s purchased by Sweden, the first of many export orders received for the Hunter.

The Hawker Hunter Mark 51 was the designation given to thirty Hunter F.Mk.4s purchased by Denmark during 1954

The Hawker Hunter Mark 52 was the designation given to sixteen Hunter F.Mark 4s sold to Peru during 1955

The Hawker Hunter T.Mark 53 was the designation given to two two-seat trainers ordered by Denmark alongside their larger purchase of single-seat Hunter Mark 51s

The Hawker Hunter Mark 56 was the designation given to an export version of the Hunter F.Mark 6 that was sold to India, where it saw action during the invasion of Goa, the border clash with China in 1962 and the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965

The Hawker Hunter F.G.A.Mark 57 was the designation given to four Hunters operated by Kuwait from 1966

The Hawker Hunter Mark 58 was the designation given to 152 aircraft sold to Switzerland between the late 1950s and early 1970s

The Hawker Hunter Mark 59 was the designation given to 46 Hunters sold to Iraq during a thaw in relations between that country and Britain in the mid 1960s.

The Hawker Hunter F.Mark 60 was the designation given to four ex-RAF F.6s sold to Saudi Arabi during 1966

The Hawker Hunter T.Mark 62 was the designation given to a single two-seat trainer based on the British T.7 that was ordered by Peru

The Hawker Hunter T.Mark 66 was a two-seat trainer based on the large-engined Hunter F.Mark 6, and that was sold to India, Jordan and the Lebanon

The Hawker Hunter T.Mark 67 was the designation given to five two-seat trainers ordered by Kuwait in the late 1960s as a stop-gap measure before the delivery of the McDonnell-Douglas A-4KU Skyhawk.

The Hawker Hunter T.Mark 68 was the designation given to eight two-seater trainers sold to Switzerland in the mid 1970s

The Hawker Hunter T.Mark 69 was a two-seat trainer sold to Iraq in the mid-1960s, after an improvement in relations between Iraq and the western world.

The Hawker Hunter F.G.A.Mark 70 was the designation given to four aircraft sold to the Lebanon in 1965.

The Hawker Hunter Mark 71 was the designation given to a number of aircraft sold to Chile before the coup that brought General Pinochet to power in 1973

The Hawker Hunter T.Mark 72 was the designation given to seven two-seat trainers sold to Chile in the early 1970s

The Hawker Hunter Mark 73 was the designation given to a number of F.G.A.9 standard aircraft ordered by Jordan to replace earlier aircraft lost during the Six Day War.

The Hawker Hunter Mark 74 was the designation given to 24 Hunters purchased by Singapore, starting in 1968

The Hawker Hunter T.Mark 75 was the designation given to nine two-seat trainers sold to Singapore as the British military withdrew from the city at the start of the 1970s.

The Hawker Hunter Mark 76 was the designation given to ten aircraft ordered by Abu Dhabi in 1969 as the RAF withdrew from the Middle East

The Hawker Hunter T.Mark 77 was the designation given to two two-seat trainers purchased by Abu Dhabi in 1970

The Hawker Hunter F.G.A. Mark 78 was the designation given to three Hawker Hunters sold to Qatar in 1969.

The Hawker Hunter T.Mark 79 was the designation given to a single two-seat trainer sold to Qatar in 1969.

The Hawker Hunter F.G.A.Mark 80 was the designation given to four Hawker Hunters purchased by Kenya in 1974

The Hawker Hunter T.Mark 81 was the designation given to two two-seat trainers purchased by Kenya in 1974

28 April 2010

The siege of Kandahar of 1507 saw the Uzbek conqueror Shaibani Khan make an unsuccessful attack on the city with days of its capture by Babur

The battle of Kabul of 1508 saw Babur put down a revolt amongst his Mongol troops despite being outnumbered by around six-to-one

The battle of Pul-i-Sanghin or Abdara (1511) was the first victory won by Babur early in the campaign that led to his third and final occupation of Samarkand

The battle of Kul-i-Malik (May 1512) was a defeat for Babur that forced him to abandon Samarkand, ending his third and final period in command of that city.

26 April 2010

The siege of Qalat or Khilat (1505) was a short-lived success for Babur early in his time as ruler of Kabul

The siege of Kabul of early 1507 saw Babur forced to return to his new capital city to overcome a revolt against him and relieve a siege of the Citadel.

The battle of Khamchan of 1507 saw Babur's younger brother Nasir Mirza expelled from Badakhshan after a short reign of only two years

The battle of Kandahar (1507) was a victory won by Babur against forces that he had being expecting to serve as his allies against the Uzbek conqueror Muhammad Shaibani Khan

23 April 2010

The Hawker Hawfinch was one of a number of fighter aircraft designed to replace the Armstrong Whitworth Siskin and Gloster Gamecock, but it lost out to the Bristol Bulldog and never entered production

The Hawker Harrier was one of a number of aircraft designed to replace the Hawker Horsley bomber, but after an expansion of the specification to include a role as a torpedo bomber it proved to be badly underpowered and never entered production.

The Hawker Tomtit was an elementary trainer designed as a possible replacement for the aging Avro 504N but that was only produced in small numbers

The Hawker F.20/27 was a single-seat fighter aircraft that was the direct precursor of the very successful Hawker Fury, and that differed mainly from the latter aircraft by using a radial engine.

The Hawker Hornet was the prototype for the Hawker Fury, one of the best biplane fighters to see service with the RAF.

The Hawker Hoopee was a radial powered naval fighter that despite undergoing a prolonged series of trials never entered service, being superseded by the inline-powered Hawker Nimrod

The Hawker P.V.3 was a fighter aircraft designed to satisfy Air Ministry specification F.7/30, but that was made obsolete by the 1933 issuing of the specifications that led to the Hurricane and that never entered production.

The Hawker P.V.4 was a general purpose aircraft and level bomber designed in response to an Air Ministry specification of 1931, but that didn't make its maiden flight until 1934, by which time interest in the entire specification had faded.

The Hawker Hotspur was a turret fighter similar to the Boulton Paul Defiant. Although it reached the prototype stage, Hawker's factories were all fully committed to other aircraft, most famously the Hurricane, and the Hotspur never entered production.

21 April 2010

The siege of Andijan (to February 1498) was the end result of a conspiracy in his original kingdom of Fergana that forced Babur to abandon Samarkand only 100 days after it fell into his hands after a siege that ended in November 1497.

The battle of Marghinan of 1499 was a minor conflict that helped to secure Babur's come-back after his disastrous occupation of Samarkand in 1497

The Battle of the Ailaish River (1499) was a defeat suffered by Babur's supporters soon after he had regained control of his original kingdom of Fergana after a year spent in exile.

The siege of Andijan of 1499 was an unsuccessful attack on Babur's recently regained capital made his chief rival Tambal in the aftermath of a revolt amongst Babur's Mongol mercenaries.

The siege of Madu (1499) was a minor victory for Babur in the civil war that followed his return to power in Fergana in 1499.

The battle of Khuban (1499) was Babur's first battle as a commander, and was a victory that should have helped secure his position as ruler of Fergana.

The siege of Kasan, (late 1499 or early 1500) saw Sultan Mahmud Khan of Tashkent intervene in the civil war between Babur and his brother's supporter Sultan Ahmad Tambal.

19 April 2010

The battle of Kan-Bai (1495) was an early battle in the series of struggles that followed the death of Sultan Mahmud Mirza of Samarkand in January 1495

The siege of Asfara (May-June 1495) was an early success for Babur, then the recently installed king of Fergana, and saw him defeat a rebellion raised in the name of Sultan Baisanghar Mirza of Samarkand

The siege of Hisor in the late winter and spring of 1496 was the main event in a brief war between the Timurid sultans of Samarkand and Khorasan, and the successful defence of the city effectively ended the war.

The siege of Samarkand of July-October/ November 1496 was the first of a series of attempts made by Babur to seize the city

The siege of Samarkand of (May/June to November 1497) saw Babur and Sultan Ali Mirza resume their unsuccessful siege of 1496, this time capturing the city after a siege that lasted for much of 1497.

Babur's conquest of Kabul in October 1504 gave him a safe base to rebuild his fortunes after the Uzbek leader Muhammad Shaibani Khan expelled him from Samarkand and Babur's own family squabbles pushed him out of his own kingdom of Ferghana.

18 April 2010

The battle of Sar-i-Pul (April-May 1501) was an early defeat suffered by Babur after he had captured the city of Samarkand for a second time

The siege of Samarkand during the summer of 1501 saw the city fall to the Uzbek leader Muhammad Shaibani Khan after being defended during the summer of 1501 by Babur.

14 April 2010

The battle of Shiraz (1393) was the final clash between Tamerlane and the Muzaffarid Dynasty of southern Persia, and was a victory for Tamerlane that was followed by the total destruction of the dynasty.

The siege of Baghdad (May-9 July 1401) was one of Tamerlane's most destructive victories, and saw the city virtually destroyed after it was taken by storm at the end of a forty day long siege

The battle of Ankara or Angora (28 July 1402) was a major victory won by Tamerlane over the Ottoman Army of Sultan Bayezid that nearly destroyed the Ottoman Empire, and as a side-effect gave the Byzantine Empire another fifty years of life.

The siege of Smyrna (December 1402) saw the armies of Tamerlane capture the last Christian stronghold on the mainland of Anatolia

13 April 2010

The Hawker Hedgehog was a design for a reconnaissance aircraft produced in 1924 but that was never put into production

The Hawker Hornbill was a fighter aircraft designed in 1925-26 that combined impressive performance figures with an awkward cockpit design that contributed to its failure to enter production

The Hawker Horsley was a rare example of a bomber produced by Hawker, and was the last wooden aircraft to be produced by them before the introduction of their famous metal construction system.

The Hawker Dantorp was a version of the Hawker Horsley developed for Denmark

9 April 2010

The Hawker Duiker was an unsuccessful design for a reconnaissance aircraft that was noteworthy mainly for being one of the first two types of aircraft to carry the Hawker name.

The Hawker Woodcock was the first aircraft carrying the Hawker name to enter service with the RAF, and was a short-lived fighter aircraft that was one of the first generation of aircraft designed after the First World War.

The Hawker Danecock was a version of the Woodcock II fighter designed for Denmark, and produced under license there as the L.B.II Dankok

The Hawker Heron was an experimental metal version of the wooden Woodcock II fighter, designed by Sydney Camm early in his career with Hawker.

7 April 2010

The battle of the Indus, 24 November 1221, marked the first appearance of the Mongols in India, but the battle was the final stage of Genghis Khan's war against Khwarazm, and after his victory Genghis left India alone.

The siege of Lahore (to 22 December 1241) was an early Mongol success against the Delhi Sultanate, and took advantage of a state of political confusion in the Sultanate.

The battle of Jalandhar (modern Jullundu) of 5 February 1298 was the first of a series of four major battles that dramatically reduced the Mongol threat to the Delhi sultanate.

The battle of Kili of 1299 ended a Mongol siege of Delhi, and was the second of four major battles that reduced the Mongol threat to the Delhi Sultanate.

The battle of Amroha (20 December 1305) was a major victory for the Delhi Sultanate over a Mongol army, and was the third of four Mongol defeats that greatly reduced the threat they posed to India.

The battle of Ravi (1306) was the fourth and last of a series of defeats suffered by Mongol armies in the Delhi Sultanate that greatly reduced the Mongol threat to northern India.

5 April 2010

The Fieseler Fi 156 Storch (Stork) is widely considered to have been the best army cooperation aircraft to see large-scale service during the Second World War, serving with the German Army on just about every front, and possessing a very impressive short take-off and landing capability.

The Fieseler Fi 156A was the first production version of the Storch and was a general utility and liaison aircraft that was produced in small numbers

The Fieseler Fi 156B was to have been a civil version of the Storch, equipped with automatic moveable slots on the wing leading edge

The Fieseler Fr 156C was the main production version of the Storch, and initially differed from the A series in having the ability to carry a single aft-firing 7.9mm MG15 machine gun.

The Fieseler Fi 156D was a dedicated air-ambulance version of the Storch, modified to make it easier to load patients on stretchers into the aircraft.

The Fieseler Fi 156E was produced in attempt to solve the problems caused by the small main wheels of the standard Storch

The Fieseler Fi 156F or P (for Police) was a version of the Storch designed for internal security and anti-partisan activities.

The Fieseler Fi 156U was the designation given to an experimental version of the Storch used to test out a number of different payloads

The Siebel Si 201 was a very unconventional aircraft designed as a competitor to the Fieseler Fi 156 Storch

The OKA-38 Aist (Stork) was a Soviet version of the Fieseler Storch, designed by Oleg K. Antonov using a German example as a template

The Kokusai Ki-76 'Stella' was a artillery spotting and liaison aircraft inspired by the Fieseler Fi 156 Storch, but that was designed independently in Japan.

The Mraz K.65 Cap was the designation given to Fieseler Fi 156 Storch aircraft produced in Czechoslovakia after the end of the Second World War

The Morane Saulnier M.S. 500 was the name given to examples of the Fieseler Fi 156 Storch built at Puteaux in France after the end of the Second World War

The Morane Saulnier M.S. 501 was the designation given to post-war Fieseler Storch aircraft built in France and powered by an inline Renault engine

The Morane Saulnier M.S. 502 'Criquet' was the version of the Fieseler Fi 156 produced in largest numbers after the end of the Second World War

1 April 2010

The Fieseler Fi 98 was a dive-bomber designed in response to the same RLM specification as the Henschel Hs 123, but that never progressed beyond the prototype stage.

The Fieseler Fi 167 was a ship-born two-seat torpedo bomber and reconnaissance aircraft designed to serve on the German aircraft carrier Graf Spee

The Fieseler Fi 256 was a five-seat version of the Fi 156 Storch, built in prototype form by Morane Saulnier in France

The Fieseler Fi 333 was a design for a transport aircraft that would have carried its cargo in detachable pods, allowing for a very rapid turn-around on the ground, and for the use of a number of different purpose-built pods to carry cargo, passenger, paratroops or fuel

9 March 2010

The Kawasaki Ki-10 'Perry' was the best biplane fighter to serve with the Imperial Japanese Army, and was a highly manoeuvrable aircraft that had a big influence on the design of later monoplane fighters

The Kawasaki Ki-32 'Mary' was a single-engined light bomber slightly superior to the contemporary Fairey Battle, and that benefited greatly from operating against limited aerial opposition over China during the second Sino-Japanese War

The Kawasaki Ki-45 Toryu (Dragon Slayer) was originally designed as a twin-engined heavy fighter in the same class as the Messerschmitt Bf-110, but saw most service as a ground-attack aircraft and night fighter

The Kawasaki Ki-88 was a design for a fighter aircraft inspired by the Bell P-39 Airacobra, with the engine mounted behind the cockpit

The designation Kawasaki Ki-91 was given to a design for a four-engined heavy bomber under development in Japan between 1943 and 1945

8 March 2010

The Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryu (Flying Dragon) 'Peggy' was the best bomber to serve with the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second World War, but arrived too late to make any significant contribution to the Japanese war effort

The Mitsubishi Ki-83 was a long-range escort fighter in the same class as the Grumman F7F Tigercat or de Havilland Hornet, but that never progressed beyond the prototype stage.

The Mitsubishi Ki-95 was to have been a command reconnaissance aircraft based on the Ki-83 twin engined fighter.

The Mitsubishi Ki-103 was an advanced version of the Mitsubishi Ki-83 twin engined fighter which was under development at the end of the Second World War.

The designation Mitsubishi Ki-109 was used for two different attempts to produce an interceptor based on Ki-67 heavy bomber that would be capable of shooting down the new B-29 Superfortress

25 February 2010

The conquests of Muhammad of Ghur (1175-1206) established the first great Muslim empire in Northern India, stretching from the Punjab to Bengal

Jaichand Gaharwar or Jaichandra Gahadavala (ruled 1173-1193) was the last member of the Gahawar dynasty, which ruled large parts of the Gangetic Doab from 1090 until his defeat at Chandwar in 1193.

The battle of Gujarat or Kayadara (1178) was a defeat suffered by Muhammad of Ghur during his first campaign against a Hindu ruler in India

The battle of Chandwar (1193 or 1194) was the second major victory won by Muhammad of Ghor in northern India, after the second battle of Taraori.

22 February 2010

The first battle of Taraori (or Tarain) of 1191 was a rare defeat suffered by Muhammad of Ghur during the series of campaigns in Northern India that laid the foundations of the Delhi Sultanate

The siege of Bhatinda of 1191-2 took place between the two battles of Taraoir (1191 and 1192) fought between Muhammad of Ghur and Prithviraja Chauhana III of Delhi, and saw Prithviraja recapture the fortress before suffering defeat and death during the second battle of Taraoir

The second battle of Taraori (or Tarain) of 1192 was a decisive victory won by Muhammad of Ghur one year after he had suffered a rare defeat on the same site and that left northern India vulnerable to conquest

19 February 2010

The Mitsubishi Ki-30 'Ann' was produced as part of the Japanese Army's modernization programme of the mid 1930s, but although its design contained a number of technical 'firsts' for Japan it was a mediocre aircraft, and suffered heavy losses when it came up against determined resistance.

The Mitsubishi Ki-46 'Dinah' was the Japanese Army's main reconnaissance aircraft of the Second World War, and was one of the most aerodynamically perfect aircraft of its era.

The Mitsubishi Ki-51 'Sonia' was a very successful Japanese ground attack aircraft that remained in service throughout the Second World War.

The Mitsubishi Ki-71 'Edna' was an armed reconnaissance aircraft developed from the successful Ki-51 'Sonia' ground attack aircraft that reached no further than the prototype stage.

16 February 2010

Chandragupta Maurya (fr.c.325-290 BC) was the founder of the Mauryan Empire, the first great power to dominate the Indian sub-continent.

Bindusara (fr.298-273 BC) was the second ruler of the Mauryan Empire, and may have been responsible for extending the empire into southern India.

Ashoka (fl.269-232 BC) was the third and possibly greatest ruler of the Mauryan Empire, best known for renouncing aggressive war and his efforts to spread Buddhism.

15 February 2010

Conquests of the Mauryan Empire, c.324-261 BC: The Mauryan Empire was the first power to unite most of the Indian subcontinent, and at its peak stretched from Afghanistan in the north-west, east almost to the mouth of the Ganges and south as far as modern Mysore

Seleucus I Nicator's invasion of India (c.306-303 BC) was one of a series of obscure campaigns fought by Seleucus in an attempt to gain control of the eastern part of his recently regained kingdom

The conquest of Kalinga of c.271-261 BC was the only aggressive war fought by the third Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, and the suffering he saw during this war helped turn the Emperor away from violence and towards a more peaceful path.

12 February 2010

The Mitsubishi Ki-15 'Babs' was the main reconnaissance aircraft in use with the Imperial Japanese Army at the start of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937, and was still in front line service during the Japanese conquests at the start of 1942.

The Mitsubishi C5M was a version of the Ki-15 reconnaissance aircraft built for the Japanese Navy after the Ki-15 proved itself over China.

The Mitsubishi Ki-21 'Sally' was the Japanese Imperial Army's most important heavy bomber during the Sino-Japanese War and for most of the Second World War.

The Mitsubishi MC-21 was a transport aircraft produced by converting surplus Ki-21-Ia bombers that had been withdrawn from front line service

The Mitsubishi Ki-57 was the main personnel transport aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second World War, and was developed from the Ki-21 twin engined heavy bomber.

The Mitsubishi L4M1 was the designation given to a small number of Mitsubishi Ki-57-I transport aircraft that were transferred to the Imperial Japanese Navy

9 February 2010

The Hawker Sea Fury was the most powerful piston engined fighter to serve with the Royal Navy, seeing most service during the Korean War, despite having originally been developed as a light-weight long range fighter intended for RAF service in the war against Japan

The Hawker Sea Fury Mk.X was the first production version of the Sea Fury, and was a short-lived air superiority fighter that was soon replaced by the FB.11 fighter bomber

The Hawker Sea Fury FB.11 was the main production version of the Sea Fury, and was produced after it was decided to use the aircraft as a fighter-bomber rather than as an air superiority fighter

The Hawker Sea Fury T.20 was a two-seat trainer originally developed as a private venture by Hawker, but that was adopted by the Fleet Air Arm

The Hawker Sea Fury TT.20 was a target-tug produced from surplus T.20 trainers for the new Luftwaffe in the late 1950s

8 February 2010

General Karl von Bülow (1846-1921) was the German general who ordered the first retreat during the First Battle of the Marne, moving his 2nd Army back to the Aisne and ending any chance that the Germans might win the war in the west in 1914

31 January 2010

The Fairey Firefly was developed as a two-man naval fighter-reconnaissance aircraft, and saw service as a long range escort and strike aircraft during the Second World War and as a strike aircraft during the Korean War. 

The Fairey Firefly F.1 was a two-seat day fighter that entered Fleet Air Arm service early in 1944, and served as a long range fighter, reconnaissance and strike aircraft

The Fairey Firefly NF.I was the second attempt to develop a night-fighter version of the Firefly, and took advantage of the availability of American radar to improve on the earlier NF.II.

The Fairey Firefly FR.I was the third version of the aircraft to enter service, and saw radar introduced as a standard feature

The Fairey Firefly T.1 was an advanced dual-control trainer produced as a private venture by Fairey, and accepted by the Fleet Air Arm

The Fairey Firefly T.2 was a tactical weapons trainer based on the unarmed Firefly T.1

The Fairey Firefly NF.II was the first attempt to produce a night-fighter version of the aircraft, preceding the more successful NF.I

The Fairey Firefly T.3 was produced to train observers in anti-submarine warfare

The Fairey Firefly F.3 was the first attempt to fit a two-stage supercharged Griffon 61 to the Firefly, but was abandoned after problems with the new engine installation.

The Fairey Firefly FR.4 saw a major redesign of the basic Firefly design, with leading-edge radiators installed to provide cooling for a more powerful Griffon 61 engine

The Fairey Firefly FR.5 was the fighter-reconnaissance version of the multi-purpose Firefly Mk.5, and saw extensive service during the Korean War

The Fairey Firefly NF.5 was the night-fighter version of the multi-purpose Firefly Mk.5.

The Fairey Firefly AS.5 was the anti-submarine version of the multi-purpose Firefly Mk.5, and was equipped with submarine detection gear carried under the wings.

The Fairey Firefly AS.6 was a dedicated anti-submarine version of the aircraft, sacrificing defensive armament for an improved anti-submarine capability.

The Fairey Firefly AS.7 was developed to provide the Fleet Air Arm with a three-seat anti-submarine aircraft while work continued on the Fairey Gannet, but was never used in that role and instead entered service as the Firefly T.7

The Fairey Firefly U.8 was a pilotless target drone based on the Firefly T.7 and used to test a number of early anti-aircraft missiles

The Fairey Firefly U.9 was the designation given to forty Firefly Mk.5s converted to serve as pilotless target drones starting in 1956

After the Second World War a number of Fairey Fireflies were converted into target tugs, serving with the Fleet Air Arm, as well as with Sweden, Denmark, Holland and Australia.

29 January 2010

The Supermarine Seafire was the naval version of the Spitfire, but never shared that aircraft's impressive reputation, instead becoming known as a fragile aircraft not well suited to carrier operations

The Supermarine Seafire Mk.Ib was a version of the Spitfire Mk.V converted to serve as an interim naval fighter before the arrival of a purpose-built Seafire.

The Supermarine Seafire Mk.IIc was the first version of the aircraft to be built from new as a naval fighter, and was developed alongside the Mk.Ib.

The Supermarine Seafire Mk.III was the first version of the aircraft to be produced with folding wings, and was produced in larger numbers than any other version of the Seafire.

The Supermarine Seafire Mk.XV was the first Griffon powered version of the Seafire to be produced, entering service just too late to reach the front line during the Second World War.

The Supermarine Seafire Mk.XVII was an improved version of the Griffon-powered Seafire XV, with the bubble canopy and cut-down rear fuselage adopted for late Seafire XVs combined with a better undercarriage and stronger wings

The Supermarine Seafire F.45 was the first of a series of Seafire variants to be powered by Griffon 60 series engines, and was very much an interim model, lacking folding wings and with an older fuselage design than the Seafire XVII

The Supermarine Seafire F.Mk.46 was the first version of the Griffon-powered Seafire to be truly suitable for service on aircraft carriers, featuring contra-rotating propellers that solved the handling problems caused by the torque problems introduced with the Griffon

The Supermarine Seafire Mk.47 was the final, and best, version of the Seafire, and combined the contra-rotating propellers of the Seafire F.46 with folding wings that made it fully suited for carrier operations.

21 January 2010

The Marengo campaign (May-14 June 1800) was a crucial moment in Napoleon's career, helping to secure his position as First Consul, and to restore his earlier conquests in Italy

The combat of Turbigo (31 May 1800) was a French victory that cleared the way for Napoleon to enter Milan and split the Austrian armies in northern Italy in two

The battle of Casteggio-Montebello (9 June 1800) was a hard fought French victory that came as the main French and Austrian armies in Piedmont were closing in on each other in the build-up to the battle of Marengo

The combat of Marengo (13 June 1800) was a minor French victory on the evening before the battle of Marengo that badly disrupted the Austrian plans for the following day by giving the French command of a crucial bridge in the village of Marengo.

The battle of Marengo (14 June 1800) was a major French victory that helped to secure Napoleon's power as First Consul as well as expelling the Austrians from most of Italy

19 January 2010

The combat of Châtillon (18 May 1800) was a French victory early in the campaign that ended at Marengo

The siege of Fort Bard (21 May-2 June 1800) saw a small Austrian garrison hold up the passage of Napoleon's artillery during the French advance into Italy at the start of the campaign that ended at Marengo.

The combat of Ivrea (24 May 1800) was a French victory during Napoleon's advance into Italy early in the campaign that ended at Marengo.

The battle of Romano-Chiusella (26 May 1800) was a French victory that saw their advance guard under Lannes force the Austrians to retreat from the Chiusella River back towards Turin, and that helped convince the Austrian commanders that Napoleon was heading south towards Genoa

15 January 2010

The combats on the Var of 13-28 May 1800 marked the high point of Austrian success during the fighting in Italy in 1800, and saw an Austrian force under Melas and Elsnitz attempt to destroy Suchet's left wing of the French Army of Italy.

The combat of Breglio (1-2 June 1800) was a minor French victory (Suchet) that forced the Austrians (Elsnitz) to retreat from the Col de Tende, his best line of retreat from France into Italy.

The combat of Forcoin (3 June 1800) was a minor French victory during the fighting in the maritime Alps in 1800 that saw the Austrians forced out of a position in the mountains east of the Roya River.

14 January 2010

The combat of Bormida (20 April 1800) saw the failure of an attempt by General Suchet to regain contact with the main body of the French Army of Italy around Genoa.

The combat of Borghetto (2 May 1800) was an Austrian victory that saw them force Suchet and the left wing of the Army of Italy to retreat further away from contact with the rest of the army at Genoa.

The combat of Oneglia (7 May 1800) was one of a series of minor Austrian victories that forced the left wing of the French Army of Italy under General Suchet to abandon their last positions on the Italian Riviera and retreat behind the Var River

The combat of the Col de Tende (6 or 7 May 1800) was an Austrian victory that forced the French to abandon a defensive position in the pass that marks the border between the Maritime and Ligurian Alps and retreat back towards Nice.

13 January 2010

The combat of Mondovi (28 September 1799) was a French defeat during General Championnet's attempts to protect Cuneo, the last important French possession in Italy after the disastrous campaign of 1799

The combat of Bracco (13 October 1799) was a French attempt to push the Austrians further away from Genoa that achieved some short-term success.

The combat of Beinette (14 October 1799) was one of a minor actions fought around Cuneo as the French under Championnet attempted to stop the Austrians attacking the city, which was their last stronghold on the northern Italian plains.

The combat of Bosco (24 October 1799) was a rare French success during the fighting in Italy in 1799, and saw the French push the Austrians back towards Alessandria from their original positions around Novi

The battle of Genola (4 November 1799) was a final major French defeat in Italy in 1799 which forced them to pull back into the Alps and Apennines, and left the Austrians in command of the northern Italian plains

The combat of Novi (6 November 1799) was a minor French victory that saw them defeat an Austrian attempt to push them out of a position at Novi, on the northern edge of the Apennines.

The siege of Cuneo (18 November-4 December 1799) saw the Austrians capture the last French stronghold on the northern Italian plains at the end of a year that has seen the French position in Italy collapse

11 January 2010

The battle of Novi (15 August 1799) was a major French defeat in Italy that saw an Austro-Russian army under Marshal Suvorov defeat the combined French armies in Italy

The combat of Pignerolo (15 September 1799) was one of a series of minor actions fought as the French Armies of the Alps and of Italy attempted to unite in the aftermath of the French defeat at Novi on 15 August.

The combat of Rivoli (15 September 1799) was one of a series of minor actions fought as the French Armies of the Alps and of Italy attempted to unite in the aftermath of the French defeat at Novi on 15 August

The combats of Fossano and Savigliano (17 September 1799) were two Austrian victories that stopped an attempt by General Championnet to combine his newly united Armies of the Alps and of Italy

10 January 2010

The battle of Alessandria or Cassina-Grossa (20 June 1799) was a rare French victory in Italy during the campaign of 1799, but one that came too late to prevent the Austro-Russian army of Marshal Suvarov from defeating a second French army at the battle of the Trebbia (17-19 June 1799)

The combat of San Giorgio (20 June 1799) was a rear-guard action during the French retreat after their defeat at the battle of the Trebbia (17-19 June 1799).

The combat of Sassuolo (23 June 1799) was a second French rearguard action (after the combat of San-Giorgio of 20 June) fought after the French defeat on the Trebbia on 17-19 June.

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