The P.W.S.14 was an intermediate trainer that was produced in small numbers before work moved onto the improved P.W.S.16.
Work on the P.W.S.12 began in 1927. Originally it was a biplane version of the P.W.S.11 parasol wing trainer, which had been designed to go alongside the P.W.S.10 parasol wing fighter. The P.W.S.11 never entered production, as the P.W.S.10 was soon replaced in service by the superior P.Z.L. P.7 allowing the older fighters to be used as trainers.
Work did continue on the P.W.S.12. In 1928 it was given a 220hp Skoda (Wright) J.5 Whirlwind nine-cylinder radial engine, and in 1929 it was given staggered wings, fairings to give the fuselage an oval cross section, and a Townend ring for the engine. In the spring of 1929 P.W.S. was given a contract to produce a prototype and a structural test airframe, followed later in the year by a contract for a second prototype. The first prototype made its maiden flight in November 1929 and was then given rounded wingtips and a smaller Townend ring. After initial trials early in 1930 it was given N struts between the wings then sent for its official trials. The second prototype, the P.W.S.12bis, was modified to take into account the results of these trials, and was given more rounded wing tips, the wing area was increased and it was given a Ratier two-blade adjustable pitch metal airscrew.
Early in 1931 the Polish Department of Aeronautics ordered twenty P.W.S.12 trainers. However by this point P.W.S. had begun work on the improved P.W.S.14, which was built around a welded steel tube structure for the fuselage instead of the wooden structure of the P.W.S.12. Later in 1931 the Department of Aeronautics changed the order for P.W.S.12s to one for P.W.S.14s, forcing the company to modify the twenty aircraft that were already under construction. As a result they weren’t completed until 1932.
The P.W.S.14 was generally similar to the P.W.S.12bis, but with a modified tail, doors on the front cockpit and a raised adjustable height rear seat. Photographs show the P.W.S.14 with a Townend ring of similar dimensions to the one on the original prototype of the P.W.S.12 instead of the reduced size one on the P.W.S.12bis. It had new rudder and elevators with a more rounded shape than on the P.W.S.12.
When the first twenty P.W.S.14s were originally delivered they carried a tail marking identifying them as P.W.S.12s, but this was because the contracts had yet to be changed. Once the paperwork had been completed they officially became P.W.S.14s.
In 1933 another aircraft appeared to muddy the waters – a modified P.W.S.12bis with many of the features introduced on the P.W.S.14, but probably based on the second P.W.S.12 prototype. This aircraft, with the civil designation SP-AKE, was used for aerobatic displays, and included a small gravity fuel tank between the wheels for when it was flying inverted.
In March 1932 the Department of Aeronautics confirmed they intended to order more P.W.S.14s and even paid a deposit, but later in the year this was replaced with an order for the P.W.S.16.
Engine: Polish Skoda Works (Wright) J.5 Whirlwind nine-cylinder radial air-cooled engine
Span: 29ft 6.75in
Length: 22ft 7.75in
Height: 9ft 4.25in
Empty Weight: 1,709lb
Loaded Weight: 2,425lb
Maximum Speed: 118mph at sea level
Climb rate: 18 min to 9,842ft