4000 BC 1000 BC 300 BC 1 1000 1500 1700 1800 1810 1850 1900 1925 1950


1 A.D.




  Battle of Medway (England)


  Battle of Mons Graupius (Scotland)


  The battle of Soissons (486 AD) was the first recorded victory won by Clovis I, king of the Franks, and saw him defeat Syagrius, the ruler of the last Roman enclave in northern Gaul.


  The battle of Tolbiac or Zulpich (496 AD) might have been a victory won by Clovis and other Franks that prevented a westward movement of the Alemanni.


  Battle of Mons Badonicus, c.500
    The battle of the Ouche (500 AD) was a victory won by Clovis, king of the Franks, during an otherwise unsuccessful intervention in a Burgundian family dispute.
    The siege of Avignon (500) saw the Burgundian king Gundobar hold off a besieging Frankish army led by Clovis I for long enough to convince Clovis to offer peace terms.


  The siege of Vienne (c.500-501 AD) was the final act in a Burgundian civil war that had briefly involved the Frankish king Clovis I, but that ended with the victory of Clovis's opponent Gundobar.


  The battle of Vouille (507) was a significant victory for Clovis I, king of the Franks, and allowed him to conquer Aquitaine, taking it from the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse


  The siege of Arles (507-508) saw the Visigothic defenders of the city fight off a Frankish and Burgundian army until the Ostrogoths of King Theodoric arrived and lifted the siege.


  Death of Clovis I, king of the Franks


  Battle of Deorham (England)


  Battle of Degsastan


  Battle of Chester


  Battle of the Idle (Yorkshire)
Death of AEthelfrith, king of Northumbria, killed at the battle of the Idle


17 March

The battle of Badr was an early victory for the prophet Muhammad over the Quraysh tribe of Mecca


23 March

The battle of Mount Uhud was a minor Muslim defeat in the period after the battle of Badr



The battle of the Ditch was the largest and last attempt by the Qurayesh tribe to defeat the Muslim forces of Muhammad


  Battle of Hatfield Chase


  Battle of Rowley Burn
Death of Cadwallon, king of Gwynedd, at battle of Rowley Burn


5 August

Battle of Maserfelth



Battle of Winwaed (England)
Death of Penda, king of Mercia, at battle of Winwæd


  Death of Oswiu, king of Bernicia and Northumbria


20 May

Battle of Nechtansmere (Scotland)


  Battle of Hingston Down


  Battle of Aclea, 851 (England)


8 January

Battle of Ashdown


May Battle of Edington


  Battle of the Holme


5 August

Battle of Tettenhall (England)


  Battle of Brunanburgh



Battle of Maldon




23 April

Battle of Clontarf (Ireland)


18 October

Battle of Ashingdon


  Birth of Alp Arslam, Seljuk Sultan (to 1072)


  Start of reign of Alp Arslam, Seljuk Sultan (to 1072)


20 September

Battle of Fulford

25 September

Battle of Stamford Bridge

14 October

Battle of Hastings, battle that brought William the Conqueror to the English throne


  Accession of Romanus IV Diogenes, Byzantine Emperor (to 1071)


19 August

Battle of Manzikert (Byzantine Empire), crushing defeat of Byzantine army led by the Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes inflicted by the Seljouks of Alp Arslan
Deposition and murder of Romanus Diogenes


  Death of Alp Arslam, Seljuk Sultan (from 1063)


  Battle of Mynydd Carn (Wales)


13 November

Battle of Alnwick (England)


  First year of First Crusade (to 1099)


14 May

Start of Siege of Nicaea (to 19 June) (First Crusade)

19 June

Surrender of Nicaea to Byzantine troops, much to annoyance of crusaders


1 July

Battle of Dorylaeum, Crusaders narrowly escape disaster at the hands of the Turks of Rum


21 October

Start of Crusader siege of Antioch (to 3 June 1098)


31 December

Battle of Harenc (First Crusade), defeat of Muslim force coming to relief of Antioch.


9 February

Battle of Harenc (First Crusade, defeat of second Muslim force coming to relief of Antioch


3 June

City of Antioch falls to the Crusaders (from 21 October 1097)


5 June

Start of Kerboga's siege of Antioch


28 June

Crusaders win battle of the Orontes, ending Kerboga's siege of Antioch



Last year of First Crusade (from 1096)


9 June

First day of Siege of Jerusalem (to 18 July), First Crusade


18 July

Fall of Jerusalem (from 9 June), First Crusade


12 August

Battle of Ascalon, final victory of the First Crusade


28 September

Battle of Tinchebrai (France)


21 June

Battle of Thielt (or Hackespol), (Flanders), victory for William Clito in fight for county of Flanders


22 August

Battle of the Standard


2 February

Battle of Lincoln

14 September

Rout of Winchester



Start of Second Crusade (to 1149)



End of Second Crusade, 1147-1149


  First of Nur ad-Din's three invasions of Egypt. Egypt is finally conquered during the third campaign of 1168-69.


18 March

The battle of Babain (18 March 1167) was an inconclusive battle during Nur ad-Din's second invasion of Egypt that is best know for being Saladin's first recorded major battle.


The siege of Alexandria (April-August 1167) was Saladin's first recorded independent command, and he managed to hold the city until both sides were exhausted and a peace treaty could be negotiated.


25 October-19 December

The siege of Damietta (25 October-19 December 1169) was the main event in a failed Crusader and Byzantine attempt to conquer Egypt and undo the Syrian occupation of that country.


Mid December

The siege of Darum (Mid December 1170) was part of Saladin's first major offensive against the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, and was abandoned after a relief army appeared on the scene.

31 December

The siege of Ayla/ al-Aqaba (31 December 1170) was one of Saladin's earliest successes against the Crusaders and saw him gain control of a key point on the pilgrim route from Egypt to Mecca and Medina.


21 September-October

The siege of Montreal (21 September-October 1171) was a controversial episode of the career of Saladin after he lifted the siege, probably because his overlord Nur ad-Din was approaching with a second army.


13 June

Battle of Alnwick

29 July-2 August

The siege of Alexandria of 29 July- 2 August 1174 was a brief and very unsuccessful attempt by the Normans of Sicily to play a part in the overthrow of Saladin, then vizier of Egypt.
  October Saladin leaves Cairo and moves to Damascus at the start of the series of campaigns that eventually secure his control of Syria (to 1186)

30 December

Start of the siege of Aleppo (30 December 1174-March 1175), Saladin's first attempt to capture Aleppo and take control of Nur ad-Din's young son and heir.



Saladin lifts the siege of Aleppo

13 April

The battle of the Horns of Hamah (13 April 1175) was an important battle during Saladin's campaign to gain control of Syria and saw him defeat a combined army from Aleppo and Mosul.


22 April

The battle of Tall as-Sultan (22 April 1176) was a major victory won by Saladin during his conquest of Syria, and saw him defeat the allied armies of Aleppo and Mosul.

15 May-21 June

The siege of Azaz (15 May-21 June 1176) was one of a series of successes for Saladin in the aftermath of his victory at the battle of Tall as-Sultan (22 April 1176) and helped put pressure on the authorities in Aleppo.

29 May

Battle of Legnano (Italy), victory for league of Italian cities led by Milan over the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.


25 November

Battle of Ramleh, defeat that ended an early invasion of the Kingdom of Jerusalem by Saladin


  The battle of Gujarat or Kayadara (1178) was a defeat suffered by Muhammad of Ghur during his first campaign against a Hindu ruler in India


  Start of Saladin's Holy War (t0 1192)

3 March

Treaty between ruler of Mosul and Saladin ends his conquest of Syria, giving Saladin a united empire that stretches from Egypt, through Syria and into Mesopotamia.


4 July

Battle of Hattin, defeat that ended the existance of the Kingdom of Jerusalem


  Start of Third Crusade (to 1189-1192)


Start of Crusader Siege of Acre (to July 1191)


  Birth of Subatai Ba'adur (to 1242), Mongol general



The first battle of Taraori (or Tarain) of 1191 was a rare defeat suffered by Muhammad of Ghur during the series of campaigns in Northern India that laid the foundations of the Delhi Sultanate


12 July

Fall of Acre to Crusaders now led by Richard the Lion Heart (from August 1189)

7 September

Battle of Arsuf



The siege of Bhatinda of 1191-2 took place between the two battles of Taraoir (1191 and 1192) fought between Muhammad of Ghur and Prithviraja Chauhana III of Delhi, and saw Prithviraja recapture the fortress before suffering defeat and death during the second battle of Taraoir


The second battle of Taraori (or Tarain) of 1192 was a decisive victory won by Muhammad of Ghur one year after he had suffered a rare defeat on the same site and that left northern India vulnerable to conquest


End of Third Crusade (from 1189) and Saladin's Holy War (from 1186)

1193 or 1194


The battle of Chandwar (1193 or 1194) was the second major victory won by Muhammad of Ghor in northern India, after the second battle of Taraori.


  Start of Fourth Crusade (to 1204)


  End of Fourth Crusade (from 1202)


13 October

Battle of Steppes (Belgium), victory of bishop of Liege over raiding forces of Henry, duke of Brabant, during period of anarchy in the Holy Roman Empire


27 July

Battle of Bouvines, defeat of King John's allies by Philip Augustus of France; key battle in establishing French kingdom


  Start of First Barons War (to 1217)


20 May

Battle of Lincoln


  Start of Fifth Crusade (to 1221)


  End of Fifth Crusade (from 1218)
    The battle of the Indus, 24 November 1221, marked the first appearance of the Mongols in India, but the battle was the final stage of Genghis Khan's war against Khwarazm, and after his victory Genghis left India alone.


  Battle of the Kalka River, Mongol victory over much larger Russian army


  Start of Sixth Crusade (to 1229)


  End of Sixth Crusade, Sixth, (from 1228)



Battle of Chmielnik, Mongol destruction of the Polish royal army.

5 April

Battle of Liegnitz (Poland), Mongol defeat of a large Polish army raised by the Polish nobility

27 April

Battle of Sajo, (Hungary), Mongol victory over a huge Hungarian army led by King Bela


22 December

The siege of Lahore (to 22 December 1241) was an early Mongol success against the Delhi Sultanate, and took advantage of a state of political confusion in the Sultanate.


  Mongol army withdraws from Hungary and Poland, probably due to death of Oktai Khan
Death of Subatai Ba'adur (from 1190), Mongol general


  Start of Seventh Crusade (to 1254)


8 February

Battle of Mansura (Egypt), bloody victory during Seventh Crusade that left the crusaders too weak to achieve their aims

6 April

Battle of Fariskur (Egypt), final defeat of the Seventh Crusade


  End of Seventh Crusade (from 1248)


  Start of Second Barons War (to 1267)

14 May 1264

Battle of Lewes


4 August

Battle of Evesham



Start of the siege of Kenilworth


Surrender of Kenilworth castle


  Eighth Crusade bogs down in Tunisia


  Start of the Welsh Wars of Edward I (to 1282)


11 December

Battle of Orewin Bridge (Wales). Death of Llewellyn ap Gruffyd marks effective end of the Welsh Wars of Edward I, (from 1277)


  Othman, founder of Ottoman power, inherits his fathers realm.


22 January

Battle near Conway


27 April

Battle of Dunbar (Scotland)


11 September

Battle of Stirling Bridge (Scotland)


22 July

Battle of Falkirk


5 February

The battle of Jalandhar (modern Jullundu) of 5 February 1298 was the first of a series of four major battles that dramatically reduced the Mongol threat to the Delhi sultanate.



The battle of Kili of 1299 ended a Mongol siege of Delhi, and was the second of four major battles that reduced the Mongol threat to the Delhi Sultanate.


20 December

The battle of Amroha (20 December 1305) was a major victory for the Delhi Sultanate over a Mongol army, and was the third of four Mongol defeats that greatly reduced the threat they posed to India.



The battle of Ravi (1306) was the fourth and last of a series of defeats suffered by Mongol armies in the Delhi Sultanate that greatly reduced the Mongol threat to northern India.


20 June

Battle of Ruthven



Battle of Loudun Hill (Scotland)


24 June

Battle of Bannockburn


Battle of Morgarten, (Switzerland), victory of Swiss infantry over invading Hapsburg army


14 October 1318

Battle of Dundalk


20 September

Battle of Myton (Yorkshire)


16 March

Battle of Boroughbridge


  Death of Othman, founder of Ottoman power, succeeded by his son Orkhan (to 1361), probable organiser of the Ottoman state.


25 January

Start of reign of Edward III, king of England, (to 1377)


  The Genko War (1331-33) was a struggle between the supporters of the Emperor Go-Daigo and the Kamakura Shogunate which ended as an Imperial victory and led to the short-lived Kemmu restoration, the only period in which the Emperor held direct power between 1192 and the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate in the nineteenth century


The battle of Karasaki Beach (October 1331) was the first battle of the Genko War (1331-33), and saw the Monastic supports of the Emperor Go-Daigo defeat a cavalry force sent to capture him.

3-31 October

The siege of Kasagi (3-31 October 1331) saw the forces of the Kamakura Shogunate capture the Emperor Go-Daigo's refuge at Kasagi, a success that for a time appeared to have crushed the Imperial cause (Genko War, 1331-33).

c.31 October-20 November

The siege of Akasaki (c.31 October-20 November 1331) saw the forces of the Shogunate attack and capture the castle of Kusunoki Masashige, a supporter of the Emperor Go-Daigo, although Kusunoki escaped and continued the fight from nearby mountains.


28 April

The capture of Akasaki Castle (28 April 1332) was achieved by a surprise attack and saw Kusunoki Masashige recapture his own castle at Akasaka, which had fallen to the forces of the Shogunate in the previous year (Seige of Akasaka, November 1331).

14 June

The battle of the Yodo River (14 June 1332) was a victory won by Kusunoki Masashige over the forces of the Shogunate at the Yodo River (modern Osaka).

11 August

Battle of Dupplin Muir


28 January

The battle of Hoshigaoka (28 January 1333) saw the revolt against the Shogunate spread onto Shikoku Island (Genko War, 1331-33).


The siege of Yoshino Castle (February 1333) saw a large Bakufu army capture the castle after an eight day siege, forcing Prince Norinaga to flee to safety.

18 February-14 March

The siege of Akasaka (18 February-c.14 March 1333) was one of the few successes won by a massive Bakufu army at the start of the last year of the Genko War (1331-33).

27 March

The battle of Maya (27 March 1333) was the first of a series of victories won by Akamatsu Norimura, a supporter of the Emperor Go-Daigo, during an unsuccessful attempt to capture Kyoto.


The siege of Chihaya (March-22 June 1333) was the turning point in the Genko War (1331-33). The Shogunate's failure to capture the castle meant that their main army was pinned down, encouraged pro-Imperial revolts around Japan and forced them to commit ever more troops to the fighting.

24 April

The battle of Sakabe (24 April 1333) was a minor skirmish in which the Imperial loyalist Akamatsu Norimura was nearly captured by the forces of the Shogunate.

25 April

The battle of Segawa (25 April 1333) was the last real success during the Imperial loyalist Akamatsu Norimura's attempt to capture Kyoto.

26 April

The battle of the Twelfth Day of the Third Month (26 April 1333) was an unsuccessful attempt by the pro-Imperial Akamatsu Norimura to try and defeat the Shogunate's garrison in Kyoto

29 April

The battle of Yamazaki (29 April 1333) saw a force from the Rokuhara garrison of Kyoto fail to drive away a pro-Imperial army under Akamatsu Norimura that was threatening to cut off supplies to the city.

13 May

The battle of Funanoe (13 May 1333) was an unsuccessful attempt by the exiled emperor Go-Daigo's jailor to recapture the emperor after he had escaped from exile on Oki, an island to the north-west of Honshu.

17 May

The battle of the Third Day of the Fourth Month (17 May 1333) was a second failed attempt to take Kyoto made by the pro-Imperial leader Akamatsu Norimura.

10 June

The battle of Koganawate (10 June 1333) was notable for the death of Nagoya Takaie, one leader of a Shogunate army that had been sent to Kyoto to secure control of the area around the Imperial capital and attack the Emperor Go-Daigo's new court at Funanoe.

20 June

The battle of Rokuhara (20 June 1333) was one of the decisive battles of the Genko War, and saw the Shogunate general Ashikaga Takauji turn on his former allies, side with the Emperor Go-Daigo and drive the forces of the Shogunate out of their headquarters in Rokuhara.

22 June

End of the siege of Chihaya (from March)

23 June

The battle of Kotesashi (23 June 1333) was the first battle in the campaign that led to the capture of Kamakura and the final fall of the Kamakura Shogunate (Genko War, 1331-33). It was an inconclusive battle, and the fighting resuming on the following day.

24 June

The battle of Kumegawa (24 June 1333) was the second of two battles in two days in the campaign that led to the capture of Kamakura and the fall of the Kamakura Shogunate (Genko War, 1331-33), and was won by the pro-Imperial forces of Nitta Yoshisada.

27-28 June

The two-day long battle of Bubaigawara (27-28 June 1333) saw the defenders of Kamakura miss an opportunity to defeat the pro-Imperial army of Nitta Yoshisada, thus ensuring that the fighting would move to the Shogunate's capital at Kamakura

30 June-4 July

The siege of Kamakura (30 June-4 July 1333) was the final major battle of the Genko War (1331-33) and saw the army of Nitta Yoshisada capture the capital of the Kamakura Shogunate after a five-day long battle.

19 July

The battle of Tsukushi (7 July 1333) was the final event in a complex plot against Hojo Hidetoki, the military governor of Kyushu, and saw him defeated by two of the three original plotters against him.

7 July

Battle of Halidon Hill


  Outbreak of Hundred Years War (to 1453)


21 June

Battle of Laupen (Switzerland), victory of fledgling Swiss confederacy over league of local feudal lords.


24 July

Battle of Sluys, great English navel victory in Hundred Years War.


26 August

Battle of Crecy

4 September

Start of the siege of Calais by Edward III

17 October

Battle of Neville's Cross (Northern England)


27 June

Battle of La Roche Derien (Brittany), English victory over Charles of Blois, French claimant to duchy of Brittany

4 August

Surrender of Calais to Edward III


8 April

Battle of Taillebourg (France)


14 August

Battle of Mauron (Brittany)


19 September

Battle of Poitiers, major English victory in Hundred Years War


  Death of Orkhan, son of Othman, early Ottoman ruler (from 1326), succeeded by Murad, (to 1389), his second son


  Birth of Henry Percy, 'Hotspur'


  The battle of the Mire or Tashkent (1365) was a rare defeat for Tamerlane, and came during a struggle for power within the divided Chaghatay Khanate.


3 April

Battle of Najera (Castile)


  The battle of Balkh (1370) was a key success in Tamerlane's rise to power, and established him as the ruler of the western Chaghatay in Transoxiana


  Death of Sir Walter de Mauny, one of Edward III's most important commanders during the Hundred Years War
    The siege of Kath (1372) was an early success during Tamerlane's first expedition into Khwarezm, and was followed by one of the first examples of the atrocities that so often followed when Tamerlane captured a city.


21 June

Death of Edward III, king of England, (from 1327)



The siege of Urganch of 1379 was the key victory during Tamerlane's fourth war in Khwarezm, and saw the city fall after a siege of three months.


13 July

Death of Bertrand du Guesclin, constable of France, successful French commander during Hundred Years War.


  The siege of Fushanj (1381) was Tamerlane's first military successes in Khorasan, and a precursor to his first short siege of Herat
    The siege of Herat of 1381 was an easy success that ended Tamerlane's first major campaign in Khorasan and saw his empire expand out of its original base in Transoxiana into the former empire of the Il-Khans in Persian for the first time


  The revolt of Herat of 1383 was a short-lived rebellion against Tamerlane that ended with a massacre and the increasingly familiar site of towers of skulls outside the city
    The siege of Isfizar (1383) saw Tamerlane put down a revolt in a city south of Herat, and ended with yet another of his trademark atrocities


14 August

Battle of Aljubarotta (Portugal), victory for John, master of Avis, establishing him as king of Portugal


9 July

Battle of Sempach, (Switzerland), Swiss victory over Leopold, duke of Austria, who died in the battle


11 March

Battle of Castagnaro (Italy), victory by Paduan army led by John Hawkwood, over a larger Veronese army

19 December

Battle of Radcot Bridge, victory by Richard II's enemies over a loyalist force.


5 August

Battle of Otterburn


20 June

Death of Murad, Ottoman Sultan (since 1361) at Battle of Kosovo (Serbia), Ottoman victory over last Serbia resistance led by Prince Lazar


  The battle of Shiraz (1393) was the final clash between Tamerlane and the Muzaffarid Dynasty of southern Persia, and was a victory for Tamerlane that was followed by the total destruction of the dynasty.

20 November-11 December

The siege of Takrit (20 November-11 December 1393) was an example of Tamerlane's skills in siege warfare and saw his army capture a bandit stronghold said to be impregnable


22 April

The battle of the Terek River (22 April 1395) was the final clash between Tamerlane and Toktamish, leader of the Golden Horde, and ended in a decisive victory for Tamerlane.


25 September

Battle of Nicopolis (modern Bulgaria), Turkish victory over a strong Hungarian and crusader army.
    The siege of Yazd (1396) saw an army led by two of Tamerlane's grandsons defeat a rebellion centred on the city of Yazd and ended with a rare example of clemency on the part of Tamerlane.


May-9 July

The siege of Baghdad (May-9 July 1401) was one of Tamerlane's most destructive victories, and saw the city virtually destroyed after it was taken by storm at the end of a forty day long siege


28 July

The battle of Ankara or Angora (28 July 1402) was a major victory won by Tamerlane over the Ottoman Army of Sultan Bayezid that nearly destroyed the Ottoman Empire, and as a side-effect gave the Byzantine Empire another fifty years of life.

14 September

Battle of Homildon Hill


The siege of Smyrna (December 1402) saw the armies of Tamerlane capture the last Christian stronghold on the mainland of Anatolia


21 July

Battle of Shrewsbury
Death of Henry Percy, 'Hotspur', killed at the battle of Shrewsbury


19 February

Battle of Bramham Moor


19 August

Start of the siege of Harfleur

22 September

Capture of Harfleur by Henry V

25 October

Battle of Agincourt


  Outbreak of Bohemian War (to 1434), Czech rebellion triggered by martyrdom of John Huss.


21 March

Battle of Bauge (France), rare French victory in open battle during Hundred Years War.


30 June

Battle of Arbedo (Italy), defeat of an invading Swiss army by Milanese forces.


17 August

Battle of Verneuil



Start of siege of Orleans


12 February

Battle of the Herrings (France)


Relief of Orleans by Joan of Arc

18 June

Battle of Patay


16 June

Bohemian War ends (from 1420) with the victory of the moderate faction over the religious 'taborite' faction at the battle of Lipan


26 May

Battle of St. Jacob, (Switzerland) Pyrrhic victory for the French over a much smaller Swiss army after which the French withdrew.


  Battle of T'u-mu (China), Mongol victory over Chinese army that resulted in the capture of the Emperor.


15 April

Battle of Formigny


2 April

Start of siege of Constantinople, by the Ottoman Empire led by Sultan Mahomet II

29 May

Fall of Constantinople, to Ottoman forces led by Sultan Mahomet II, ending the Byzantine Empire

17 July

Battle of Castillon, French victory that ended the Hundred Years War (from 1337)

24 August

The 'battle' of Heworth (24 August 1453) was a skirmish between the Neville and Percy families that raised tension in the north of England in the period immediately before the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses


31 October or 1 November

The battle of Stamford Bridge (31 October or 1 November 1454) was a clash between the Neville and Percy families fought in the year before the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses, and a sign of the increasing instability brought on by the mental illness of Henry VI.


22 May

The first battle of St. Albans (22 May 1455) was the first battle of the Wars of the Roses, and was a Yorkist victory that saw Richard, duke of York temporarily take control of Henry VI's government.


23 September

The battle of Blore Heath (23 September 1459) was the only significant Yorkist success after the resumption of open warfare in 1459, part of the first phase of the Wars of the Roses.

12-13 October

The battle of Ludford Bridge (12-13 October 1459) was a humiliating defeat that appeared to have ended any hopes of a Yorkist victory in the Wars of the Roses.


15 January

The raid on Sandwich of 15 January 1460 saw a Yorkist force based at Calais attack Sandwich, capturing both a Lancastrian fleet being built in the port and the commander of the garrison (Wars of the Roses).


The capture of Sandwich (June 1460) was a key Yorkist success that allowed the exiled earls of Salisbury, Warwick and March to invade England from their base at Calais at the start of the campaign that ended with the great Yorkist victory at Northampton.

2-19 July

The siege of the Tower of London (2-19 July 1460) saw the Lancastrian forces in London isolated in the Tower while the main Yorkist army moved north to victory at Northampton (Wars of the Roses)

10 July

The battle of Northampton (10 July 1460) was a major Yorkist victory that transformed their fortunes after their disasterous failure at Ludford Bridge in 1459, and that ended with the capture of Henry VI and the death of several important Lancastrian leaders.

30 December

The battle of Wakefield (30 December 1460) was a major Lancastrian victory that resulted in the death of Richard, duke of York, his son Edmund of Rutland and one of his most important followers, Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury.


2 February

The battle of Mortimer's Cross (2 February 1461) was Edward, earl of March's first battlefield victory and was the start of a campaign that would end with him securely crowned as King Edward IV.

17 February

The second battle of St. Albans (17 February 1461) was a Lancastrian victory that opened the road to London and appeared to give them a chance to take advantage of their earlier victory at Wakefield, where Richard, duke of York, had been killed.

27-28 March

The battle of Ferrybridge (27-28 March 1461) took place on the day before the battle of Towton and saw the Yorkists force their way across the River Aire at Ferrybridge, defeating a Lancastrian attempt to hold the line of the river.

29 March

The battle of Towton (29 March 1461) was the decisive battle of the first phase of the Wars of the Roses and saw the young Edward IV defeat one of the largest Lancastrian armies to take to the field during the war.

16 October

The battle of Twt Hill (16 October 1461) was a Yorkist victory that ended open Lancastrian resistance to Edward IV in most of Wales, leaving only Harlech in Lancastrian hands.



The siege of Alnwick Castle (July 1462) saw a Yorkist army capture the castle, which changed hands repeatedly between 1461 and 1464.


The siege of Bamburgh Castle (December 1462) was a Yorkist victory that briefly gave them control of Bamburgh Castle, on the Northumbrian coast.

The siege of Dunstanburgh Castle of December 1462 was a Yorkist victory that helped secure temporary control of the main Northumbrian castles but that was soon undone.

The siege of Alnwick (December 1462-6 January 1463) saw the castle captured by the Yorkists, although only after a Lancastrian and Scottish relief army had rescued the garrison.


6 January

Surrender of Alnwick Castle at end of short siege.


The siege of Norham (June-July 1463) was the most active Scottish intervention in the fighting in Northumberland in 1461-64 but ended as an embarrassing fiasco after the Lancastrian-Scottish army fled in the face of a Yorkist relief force.

30 September

The siege of St. Michael's Mount (30 September 1473-February 1474) was the last military threat to Edward IV's rule, and saw two of the last Lancastrian peers hold the castle for five months before finally surrendering



End of the siege of St. Michael's Mount (30 September 1473-February 1474)

25 April

The battle of Hedgeley Moor (25 April 1464) was a Yorkist victory that marked the beginning of the end of Lancastrian resistance in Northumberland.

15 May

The battle of Hexham (15 May 1464) was the final battle of the first phase of the Wars of the Roses and saw the Yorkists defeat a Lancastrian army led by Henry Beaufort, duke of Somerset, ending a dangerous Lancastrian revolt in Northumberland.


The siege of Bamburgh Castle of June-July 1464 was a Yorkist victory that ended the Lancastrian campaign in Northumberland that had begun in the aftermath of the battle of Towton, and was also the first occasion when an English castle was defeated by gunpowder artillery.



The siege of Harlech Castle (1461-14 August 1468) is famous as the longest siege in British history. For the last four years of the siege Harlech was the only place in England or Wales in Lancastrian hands, and acted as a base for their plots.


26 July

The battle of Edgcote (24 July 1469) was the first fighting in the second phase of the Wars of the Roses and saw a rebel army supported by the earl of Warwick defeat a Royal army led by the earls of Pembroke and Devon, leaving Edward IV vulnerable to capture.


12 March 1470

The battle of Losecote Field (or Empingham) of 12 March 1470 saw the defeat of Richard Neville, earl of Warwick's second attempt within a year to gain power over Edward IV and saw Warwick forced into exile, where he formed a surprising alliance with the Lancastrians.


14 April

The battle of Barnet, 14 April 1471, was the first of two victories that re-established Edward IV on the throne after he was briefly deposed late in 1470. The battle ended with the death of Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, the 'kingmaker', the man whose ambitions had caused the renewal of the Wars of the Roses after half a decade of peace.

4 May

The battle of Tewkesbury (4 May 1471) was a Yorkist victory that saw the death of the Lancastrian heir, Prince Edward, and ended any realistic chances that the Lancastrians could overthrow Edward IV.

12-15 May

The siege of London (12-15 May 1471) was a brief attack on the city that threatened to revive the Lancastrian cause, which had appeared to be lost after the disaster of Tewkesbury, but that failed after two attacks on the city defences were repulsed.


2 March

Battle of Granson (Switzerland), Swiss victory over invading forces of Charles the Rash, duke of Burgundy

22 June

Battle of Morat (Switzerland), Swiss victory over second invading army led by Charles the Rash, duke of Burgundy


22 August

The battle of Bosworth Field (22 August 1485) was the final  major battle of the Wars of the Roses, and saw the Lancastrian claimant to the throne, Henry Tudor, defeat and kill Richard III, the last of the Yorkist monarchs.


16 June

The battle of Stoke (16 June 1487) was the last battle of the Wars of the Roses and saw Henry VII defeat the pretender Lambert Simnel and his allies.



The First Italian War/ Italian War of Charles VIII (1494-96) was an unsuccessful French attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples, and helped trigger over half a century of warfare in Italy, which ended with Spain as the dominant power. The Italian Wars last until 1559.


  The battle of Kan-Bai (1495) was an early battle in the series of struggles that followed the death of Sultan Mahmud Mirza of Samarkand in January 1495


The siege of Asfara (May-June 1495) was an early success for Babur, then the recently installed king of Fergana, and saw him defeat a rebellion raised in the name of Sultan Baisanghar Mirza of Samarkand

28 June

The battle of Seminara (28 June 1495) saw the first appearance of the great Spanish general Fernández Gonsalo de Cordoba in Italy, and was a rare defeat at the hands of the French (First Italian War).

6 July

The battle of Fornovo (6 July 1495) was an unsuccessful attempt by an Italian army to stop Charles VIII of France during his retreat from Naples in the summer of 1495.



The siege of Hisor in the late winter and spring of 1496 was the main event in a brief war between the Timurid sultans of Samarkand and Khorasan, and the successful defence of the city effectively ended the war.

July-October/ November

The siege of Samarkand of July-October/ November 1496 was the first of a series of attempts made by Babur to seize the city


May/ June-November

The siege of Samarkand of (May/June to November 1497) saw Babur and Sultan Ali Mirza resume their unsuccessful siege of 1496, this time capturing the city after a siege that lasted for much of 1497.


  The siege of Andijan (to February 1498) was the end result of a conspiracy in his original kingdom of Fergana that forced Babur to abandon Samarkand only 100 days after it fell into his hands after a siege that ended in November 1497.


  The battle of Marghinan of 1499 was a minor conflict that helped to secure Babur's come-back after his disastrous occupation of Samarkand in 1497
    The Battle of the Ailaish River (1499) was a defeat suffered by Babur's supporters soon after he had regained control of his original kingdom of Fergana after a year spent in exile.
    The siege of Andijan of 1499 was an unsuccessful attack on Babur's recently regained capital made his chief rival Tambal in the aftermath of a revolt amongst Babur's Mongol mercenaries.
    The siege of Madu (1499) was a minor victory for Babur in the civil war that followed his return to power in Fergana in 1499.
    The battle of Khuban (1499) was Babur's first battle as a commander, and was a victory that should have helped secure his position as ruler of Fergana.


The Second Italian War or Italian War of Louis XII (1499-1503) began with the French conquest of Milan, which was followed by a joint Franco-Spanish campaign in Naples, and that ended with a war between the former allies that began the long period of Spanish rule in Naples.

25-29 August

The siege of Alessandria (25-29 August 1499) was the main military action during the French invasion of Milan in 1499, and the fall of the city helped force Ludovico Sforza to flee from Milan (Second Italian War/ Italian War of Louis XII).

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