Eighth Crusade, 1270
The last major crusade aimed at the Holy Land, and an failure that well symbolises the end of the crusades. In the previous twenty years, the remaining crusader states had become increasingly powerless pawns while tides of Mongol and then Mameluke conquests swept across the area. Louis IX of France, in an attempt to restore the situation, decided to go back on crusade after nearly twenty years, but mislead by the idea that the Bey of Tunis could be converted to Christianity, he decided to land first in Tunisia, then march across Egypt to the Holy Land. However, once he arrived in Tunisia, it was clear that this was not the case, and he had to besiege Tunis. Louis then died in an epidemic, to be replaced by his brother Charles of Anjou, king of Sicily, and a reluctant crusader, who negotiated terms with the Bey, who paid tribute to him and France, after which the crusade ended. After the crusade was over, the future Edward I of England arrived, and finding the crusade over, journeyed on himself to the Holy Land, where the powerful crusader fortress of Krak had just been captured by Baibars, where he campaigned until 1272, when the death of his father Henry III forced him to return to England. The crusading era in the Holy Land ended in 1291, with the fall of Acre, the last crusader base in Palestine.
How to cite this article:Rickard, J. (25 March 2001), Eighth Crusade, 1270, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_crusade8th.html