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The siege of Kasan, (late 1499 or early 1500) saw Sultan Mahmud Khan of Tashkent intervene in the civil war between Babur and his brother's supporter Sultan Ahmad Tambal.

5-21 March

The siege of Novara (5-21 March 1500) was Ludovico Sforza's last success in his attempt to expel the French from the Duchy of Milan (Second Italian War/ Italian War of Louis XII).

8 April

The battle of Novara (8 April 1500) was an easy French victory that ended an attempt by Ludovico Sforza to expel them from the Duchy of Milan (Second Italian War/ Italian War of Louis XII).

11 November

The Treaty of Granada (11 November 1500) was an agreement between Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon to split the Kingdom of Naples between them.


  The battle of Sar-i-Pul (April-May 1501) was an early defeat suffered by Babur after he had captured the city of Samarkand for a second time
    The siege of Samarkand during the summer of 1501 saw the city fall to the Uzbek leader Muhammad Shaibani Khan after being defended during the summer of 1501 by Babur.


The siege of Capua (July 1501) was part of the French invasion of Naples in the summer of 1501 (Second Italian War)


The siege of Taranto (Autumn 1501-March 1502) was the last stand of the Aragonese dynasty of Naples after it was attacked by a Franco-Spanish alliance (Second Italian War).



Taranto surrenders to the Spanish.


The siege of Barletta (August 1502-April 1503) saw a French army under the Duke of Nemours loosely blockade a smaller Spanish army under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba in the port of Barletta in Apulia, but the French failed to press their advantage before Cordoba was reinforced



End of siege of Barletta (August 1502-April 1503)

26 April

The battle of Cerignola (26 April 1503) was the first great victory for Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba (El Gran Capitán) and forced the French to abandon the city of Naples.


The siege of Gaeta (June-October 1503) was an unsuccessful Spanish attempt to capture one of the last French strongholds in Naples in the aftermath of the great Spanish victory at Cerignola in April 1503

28-29 December

The battle of the Garigliano (28-29 December 1503) was the second of two major Spanish victories won in Naples during 1503 that saw the French expelled from the south of Italy.



The Treaty of Blois (September 1504) ended fighting between Louis XII of France and the Emperor Maximilian, and was followed by a series of other treaties that between them ended the Second Italian War (1499-1503).
    Babur's conquest of Kabul in October 1504 gave him a safe base to rebuild his fortunes after the Uzbek leader Muhammad Shaibani Khan expelled him from Samarkand and Babur's own family squabbles pushed him out of his own kingdom of Ferghana.


  The siege of Qalat or Khilat (1505) was a short-lived success for Babur early in his time as ruler of Kabul


The Treaty of Blois of October 1505 was the second of two treaties of Blois that restored peace after the Second Italian War of 1499-1503.



The siege of Kabul of early 1507 saw Babur forced to return to his new capital city to overcome a revolt against him and relieve a siege of the Citadel.
    The battle of Khamchan of 1507 saw Babur's younger brother Nasir Mirza expelled from Badakhshan after a short reign of only two years
    The battle of Kandahar (1507) was a victory won by Babur against forces that he had being expecting to serve as his allies against the Uzbek conqueror Muhammad Shaibani Khan
    The siege of Kandahar of 1507 saw the Uzbek conqueror Shaibani Khan make an unsuccessful attack on the city with days of its capture by Babur


  The battle of Kabul of 1508 saw Babur put down a revolt amongst his Mongol troops despite being outnumbered by around six-to-one

10 December

Formation of the League of Cambrai, an anti-Venetian alliance. The War of the League of Cambrai begins in the following year.


14 May

The battle of Agnadello (14 May 1509) was the only major battle of the War of the League of Cambrai, and was a Venetian defeat that caused the Republic to temporarily abandon many of its mainland possessions.



Pope Julius II agrees a treaty with Venice, ending the League of Cambrai and marking the start of the War of the Holy League


  The battle of Pul-i-Sanghin or Abdara (1511) was the first victory won by Babur early in the campaign that led to his third and final occupation of Samarkand


11 April

The battle of Ravenna (11 April 1512) was a French victory over a Spanish army that might have helped secure a French victory over the forces of the Holy League if the young French commander, Gaston de Foix, duke of Nemours, hadn't been killed late in the day.


The battle of Kul-i-Malik (May 1512) was a defeat for Babur that forced him to abandon Samarkand, ending his third and final period in command of that city.

12 November

The battle of Ghaj-davan (12 November 1512) was an Uzbek victory over a largely Persian army that ended any chance that Babur had of retaking his ancestral home of Samarkand


3-6 June

The siege of Novara (3-6 June 1513) was the highpoint of the French invasion of Milan of 1513, and was ended by the arrival of strong Swiss reinforcements who defeated the French in battle outside Novara (6 June 1513).

6 June

The battle of Novara (6 June 1513) was one of the last victories won by the famous Swiss infantry, and saw them overwhelm a French army that had temporarily occupied most of the Duchy of Milan.

9 September

Battle of Flodden



Henru VIII makes peace with France, marking the end of the War of the Holy League


  The battle of Ghazni (1515) saw Babur defeat a rebellion that broke out in the aftermath of the death of his brother Nasir Mirza, who had been the ruler of that city.

13-14 September

The battle of Marignano or Melegnano (13-14 September 1515) was a French victory that restored their rule of the Duchy of Milan after a brief period of Swiss dominance, and that was probably the high point of Francis I's career in Italy (Francis I's First Invasion of Italy).


13 August

The Treaty of Noyon (13 August 1516) ended the fighting between Spain and France after Francis I's first invasion of Italy.


  The siege of Chaghansarai of 1518 was an early step in Babur's attempts to conquer an empire in Hindustan



The siege of Bajaur of January 1519 was an early success during Babur's preparations for the invasion of Hindustan, and was notable for an early use of gunpowder weapons

15 March

The battle of Pharwala (15 March 1519) saw Babur capture a strong fortress held by the Gakhar tribe


  The siege of Sayyidpur of 1520 was the only major military action to take place in Babur's third expedition into India
    The siege of Kandahar of 1520-6 September 1522 was a major victory for Babur that removed the last major obstacle in Afghanistan to his planned invasion of Hindustan


27 April 1522

The battle of La Bicocca (27 April 1522) was the first in a series of French battlefield defeats in Italy during the First Hapsburg-Valois War and saw an army sent to recapture Milan defeated just outside the city.

6 September

End of the siege of Kandahar (from 1520)


Early January

The battle of Lahore (early January 1524) was the first military success during Babur's fourth expedition into India, but the necessity to fight at all at Lahore meant that Babur's plan of campaign was already in trouble

Mid January

The siege of Dibalpur (modern Dipalpur) of January 1524 was the second and final military success during Babur's fourth expedition into India, coming after his victory at Lahore earlier in the month


  The battle of Sialkot of 1524 was a victory for Babur's lieutenants in the Punjab over a former ally, fought between his fourth and fifth expeditions into India.

27 October

The siege of Pavia (27 October 1524-24 February 1525) saw the defenders of the city hold long enough for Imperial reinforcements to read Italy before inflicting a crushing defeat on Francis I at the Battle of Pavia (24 February 1525).


  The siege of Balkh of 1525 saw the Uzbeks capture Balkh despite Babur's efforts to defend it
    The battle of Delhi of 1525 was a victory won by Sultan Ibrahim Lodi over a rebel army led by his uncle Alam Khan

24 February

The battle of Pavia (24 February 1525) was the decisive battle of the First Hapsburg-Valois War, and was a French defeat that saw Francis I captured and that permanently undermined the French position in Italy.


26 February 1526

The battle of Hisar-Firuza (26 February 1526) was the first clash between Babur and the forces of the Sultanate of Delhi during the campaign that ended at Panipat two months later

2 April 1526

The battle in the Doab of 2 April 1526 was a minor victory at an unnamed location that saw Babur defeat a detachment from Ibrahim Lodi's army that had been sent across the River Jumna into the Doab

21 April 1526

The first battle of Panipat (21 April 1526) was a major victory for Babur over Sultan Ibrahim Lodi of Delhi, won during his fifth and final expedition into Hindustan, and that helped establish the Mogul Empire.


  The Second Hapsburg-Valois War or War of the League of Cognac (1526-30) was an unsuccessful attempt to reduce the power of Charles V in Italy after his crushing victory at Pavia in 1525, and is perhaps best known for a disastrous sack of Rome in 1527.


The siege of Sambal (or Sambhal) in the summer of 1526 took place during the disturbed period that followed Babur's victory at Panipat, and involved some of his nobles attempting to help one potentially hostile Afghan defeat another one.
    The siege of Khandhar (1526) was a success for the Rajput Rana Sangha of Mewar in the period after Babur's victory at Panipat had overthrown the Lodi dynasty, but before Babur had secured his own authority
    The battle of Bayana (1526) was a rare setback for Babur in the aftermath of his victory at Panipat on 21 April 1526


late 1526-February 1527

The siege of Bayana (late 1526-February 1527) was one of a series of incidents that discouraged Babur's army in the build-up to the decisive battle against Rana Sangha of Mewar at Khanua in March 1527, but that ended without the fort falling


Late February

The combat of Khanua of late February 1527 was one of a series of setbacks that discouraged Babur's army in the period before his great victory over the Rajputs at Khanua in the following month

16 March

The battle of Khanua (16 March 1527) was the second of Babur's three great victories in northern India that helped to establish the Mogul Empire


22-29 January

The siege of Chanderi (22-29 January 1528) was to have been the first stage in a campaign that Babur hoped would take him to Chitor, the capital of the defeated Rana Sangha, but a rebellion forced him to abandon this plan after the fall of the place.


4-6 May

The battle of the Gogra River (4-6 May 1529) was the final major battle in the career of Babur, and saw him defeat Sultan Nasrat Ali of Bengal in a battle that was really only incidental to the main purpose of Babur's campaign in the east


  End of the Second Hapsburg-Valois War or War of the League of Cognac (1526-30)


  The Third Hapsburg-Valois War (1536-38) was an inconclusive clash triggered by the death of the last Sforza duke of Milan, and that ended as a minor French victory.


  End of the Third Hapsburg-Valois War (1536-38)


  The Fourth Hapsburg-Valois War (1542-44) was the last conflict between Francis I of France and the Empire Charles V, and was a drawn conflict that ended with the restoration of the pre-war status quo.


  End of the Fourth Hapsburg-Valois War (1542-44)


  The fifth and final Hapsburg-Valois War (1551-59) was the last in the series of clashes between the Hapsburg and Valois dynasties that began under Francis I and Charles V.



The siege of Metz (October 1552-January 1553) was a failed Imperial attempt to recapture Metz that was one of Charles V's last major military operations and that was said to have played a part in the decline of his health and his decision to abdicate (Fifth Hapsburg-Valois War).



End of siege of Metz



The siege of Siena (January 1554-April 1555) was one of the longer sieges of the Italian Wars, and was one of the last attempts by the pro-French party in Italy to counter Imperial and Spanish power in Italy.

2 August

The battle of Marciano (2 August 1554) saw the active field army of Siena suffer a heavy defeat, allowing their Florentine enemies to focus all of their efforts on the siege of Siena.

13 August

The battle of Renty (13 August 1554) was a minor French victory during an Imperial invasion of Picardy that was most notable as Charles V's last battle (Fifth Hapsburg-Valois War).



End of siege of Siena


2-27 August

The siege of St Quentin (2-27 August 1557) saw Gaspard de Coligny, Admiral of France, hold off a massive army led by Philip II of Spain for nearly a month, badly disrupting his plans for an invasion of France.

10 August

The battle of St Quentin (10 August 1557) saw the Spanish defeat a French army that was attempting to get reinforcements to the besieged garrison of St Quentin (Fifth Hapsburg-Valois War).


  The Livonian War (1558-1583) was a twenty five year long struggle for control of Livonia (modern Estonia and Latvia)

13 July

Battle of Gravelines



End of the fifth and final Hapsburg-Valois War (1551-59) ending the Italian Wars



The Conspiracy of Amboise (March 1560) was an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the Guise brothers, the dominant figures in France during the short reign of the young Francis II.



The Edict of Saint-Germain or of January (issued in January 1562) was a Royal decree that gave the French Protestants the right to preach for the first time, ending a long period of persecution.

March/ April

Start of the First War of Religion (France) (to March 1563)

31 August

The siege of Bourges (to 31 August 1562) was an early Catholic successes during the First War of Religion, and saw them seize one of the most important Huguenot strongholds in central France.


20 September

The Treaty of Hampton Court (20 September 1562) saw Elizabeth I of England agree to provide support for the Huguenot cause in France during the First War of Religion, but the alliance produced very little practical aid for the Huguenots.

29 September

The siege of Rouen (29 September-26 October 1562) was a major Catholic success early in the First War of Religion, but was marred by the death of Antoine de Bourbon, king of Navarre, one of the most important Catholic leaders.

26 October

End of siege of Rouen

19 December

The battle of Dreux (19 December 1562) was the only major battle of the First War of Religion (1562-63) and was a hard-fought Royal victory notable because both commanders were captured during the fighting



The Nordic Seven Years War (1563-1570) was one of a series of conflicts between Sweden and Denmark-Norway that followed the collapse of the Union of Kalmar


4 February-March

The siege of Orleans (4 February-March 1563) was the last major military action of the First War of Religion, and ended after the assassination of Duke François of Guise, the last major Catholic leader in the field.

18 March

The Edict of Amboise (18 March 1563) ended the First War of Religion (1562-63), and granted the Huguenots legal tolerance and a limited right to preach in strictly limited locations.

30 May

The Battle of Bornholm was the first fighting of the Nordic Seven Years War, coming before the official start of the war.


22 May-31 July

The siege of Le Havre (22 May-31 July 1563) saw the French expel an English garrison from the port in the aftermath of the First War of Religion.

To 4 September

The siege of Älvsborg was the first lfighting on land in the Nordic Seven Years War (1563-1570) between Sweden and Denmark-Norway.


11 September

The battle of Gotland was an inconclusive naval clash during the Nordic Seven Years War


9 November

The battle of Mared was one of only two significant land battles during the Nordic Seven Years War (1563-1570) between Sweden and Denmark


Second Battle of Azukizaka (Japan), battle between the Samurai and the Ikko-Ikki monks.


11 April

The peace of Troyes (11 April 1564) officially ended the English involvement in the First War of Religion (1562-63).

30-31 May

The battle of Gotland-Öland was a chaotic two day battle during the Nordic Seven Years War that saw the destruction of the massive Swedish flagship Mars


12 July

The Action off Warnemünde, 12 July 1564, was a minor naval clash of the Nordic Seven Years War close to Rostock

12-13 August

The battle of Öländ was a minor Swedish naval victory over a combined Danish-Lübeck fleet during the Nordic Seven Years War


September 1567

The Surprise of Meaux of September 1567 was an unsuccessful Huguenot attempt to seize control of the French court and remove a number of strongly anti-Protestant noblemen from the court. It triggered the Second War of Religion (to March 1568)

10 November 1567

The battle of Saint-Denis (10 November 1567) was the only major battle of the Second War of Religion (1567-68) and was a drawn conflict in which a much larger Royal army was unable to defeat the smaller Huguenot army that was blockading Paris from the north.


24 February-March

The siege of Chartres (24 February-March 1568) was the last significant military action during the Second War of Religion, and saw a short-lived Huguenot attempt to take the city that was cut short by the peace negotiations that ended the war.

23 March

The Edict of Longjumeau (23 March 1568) ended the Second War of Religion (1567-68) and restored all the rights that the Huguenots had been granted in the Edict of Amboise at the end of the First War of Religion.


The Third War of Religion (1568-70) was significantly longer than the first two wars, and although it was marked by two major Catholic victories, at Jarnac and Moncontour, ended as a third Huguenot victory.

25 October

The battle of Mensignac (25 October 1568) was a minor Catholic victory early in the Third War of Religion notable for the death of the Huguenot leader Paul de Mouvans.


13 March

The battle of Jarnac (13 March 1569) was a Catholic victory early in the Third War of Religion that was notable for the death of the Huguenot leader Condé, but that had little long term impact.

25 June

The battle of La Roche-Abeille (25 June 1569) was a minor Huguenot victory that came after their army had been joined by reinforcements from Germany.


27 July-7 September

The siege of Poitiers (27 July-7 September 1569) was an unsuccessful Huguenot attempt to capture the wealth city that cost them over 2,000 dead before the Royal army lifted the siege.

3 October

The battle of Moncontour (3 October 1569) was a major Catholic victory during the Third War of Religion that followed the unsuccessful Huguenot siege of Poitiers, and seemed to bring the Protestant cause to its knees

October-3 December

The siege of Saint-Jean d'Angély (October-3 December 1569) was a Catholic victory that nevertheless cost them so many troops that the Huguenots were able recover the initiative (Third War of Religion).


Siege of Chokoji Castle (Japan)

22 January-20 February

The siege of Tolouse (22 January-20 February 1570) saw an unsuccessful Huguenot attempt to seize the city, abandoned because of a lack of supplies.

25 June

The battle of Arnay-le-Duc (25 June 1570) was a Huguenot victory that forced Charles IX of France to agree to a peace treaty that ended the Third War of Religion.

8 August

The Peace of St.-Germain (8 August 1570) ended the Third War of Religion, and gave the Huguenots substantially the same rights that they had held at the beginning of the war, as well as allocating them four 'security towns'.


The Peace of Stettin ended the Nordic Seven Years War between Sweden and Denmark (1563-1570), and also ended hostilities between Sweden and Poland-Lithuania (Livonian War)


28 September

Siege of Mount Hiei (Japan). Part of the Samurai campaign against the Ikko-Ikki monks.


24 August

The Fourth War of Religion (1572-73) was triggered by the St. Bartholomew's Eve Massacre of 24 August 1572, in which several thousand Huguenots were killed. The resulting war was dominated by a unsuccessful Catholic siege of La Rochelle, and was ended by a negotiated peace in the summer of 1573.


The siege of La Rochelle (December 1572-July 1573) was the main military action of the Fourth War of Religion, and was an unsuccessful Catholic attempt to capture the main Huguenot stronghold.


3 January-19 August

The siege of Sancerre (3 January-19 August 1573) was one of the epic sieges of the French Wars of Religion, lasting for seven months and only ended after the defenders were included in the deal that ended the Fourth War of Religion.

11 February-9 April

The siege of Sommières (11 February-9 April 1573) was a minor Catholic success during the Fourth War of Religion, but one that took far too long to achieve and only ended when the defenders were given generous terms.


The edict of Pacification issued at Boulogne in July 1573 ended the Fourth War of Religion, and restricted the religious freedoms granted to the Huguenots at the end of the each of the first three wars of religion.



The first siege of Livron (June 1574) was an unsuccessful Catholic attempt to capture the small Huguenot-held town that took place in the gap between the Fourth and Fifth Wars of Religion.
    The siege of Lusignan (September 1574-25 January 1575) was a costly Catholic victory that came in the gap between the Fourth and Fifth Wars of Religion.
    The siege of Le Pouzin (5-15 October 1574) was one of a number of sieges that took place in the south of France during the gap between the Fourth and Fifth Wars of Religion.
    The second siege of Livron (17 December 1574-24 January 1575) saw a second unsuccessful Catholic attempt to capture this Huguenot-held town.



Outbreak of the Fifth War of Religion (France)

10 October

The battle of Dormans (10 October 1575) was the only significant battle during the Fifth War of Religion (1575-76) and saw a Royal army defeat part of a force of German troops that were coming to the aid of the Huguenots.

21 November

The Truce of Champigny-sur-Veude (21 November 1575) was the first attempt to end the Fifth War of Religion (1575-76) but the agreement was not ratified by most of the Huguenot leaders and the war dragged on into 1576.


5 May

The Edict of Beaulieu (5 May 1576) ended the Fifth War of Religion and gave the Huguenots more religious rights than any of the treaties that had ended the first four wars.


December-September 1577

The Sixth War of Religion (December 1576-September 1577) was a short conflict triggered by the terms that had ended the Fifth War, but it ended with stalemate and a similar peace settlement.


25 April-2 May

The siege of La Charité (25 April-2 May 1577) saw Henry III’s army seize one of the eight security towns granted to the Huguenots at the end of the Fifth War of Religion.

-12 June

The siege of Issoire (to 12 June 1577) was the last significant military action during the Sixth War of Religion, and saw Henry III’s army capture a second one of the security towns offered to the Huguenots after the Fifth War of Religion.

14 September

The peace of Bergerac (14 September 1577) ended the Sixth War of Religion, and was a slightly modified version of the unpopular Edict of Beaulieu, which had helped trigger the war in the first place.


  The Seventh War of Religion (1580) was the least significant of the nine wars of religion, and saw Henry of Navarre expand his influence in the south-west of France.

28-31 September

The siege of Cahors (28-31 May 1580) was the main military action of the Seventh War of Religion, and saw Henry of Navarre capture a city that had been promised to him as part of his wife’s dowry.


The peace of Fleix (November 1580) ended the short Seventh War of Religion, and largely repeated the terms of earlier treaties.



Start of the Siege of Pskow, to January 1582 (Livonian War)


Death of Odo Nobunaga, assassinated by one of his own generals.



End of Siege of Pskov, abandoned when Ivan IV of Russia negotiates for peace


15 January

Peace of Iam Zapolskii, ends fighting in the Livonian War between the Russia of Ivan IV and Poland-Lithuania


31 December

The Treaty of Joinville (31 December 1584) was an agreement between Philip II of Spain and the more radical French Catholics, led by Henry, duke of Guise, aimed at preventing the Protestant Henry of Navarre coming to the French throne.


  The Eighth War of Religion or War of the Three Henrys (1585-89) was fought after the Protestant Henry of Navarre became heir to the throne of France, and merged into the Ninth War after Henry III died, leaving Navarre as king.

7 July

The treaty of Nemours (7 July 1585) saw Henry III of France give in to pressure from the Catholic League and agree to attempt to eliminate Protestantism in France, turning a Catholic revolt against his authority into the Eighth War of Religion.


20 October

The battle of Courtras (20 October 1587) was the first major Huguenot battlefield victory during the Wars of Religion, but Henry of Navarre failed to take advantage of his success (Eighth War of Religion).

26 October

The battle of Vimory (26 October 1587) was the first of two defeats that helped break up a sizable German and Swiss army that had invaded France to support the Huguenot cause (Eighth War of Religion).


24 November

The battle of Auneau (24 November 1587) was the second defeat suffered by a force of Germans that had invaded France in support of the Huguenots and helped convince the survivors to accept an offer of safe conduct out of France (Eighth War of Religion).


24-28 June

The siege of the Ile de Marans (24-28 June 1588) was a minor success won by Henry of Navarre and saw him reoccupy an inland island close to La Rochelle (Eighth War of Religion).

29 July

Battle of Gravelines (2)


Death of Henry III of Frances sees the Eighth War of Religion turn into the Ninth War of Religion


16 July

The Edict of Union (16 July 1588) saw Henry III of France capitulate to the Catholic League and give in to their demands, having already lost control of Paris to the League (Eighth War of Religion).


  The Ninth War of Religion (1589-98) was the last stage of the long series of religious wars that had divided France since 1562, and was fought over the succession of Henry of Navarre as Henry IV.

30 April

The Treaty of Tours (30 April 1589) saw a dramatic reversal of the alliances during the Eighth War of Religion, after Henry III of France was forced into an alliance with his former foe, the Huguenot leader Henry of Navarre.

30 July-5/6 August

The siege of Paris (30 July-c.5/6 August 1589) saw the combined armies of Henry III and Henry of Navarre besiege Paris, which was held by the Catholic League, but the besieging army fell apart after the assassination of Henry III and the siege soon had to be lifted (Eighth War of Religion).

21 September

The battle of Arques (21 September 1589) was a victory for Henry IV early in the Ninth French War of Religion, and saw him defeat the duke of Mayenne, the new leader of the Catholic League.


The Swedish Civil War of 1597-98 was the result of an attempt to secure the alliance between Poland-Lithuania and Sweden


25 September (Old Style)

The battle of Stångebro was the decisive encounter of the Swedish Civil War of 1597-1598 between Sigismund III, king of Poland-Lithuania and Sweden and his uncle Charles, duke of Södermanland


Outbreak of Polish-Swedish War (to 1629)


21 October

Battle of Sekigahara (Japan)


27 September

The Battle of Kircholm, was a major Polish-Lithuanian victory during the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629


The Polish-Muscovite War of 1609-1619 was one consequence of the Russian Time of Troubles (1604-1613).


4 July

The battle of Klushino saw a small Polish-Lithuanian army defeat a much larger Russian and Swedish army that was attempting to relieve the siege of Smolensk (1609-1611).


The Kalmar War (1611-1613) was one of a series of wars between Sweden and Denmark. It was caused by rivalry between the two powers in the Baltic and by Swedish efforts to gain control of Finnmark, the area to the north of Lapland



Peace of Knarod: Peace treaty that ended the Kalmar War (1611-1613) between Denmark and Sweden



The Peace of Stolbovo ended the Swedish-Russian War of 1613-1617


22 May

Defenestration of Prague, marks outbreak ofThirty Years War (to 1648)



Truce of Deuline ends Polish-Muscovite War, 1609-1619


Outbreak of the Polish-Ottoman War of 1620-21, the first conflict between Poland-Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire for ninety years.

18 September-6 October

The Battle of Cecora was a disastrous Polish-Lithuanian defeat at the hands of an Ottoman army

8 November

Battle of the White Hill (Bohemia), Imperial victory that ended the Bohemian phase of the Thirty Years War


September-9 October

The Battle of Chocim saw an Ottoman army fail to defeat a Polish-Lithuanian army camped at Chocim, foiling their planned invasion of the Ukraine.


27 April

Battle of Mingolsheim, Protestant victory temporarily preventing junction of Catholic armies (Thirty Years War)

6 May

Battle of Wimpfen, Catholic victory over army of the Margrave of Baden (Thirty Years War)

20 June

Battle of Hochst, Christian of Brunswick managed to cross the River Main against strong opposition (Thirty Years War)


29 August

Battle of Fleurus, Protestant victory over Imperial army blocking an attempt to relieve siege of Bergen op Zoom


10 June

Treay of Compiegne, France and Holland ally against the Hapsburgs, prolonging Thirty Years War


25 April

Battle of Dessau, (Germany), imperial victory over Protestant army.


16 June

Death of Christian of Brunswick, protestant general in Thirty Years War


27 August

Battle of Lutter (am Barenberge), Imperial victory over Danish army


22 September and 29 September-1 October

The battle of Mewe was a lengthy battle and Swedish victory that came late in the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629.


The Truce of Altmark ended the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629.


17-18 August

The battle of Dirschau (or Tczew) was a minor Swedish victory during the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629.


27 June

The battle of Honigfelde, (also known as Trzciana or Sztum) was the last significant battle of the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629.


12 September

The Truce of Altmark ended the Polish-Swedish War of 1600-1629.


27 March

Charles I (to 1649) succeeds James I as king of Great Britain and Ireland



Start of Siege of Magdeburg


20 May

Fall and Sack of Magdeburg


17 September

Battle of Breitenfeld, Swedish victory over Imperial army (30 years war)


The Smolensk War (1632-1634) saw Russia attempt to reconquer lands lost to Poland-Lithuania in the truce of Deuline (1619)



Formation of League of Heilbronn), Protestant alliance (Thirty Years War)


15 April

Battle of Lech, Swedish victory over Tilly's Bavarian/ Imperial force (Thirty Years War)


28 October

The siege of Smolensk (to 1 May 1634) was the main action of the Smolensk War (1632-34) between Russian and Poland-Lithuania.


16 November

Battle of Lutzen, Swedish victory over Imperial army marred by the death of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden


1 March

End of the siege of Smolensk (from 28 October 1632)



Peace of Polianovka ends the Smolensk War (from 1632)


6 September

Battle of Nordlingen (1), victory of combined Imperial and Spanish armies over Protestant army


17 December

Outbreak of Shimabara Rebellion (Japan)



Shimabara Rebellion (Japan) ends in failure


First Bishop's War, inconclusion war between Charles I of England and the Scots.


18 June

Peace of Berwick, ending First Bishop's War


21 October

Battle of the Downs (Naval battle), great Dutch naval victory over the Spanish, fought in neutral English waters.


Second Bishop's War, effective Scottish victory over Charles I of England, leading to summoning of Long Parliament and eventually to English Civil War


13 April

Start of Short Parliament


5 May

End of Short Parliament


28 August

Battle of Newburn upon Tyne, Scottish victory that seals victory for Scots in Second Bishop's War


26 October

Treaty of Ripon, marking Scottish victory in the Second Bishops War.


3 November

Start of Long Parliament (to 1660)


23 April

Charles I denied entry to Hull, considered to be first action of the First English Civil War (to 1646)


23 October

Battle of Edgehill, first major battle of Civil War, with no clear winner


19 January

Battle of Braddock Down, Royalist victory in CIvil War


24 March

Battle of Higham, minor Parliamentary victory (Civil War)


30 June

Battle of Adwalton Moor


10 August

Charles I moves to besiege Gloucester (to 5 September )


5 September

Relief force arrives, Charles I abandons Siege of Gloucester (from 10 August)


20 September

First battle of Newbury, inconclusive battle that prevented Charles I marching on London


11 October

Battle of Winceby, Parliamentary victory (Civil War)


13 December

Battle of Alton, Parliamentary victory in Sussex (Civil War)


28 February

Start of Parliamentary Siege of Latham House


26 May

Parliamentary Siege of Latham House abandoned on approach of Prince Rupert


2 July

Battle of Marston Moor, Parliamentary victory in Civil War


1 September

Battle of Tippermuir, victory that revived Royalist fortunes in Scotland (Civil War)


17 September

Battle of Montgomery, Parliamentary victory during Civil War


29 October

Start of siege of Laugharne castle, (to 3 November), Parliamentary siege of Royalist garrison (English Civil War)


3 November

Surrender of Laugharne castle, Royalist stronghold in south Wales.


Death of Miyamoto Musashi, famous Samari and writer


6 March

Battle of Jankau, Swedish victory over imperial and Bavarian army (30 Years War)


2 May

Battle of Mergentheim, defeat of French army invading central Germany (30 Years War)


31 May

Battle of Leicester (England), Royalist victory in first English Civil War.


14 June

Battle of Naseby, decisive Parliamentary victory in English Civil War


2 July

Battle of Alford, Royalist victory in Scotland (Civil War)


10 July

Battle of Langport, defeat of Royalist army in the West (Civil War)


1 August

Battle of Colby Moor, Parliamentary victory that helped end the Royalist presence in Pembrokeshire


3 August

Battle of Nordlingen, costly French victory over Imperial army (30 Years War)


13 September

Battle of Philiphaugh (Scotland), Covenanter victory ending Royalist hopes in Scotland (Civil War)


24 September

Battle of Rowton Heath, Parliamentary victory outside Chester (Civil War)


14 October

Fall of Basing House, Royalist stronghold (Civil War)


21 March

Battle of Stow on the Wold, defeat of final Royalist army (English Civil War)


5 May

Charles I surrenders to Scots, marking end of the First English Civil War, (from 1642)


5 June

Battle of Benburb (Ireland), victory of Irish rebels over Scottish army


Second English Civil War, the Army defeat Royalist rebels, the Scots and Parliament.


8 May

Battle of St. Fagan's (Wales), Parliamentary victory over Welsh rebels (second civil war)


24 October

Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty Years War (from 1618)


20 January

Execution of Charles I, king of Great Britain and Ireland (from 1625)


19 May

Naval skirmish off Dover signals (battle of Goodwin Sands) start of First Anglo-Dutch War, (to 1654)


16 August

The action off Plymouth of 16 August 1652 was a convoy battle early in the First Anglo Dutch War in which Admiral de Ruyter successfully defended a large Dutch convoy against an English fleet.


28 August

The battle of Elba (28 August 1652) was a clear Dutch victory early in the First Anglo-Dutch War that gave them control of the Mediterranean.


28 September

The battle of Kentish Knock (28 September 1652) was the first major battle of the First Anglo Dutch War, and ended in a narrow English victory.


30 November

The battle of Dungeness (30 November 1652) was the most significant Dutch victory during the First Anglo-Dutch War, and saw a fleet under Maarten Tromp win temporary control of the English Channel.


18-20 February

The three day long running battle of Portland (18-20 February 1653) saw the English inflict a heavy defeat on a Dutch fleet under Admiral Maarten Tromp, in the process regaining control of the English Channel, lost after the Dutch victory at Dungeness in the previous November.


4 March

The battle of Leghorn of 4 March 1653 was a disastrous English attempt to break a Dutch blockade that was preventing them from uniting the two halves of the English fleet in the Mediterranean.


2-3 June

The battle of the Gabbard (or Nieuwpoort) of 2-3 June 1653 was the decisive battle of the First Anglo-Dutch War. It was the first battle to involve the full fleets of both nations, and ended as a major English victory.


31 July

The battle of Scheveningen (31 July 1653) was the final major battle during the First Anglo-Dutch War and ended as an English victory that confirmed their dominance won at the Gabbard Bank in June.


Start of Thirteen Years War (Poland-Lithuania vs Muscovy)


5 April

Treaty of Westminster ends First Anglo-Dutch War (from 1652), marking an English victory




Start of the Siege of Smolensk


3 October

Smolensk surrenders to the Muscovites



The treaty of Wilno (or Nimieza) ended the first period of fighting between Poland and Russia in the Thirteen Years War (1654-1667)


Outbreak of the Northern War of 1655-60, one of three wars that involved the majority of the Baltic powers of the time.


25 July

The Surrender of Ujście saw the virtual collapse of Polish resistance to the Swedish invasion of 1655.


1 December

The Treaty of Vienna saw the Emperor Ferdinand III agreed to help the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania during the Northern War of 1655-60.


27 May

The Treaty of Vienna saw the Emperor Leopold agree to provide 12,000 troops to aid the Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania in the Northern War of 1655-60



Outbreak of the Swedish Danish War, 1657-58, a short conflict that ended with a disastrous defeat for the Danes



Outbreak of the Swedish-Danish War of 1658-60 which saw the Danes regain some of the ground lost in the war of 1657-8


3 May 1660

The Peace of Oliva, ended the Northern War of 1655-60


6 June

The Peace of Copenhagen ended the Swedish-Danish War of 1658-60.


27 June

The Battle of Polonka, saw a Polish-Lithuanian army defeat a Muscovite army in Lithuania.


Long Parliament finally votes itself out of existence (from 1640)



Declaration of Second Anglo-Dutch War (to 1667)


3/13 June

The battle of Lowestoft (3 June 1665 O.S./ 13 June 1665 N.S.) was the first major battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War and was a rare British victory in a war that came to be dominated by the Dutch.


2/12 August

The battle of Bergen (2/12 August 1665) was an unsuccessful attempt by the British to capture a Dutch convoy that had taken shelter in the neutral harbour of Bergen in Norway.


1-4/11-14 May

The Four Days' Battle (1-4 June 1666) was a major Dutch victory during the Second Anglo-Dutch War that saw a badly outnumbered British fleet suffer heavy casualties in one of the largest and longest battles fought during the age of sail.


25-26 July

The St. James's Day Battle (25-26 July 1666) was a British victory during the Second Anglo-Dutch War that proved that the Royal Navy had not been too badly damaged during the Dutch victory in the Four Days' Battle at the start of June.


10/20 August

'Holmes's Bonfire' of 10/20 August 1666 was a successful British attack on Dutch shipping that came in the aftermath of their victory in the battle of St. James's Day on 25/26 July.


30 January

The Truce of Andrusovo ended the Thirteen Years War (1654-67) between Muscovy and Poland-Lithuania.


19 or 20 May

The battle of Nevis was a confused clash between the British and an Allied Franco-Dutch fleet in the West Indies that may have prevented an Allied invasion of Nevis.


24 May

French invasion of Spanish Netherlands starts War of Devolution (to 1668)


9-14/ 19-24 June

The Medway raid of 9-14/19-24 June 1667 saw a Dutch fleet sail into the Thames and attack the British fleet in its anchorage in the Medway, causing a panic in London and winning a victory that helped bring the Second Anglo-Dutch War to an end.

25 June

The battle of Martinique was a British victory over a French fleet that came towards the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War and secured their position in the West Indies


2 July

The Dutch attack on Landguard Fort (2 July 1667) was intended to clear the way for an attack on the anchorage at Harwich, but was repulsed by one of the earliest precursors of the Royal Marines (Second Dutch War)

21 July

Treaty of Breda marks end of Second Anglo-Dutch War (from 1665)


2 May

Treaty of Aix-le-Chapelle ends War of Devolution (from 1667)


13 March

English attack on Dutch convoy marks start of Third Anglo-Dutch War (to 1674)


28 May/ 7 June

The battle of Solebay (28 May/ 7 June 1672) was a Dutch naval victory early in the Third Anglo-Dutch War that prevented a planned Anglo-French invasion of the northern Netherlands


28 May/ 7 June

The first battle of the Schooneveld (28 May/ 7 June 1673) was the first of three battles in Dutch coastal waters during 1673 that prevented the British and French from landing an invasion army in the Netherlands (Third Anglo-Dutch War).

4/14 June

The second battle of Schooneveld (4/14 June 1673) was the second of three battles that prevented the French and British from successfully landing an invasion army on the Dutch coast (Third Anglo-Dutch War).

11/ 21 August

The battle of Texel or Kijkduin (11/21 August 1673) was the third of three inconclusive battles that prevented the British and French from landing an invasion army on the Dutch coast, and that helped to convince the British to make peace.


19 February

Treaty of Westminster ends Third Anglo-Dutch War (from 1672)


The Scanian War (1675-1679) is generally taken to mark the beginning of the decline of Sweden as a Great Power.


18/28 June 1675

The battle of Fehrbellin saw Frederic William, elector of Brandenburg and duke of Prussia defeat a Swedish army under Karl Gustav Wrangel that had invaded Brandenburg late in 1674


4/14 December

The Battle of Lund took place during the Danish invasion of Scania and saw Charles XI of Sweden inflict a bloody defeat on the Danish army, preventing them from easily recapturing the Danish provinces lost in 1660 and 1645


29 June

The Peace of St. Germain ended fighting in the Scanian War between Sweden and Frederick William, elector of Brandenburg


1 July

Battle of the Boyne (Ireland)


12 July

Battle of Aughrim (Ireland)

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