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1810

21-22 January

The combat of Granollers was an opportunist Spanish victory in Catalonia, which saw a French detachment at Granollers cut to pieces by the Army of Catalonia.
 

23 January

The combat of Jaen was a French victory during the invasion of Andalusia, fought after the French had forced their way across the mountains from La Mancha.
 

16 January-21 May 1810

The siege of Hostalrich was just about the only significant success achieved by the French during Marshal Augereau’s brief time in charge of the 7th Corps in Catalonia.
 

28 January

The combat of Alcala la Real was a minor French victory during General Sebastiani’s invasion of Granada and Malaga.
 

5 February

The siege of Cadiz of 5 February 1810-24 August 1812 was the longest and arguably most important of the many sieges that punctuated the Peninsular War.
 

19 February

The combat of Valverde was a minor Spanish victory on the borders of Andalusia at the start of General Ballesteros's raid into western Andalusia.
 

20 February

The battle of Vich was a hard-fought French victory in Catalonia, won by an isolated French division under the command of General Souham.
 

19-20 March

The skirmish of Barba del Puerco of 19-20 March 1810 was a minor clash between part of Craufurd’s line of outposts on the Portuguese border and part of the French army gathering in preparation for Massina’s invasion of Portugal.
 

21 March-22 April

The siege of Astorga was a preliminary operation in the period before the start of Massena's invasion of Portugal.
 

25-26 March

The combat of Ronquillo was the second fight during General Ballesteros’s raid into western Andalusia in the spring of 1810.
 

30 March

The combat of Villafranca was the first of two defeats that ended a French attempt to capture the city of Tarragona, the last major fortress in Catalonia to remain in Spanish hands.
 

5 April

The combat of Manresa was the second of two defeats that ended a French attempt to capture the city of Tarragona, the last major fortress in Catalonia to remain in Spanish hands.
 

15 April

The combat of Zalamea was the first defeat suffered by General Ballesteros during his raid into western Andalusia in the spring of 1810.
 

15 April-14 May

The siege of Lerida of 15 April-14 May 1810 was one of a series of sieges that saw the French extend their control over eastern Spain, and removed a major obstacle on the road between Saragossa and Barcelona.
 

23 April

The combat of Margalef of 23 April 1810 saw the defeat of a Spanish army attempting to help the besieged garrison of Lerida.

 

15 May-18 June

The siege of Mequinenza saw the French capture the strategically important town, at the highest navigable point on the Ebro.
 

26 May

The combat of Araçena was a minor French victory that ended General Ballesteros’s raid into Andalusia of the spring of 1810.
 

5 June-10 July

The French siege of Ciudad Rodrigo of was a precursor to Marshal Masséna’s invasion of Portugal.

 

10 July

The combat of Barquilla was one of the few failures for General Craufurd and the Light Division during Marshal Masséne’s invasion of Portugal.

The combat of Almazan demonstrated the difficulties the French facing in moving even quite large bodies of reinforcements to their armies in Spain.

 

24 July

The combat of the Coa was a rare defeat for Craufurd’s Light Division during Masséna’s invasion of Portugal.
 

25 July-27 August

The siege of Almeida was a delaying action fought to slow down Marshal Masséna’s invasion of Portugal in 1810, most famous for the dramatic explosion that ended the siege.
 

11 August

The battle of Villagarcia was a French victory that ended a Spanish attempt to liberate Seville, but that also demonstrated the vulnerability of the French position in Andalusia.
 

27 September

The battle of Bussaco was the one major battle during Marshal Masséna’s invasion of Portugal of 1810, and was a costly French defeat suffered in an attempt to attack a very strong Allied position on the ridge at Bussaco.
 

8 October 1810

The skirmish at Alcoentre was a minor incident in the final stage of Wellington’s retreat into the Lines of Torres Vedras in the autumn of 1810 and saw the French nearly capture a British horse artillery battery.
 

9 October 1810

The combat of Alemquer was the last fighting between the British rearguard and the French cavalry during the retreat into the Lines of Torres Vedras in the autumn of 1810.
 

12 October

The first combat of Sobral was the first of two skirmishes around the village of Sobral that would turn out to be the only French attacks on the Lines of Torres Vedras, the strong defensive position built to protect Lisbon.
 

13-15 October

The siege of Fuengirola of 13-15 October 1810 was a minor disaster suffered by the British in southern Spain during an ambitious attempt to help the hard-pressed guerrillas of Granada.
 

14 October

The second combat of Sobral was a skirmish south of the village of Sobral that would turn out to be the most serious attack the French would launch against the Lines of Torres Vedras.
 

4 November

The combat of Baza of was a French victory won on the borders of Murcia and Granada, which ended a Spanish attempt to threaten the French position in Granada.
 

16 December-2 January 1811

The siege of Tortosa of was the first of three successful French attacks on Spanish-held cities that briefly appeared to give the French control of eastern Spain.

1811

11-22 January

The siege of Olivenza of was an early success for the French during Marshal Soult’s invasion of Estremadura.
 

19 January

The skirmish of Rio Mayor was one of the very few significant clashes to take place while Masséna’s army was camped at Santarem, after his retreat from the lines of Torres Vedras.
 

25 January

The combat of Castillejos was a minor engagement in the far south west of Spain that badly disrupted Marshal Soult’s invasion of Estremadura.
 

27 January-10 March

The French siege and capture of Badajoz was the main achievement of Marshal Soult’s invasion of Estremadura of 1811.
 

19 February

The battle of the Gebora of was a disastrous Spanish defeat that ended an attempt to break the French siege of Badajoz of 27 January-10 March 1811.
 

5 March

The battle of Barrosa was the end result of one of the most significant attempts made by the garrison of Cadiz to lift the French siege of Cadiz
 

11 March

The combat of Pombal was a skilful rearguard action fought by Marshal Ney during the retreat from the Lines of Torres Vedras.
 

12 March

The combat of Redinha was the second rearguard action fought during Masséna’s retreat from the Lines of Torres Vedras in the spring of 1811.
 

14 March

The combat of Casal Novo was a rearguard action during Masséna’s retreat from Portugal that was notable for the reckless behaviour of General Erskine, the temporary commander of the British Light Division.
 

14-21 March

The siege of Campo Mayor was a time-consuming French victory that came between the departure of Marshal Soult from Estremadura and the arrival of an Anglo-Portuguese force under General Beresford.
 

15 March

The combat of Foz de Arouce was the least successful of Marshal Ney’s rearguard actions during Masséne’s retreat from Portugal in the spring of 1811.
 

17-18 March

The passage of the Alva River was a nearly bloodless success for Wellington’s army during the French retreat from Portugal in the spring of 1811.
 

25 March

The combat of Campo Mayor of was the first Allied victory during Beresford’s campaign in Estremadura in the spring of 1811.
 

29 March

The combat of Guarda of was a bloodless British victory in the last stages of Masséna’s retreat from Portugal.
 

3 April

The combat of Sabugal of was the last serious fighting during Masséna’s retreat from Portugal in 1811, and was a missed chance for a major Allied victory over an isolated portion of Masséna’s army.
 

April-10 May

The siege of Almeida saw Wellington’s army capture the last French stronghold left in Portugal after Marshal Masséna’s retreat from the Lines of Torres Vedras.
 

9-15 April

The siege of Olivenza saw the town liberated by an Anglo-Portuguese force only three months after it had been captured by the French.
 

3 May-28 June

The siege of Tarragona of 3 May-28 June 1811 was the second of three sieges that saw the French seize the last major cities in Spanish hands in the east of the country in a twelve month period, an achievement that seemed like it might given them a chance to finally secure their control of the area
 

3-5 May

The battle of Fuentes de Oñoro was Marshal Masséna’s final defeat after his disastrous invasion of Portugal of 1810 and led to the fall of Almeida, the last French stronghold in Portugal.
 

6-12 May

The recapture of the Spanish border fortress of Badajoz was the main purpose of Marshal Beresford’s campaign in Estremadura in the spring of 1811, but would prove to be beyond his powers (first siege of Badajoz).
 

16 May

The battle of Abluera of was one of the bloodiest battles of the Peninsular War, fought to prevent Marshal Soult from coming to the aid of the garrison of Badajoz.
 

19 May-17 June

The second British siege of Badajoz was little more successful than the first siege, which had only lasted for one week before Marshal Beresford had been forced to lift the siege
 

25 May

The combat of Usagre was a minor cavalry battle during Marshal Soult’s retreat after the battle of Albuera.
 

September 1811-January 1812

The French invasion of Valencia of September 1811-January 1812 was the last major French success during the Peninsular War, and saw them virtually complete the conquest of eastern Spain, but at the same time they were forced to weaken their forces on the Portuguese border, allowing Wellington to begin the campaign that led to Salamanca, and the beginning of the end for the French in Spain.
 

23 September-26 October

The siege of Saguntum was a French victory during their invasion of Valencia, but one that slowed down their campaign and ended any chance of the expected easy victory.
 

25 September

The combat of Carpio was a minor clash between Wellington’s cavalry screen and part of a French army under Marmont that had just raised the blockade of Ciudad Rodrigo.

The combat of El Bodon was a lucky escape for the British and Portuguese army on the Spanish border in the autumn of 1811.

 

27 September

The combat of Aldea de Ponte was a rearguard action fought during Wellington’s retreat from Fuente Guinaldo to Alfayates in the aftermath of the combat of El Boden.
 

25 October

The battle of Saguntum saw the defeat of a Spanish army under General Joachim Blake which was attempted to raise the French siege of Saguntum.
 

5 November

The combat of Bornos was the only fighting to take place during one of Marshal Soult’s repeated attempts to catch the Spanish General Ballasteros, who had proved himself to be a master of small scale warfare in the south of Andalusia
 

20 December-5 January 1812

The siege of Tarifa was an unsuccessful French attempt to capture one of the few remaining Spanish-held strongholds in Andalusia.
 

25 December-9 January 1812

The siege of Valencia of 25 December 1811-9 January 1812 was the final major French success during the Peninsular War, and saw French power in eastern Spain reach its maximum extent.
 

26 December

The combat of Mislata was a rare Spanish success during the fighting around Valencia in the winter of 1811-12.

The combat of Aldaya was a French victory during their crossing of the Guadalaviar River which saw them drive off most of General Blake’s Spanish cavalry.

 

29 December

The combat of Navas de Membrillo of was a minor clash between a British and Portuguese expedition under General Hill and part of the French garrison of Estremadura.

1812

8-9 January

The siege of Ciudad Rodrigo was a major success for Wellington’s British and Portuguese army, and marked a significant turning point in the Peninsular War - the moment when the French lost the initiative in Spain
 

24 January

Death of Robert Crauford, British General (1764-1812)
of wounds suffered at Ciudad Rodrigo
 

16 March-6 April

The third British siege of Badajoz (16 March-6 April 1812) finally saw the city fall to Wellington's troops after two previous attacks had failed. However the final storm of the city was terribly costly, and was followed by a brutal sack that was one of the darkest incidents in the history of the British army.
 

11 April

The combat of Villagarcia (11 April 1812) was a clash between Drouet's 'corps of observation', watching the third siege of Badajoz, and a British cavalry force.
 

14 April

The combat of Guarda (14 April 1812) was Marmont's only significant success during his belated attempt to help the defenders of Badajoz, and came eight days after the city had fallen to Wellington's men.
 

18 May

The combat of Almaraz (18 May 1812) saw a detached British army under General Rowland Hill destroy a key French bridge over the River Tagus, making it much harder for Marmont and Soult to help each other.
 

1 June

The battle of Bornos (1 June 1812) was a French victory over the Spanish army of General Ballasteros, who had been asked to carry out a diversion to prevent Soult from sending troops north to interfere with Wellington's advance on Salamanca.
 

11 June

The combat of Maguilla (11 June 1812) was a minor French victory in a cavalry clash, fought during of one of Wellington's diversionary attacks during the Salamanca campaign.
 

17-26 June

The siege of the Salamanca Forts (17-26 June 1812) saw Wellington detach a division from his army to eliminate the last French strong points in Salamanca, while the rest of his army continued to face Marmont.
 

20-22 June

The combat of San Cristobal (20-22 June 1812) was a standoff between Wellington and Marmont that developed while the British were besieging the Salamanca forts, and that almost produced the major battle that Wellington was searching for.
 

21-22 June

The combat of Lequeitio (21-21 June 1812) was the first of a series of successes for a joint British and Spanish force operating in northern Spain.
 

2 July-18 August

The siege of Astorga (2 July-18 August 1812) saw the Spanish attack the isolated French garrison of Astorga, in an attempt to support Wellington's advance to Salamanca.
 

6-8 July

The combat of Castro Urdiales (6-8 July 1812) was the second of a series of joint Anglo-Spanish successes that weakened the French hold on the coast of northern Spain.
 

11 July

The combat of Portugalete (11 July 1812) was an unsuccessful Anglo-Spanish attack on a fortified village at the mouth of the Bilbao River.
 

17 July

The Battle of Mackinac Island was an early British victory during the War of 1812 which gave them control over much of the Old North West and played an indirect part in the fall of Detroit.
 

18 July

The combat of Castrejon (18 July 1812) was a rearguard action that came after Marmont outmanoeuvred Wellington on the River Douro, early in the campaign that ended at Salamanca.

The combat of Castrillo (18 July 1812) was the second of two combats on the same day, and came after Marmont outmanoeuvred Wellington on the Douro and briefly threatened to cut off his rearguard.

 

21 July

The first battle of Castalla (21 July 1812) was a French victory over the Spanish Army of Murcia, largely caused by the over-complex Spanish plan.

 

22 July-3 August

The siege of Santander (22 July-3 August 1812) was a key Anglo-Spanish success on the north coast of Spain, and gave Wellington access to a key supply base during the campaign of 1813.
 

22 July

The battle of Salamanca (22 July 1812) was one of the most important of Wellington's victories during the Peninsular War, and forced the French to abandon Madrid and temporarily withdraw towards the French border.
 

23 July

The battle of Mogilev or Mohilev (23 July 1812) was the first significant fighting during Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812 and was a minor French victory that prevented General Bagration's Second Western Army from moving north to join with Barclay de Tolly's First Western Army.

The combat of Garcia Hernandez (23 July 1812) was a rearguard action that came in the aftermath of the battle of Salamanca, and saw one of the most impressive achievements of Wellington's cavalry.

 

25-26 July

The battle of Ostrovno (25-26 July 1812) was a rearguard action fought between Ostermann-Tolstoy's rearguard of Barclay de Tolly's 1st Western Army and Murat's advance guard of the Grande Armée. The Russians were eventually forced to retreat into Vitebsk, but they held up the French for two days.
 

28 July

The battle of Vitebsk (28 July 1812) was one of Napoleon's great missed chances during his invasion of Russia of 1812. By delaying his attack for a day he missed an opportunity to fight a major battle against Barclay de Tolly's 1st Western Army and allowed the Russians to slip away.
 

8 August

The action at Inkovo (8 August 1812) was a minor Russian victory during a short-lived Russian offensive that came soon after the main Russian armies had united at Smolensk.
 

11 August

The combat of Majalahonda (11 August 1812) was the only significant fighting during Wellington's advance on Madrid in the aftermath of the battle of Salamanca, and saw his leading cavalry force come under attack by a French force that had been sent out to discover if Wellington was indeed on his way.
 

13-14 August

The siege of the Retiro (13-14 August 1812) was the only French attempt to defend Madrid in the aftermath of the battle of Salamanca, and saw the British storm the outer line of defences before the defenders surrendered.

The first combat of Bilbao (13-14 August 1812) saw a joint Anglo-Spanish force capture the Basque capital, but it was recaptured by the French only two weeks later.

 

14 August

The first battle of Krasnyi (14 August 1812) was a successful Russian rearguard action that gave the Russians time to rush reinforcements to Smolensk thus preventing the French from gaining any advantage from Napoleon's famous Manoeuvre of Smolensk.
 

16 August

The fall of Detroit was one of a series of defeats that stopped the first American invasion of Canada during the War of 1812.
 

16 August

End of the siege of Cadiz (from 5 February 1810)
 

16-17 August

The battle of Smolensk (16-17 August 1812) was the disappointing end to one of Napoleon's most impressive manoeuvres, an outflanking move that promised to bring him the decisive battle he desired but ended with a costly and unsuccessful attack on the walls of Smolensk.
 

19 August

The battle of Valutino (19 August 1812) was the last chance for a major French success during Napoleon's manoeuvre of Smolensk, but a combination of inactivity by part of the French army and a stubborn Russian rearguard action meant that the opportunity was missed.
 

27-29 August

The second combat of Bilbao (27-29 August 1812) saw the French recapture the Basque capital only two weeks after it had been captured by a joint Anglo-Spanish force.
 

5 September

The battle of Shevardino (5 September 1812) was a preliminary battle fought two days before the battle of Borodino, and was fought over the possession of an isolated Russian redoubt built to protect the left wing of their original front line.
 

7 September

When Napoleon invaded Russia in the summer of 1812 his aim was to bring the Russians to battle, inflict a decisive defeat, and force them to sue for peace. That battle eventually came at Borodino on 7 September 1812, just to the west of Moscow. Although Napoleon could claim to have won the battle it was far from a decisive victory, and even the occupation of Moscow failed to bring the Russians to the negotiating table.
 

19 September-22 October

The siege of Burgos (19 September-22 October 1812) was the disastrous end to otherwise successful Salamanca campaign, and his failure outside Burgos forced Wellington to retreat back to the Portuguese border, ending the year almost where he had started it.
 

13 October

The battle of Queenston Heights was a British victory early in the War of 1812 that turned back the first American attack on the Niagara front.
 

18 October

The clash between USS Wasp and HMS Frolic (18 October 1812) was one of a number of American naval victories early in the War of 1812, but soon after the battle the Wasp was captured by a British ship of the line.

The battle of Vinkovo or Tarutino (18 October 1812) was an unsuccessful Russian attack on Murat's cavalry screen south of Moscow that played a part in convincing Napoleon that he would have to abandon Moscow.

 

23 October

The combat of Venta del Pozo and Villadrigo (23 October 1812) was a rearguard action during the retreat that followed the failure of the siege of Burgos, and saw the French fail to take advantage of their superior numbers.
 

24 October

The battle of Maloyaroslavets (24 October 1812) was one of the most important battles during Napoleon's invasion of Russia, and disrupted his original plans for the retreat from Moscow.
 

25 October

The combat of Villa Muriel (25 October 1812) saw the French cross the Carrion River at Villa Muriel and Palencia, ending Wellington's attempt to hold the river and forcing him to resume the retreat from Burgos.
 

30 October

The combat of Puente Larga (30 October 1812) was a rearguard action during Hill's retreat from Madrid, and helped win time for the Allies to evacuate Madrid and escape across the mountains to the north-west without difficulty.
 

3 November

The battle of Fiedovoisky or Viazma (3 November 1812) was the first serious Russian attack on the French column during the disastrous retreat from Moscow.
 

10-11 November

The combat of Alba de Tormes (10-11 November 1812) saw the British repel an attempt by Soult to capture the bridge over the Tormes at Alba de Tormes, and forced the French to cross the Tormes further from Wellington's position north of Salamanca.
 

15-18 November

The second battle of Krasnyi (15-18 November 1812) was a series of clashes between the Russians and elements of Napoleon's retreating Grand Armée that ended as a French victory, but that continued the slow destruction of the army
 

17 November

The combat of San Munoz (17 November 1812) was a rearguard action towards the end of Wellington's retreat from Burgos back to Portugal.
 

21-29 November

The Battle of the Berezina (21-29 November 1812) was the last major success for Napoleon's Grande Armée during the invasion of Russia in 1812 and saw the remnants of the army escape from a Russian trap on the Berezina River and continue their march west to relative safety.
 

28 November

The skirmishes of Frenchman’s Creek and Red House saw the only fighting during the second American attempt to invade Canada on the Niagara front during 1812.
 

3o December

The Convention of Tauroggen (30 December 1812) was an agreement that made General Yorck's Russian corps neutral, marking the start of a break between Prussia and France (War of Liberation).

1813

 

The War of Liberation of 1813 was Napoleon's last campaign in Germany, and although he won three major battles it ended with the final defeat of his armies in Germany at the massive battle of Leipzig.

 

22 January

The battle of Frenchtown was a crushing British victory during the War of 1812 over part of an American army preparing to attack Detroit
 

24 January

The second siege of Danzig (24 January-29 November 1813) saw General Rapp defend the city against the Russians for most of 1813, but without any genuine hope of being rescued (War of Liberation).
 

9 February

The combat of Tiebas (9 February 1813) saw the Spanish guerrilla leader Mina defeat a French force that was attempting to lift the siege of Tafalla (to 12 February 1813), and was quickly followed by the fall of the town.
 

10-11 February

The combat of Poza de la Sal (10-11 February 1813) saw the Spanish guerrillas of Longa ambush the headquarters of Palombini’s division, which held out until reinforcements arrived and forced the Spanish to retreat.
 

11-12 February

The combat of Zirke (11-12 February 1813) was one of the first clashes during the War of Liberation, and came during the French retreat from the Vistula to the Oder.
 

11 February

The siege of Tafalla (to 11 February 1813) was a success for the Spanish guerrilla leader Mina, and saw him force the surrender of the French garrison, after defeating a relief effort.
 

18 February

The combat of Kalisch (18 February 1813) was one of the first clashes of the War of Liberation of 1813 and played a part in forcing the French to abandon any attempt to defend eastern Germany.
 

20 February

The combat of Bejar (20 February 1813) was the only direct clash between Wellington’s army and the French during the winter of 1813 and saw an attempt to surprise the British 50th Regiment fail.
 

24 February

The clash between USS Hornet and HMS Peacock (24 February 1813) saw the well drilled American ship easily defeat a British sloop
 

28 February

The Convention of Kalisch (28 February 1813) was signed between Russia and Prussia, and committed Prussia to rejoined the war against Napoleon, setting the stage for the War of Liberation of 1813.
 

11 March

The capture of Fuenterrabia (11 March 1813) was a daring exploit carried out by a force of Spanish guerrillas and saw them capture and destroy the castle at Fuenterrabia, within sight of France.
 

15 March

The siege of Glogau (15 March-27 May 1813) was a rare example of a successful French defense of one of the isolated fortresses left behind by the retreat from Poland and eastern Germany at the start of 1813, and saw a sizable garrison hold out for three months before the siege was lifted in the aftermath of the battle of Bautzen.
 

30 March

The combat of Lerin (30 March 1813) was a major victory for the Spanish troops of Mina, and gave Mina control of large parts of Navarre for almost a month.
 

5 April

The battle of Möckern (5 April 1813) was the last significant fighting during the Spring Campaign of 1813 before Napoleon arrived at the front to take over command in person.
 

27 April

The battle of York was one of the first American victories on land during the War of 1812.
 

29 April

The combat of Weissenfels (29 April 1813) was one of the first clashes between Napoleon's new army of 1813 and the advancing Prussian and Russian forces, which by late April had reached the Saale River in Saxony.
 

1-9 May

The siege of Fort Meigs saw a British force under Brigadier-General Henry Procter fail to capture Fort Meigs, on the Maumee River, but win a victory over an American relief force.
 

1 May

The action of Poserna (1 May 1813) was a French victory on the road to Lützen, but one that cost them Marshal Bessières, who was killed by a cannon shot during the battle.
 

2 May

The battle of Lützen (2 May 1813) was Napoleon's first victory during the Spring campaign of 1813 (War of Liberation), but he was unable to take full advantage of his victory, and the Prussians and Russians were able to escape east with their armies largely intact.
 

5 May

The combat of Colditz (5 May 1813) was a rearguard action during the Allied retreat after their defeat at Lutzen three days earlier.
 

19 May

The combat of Konigswartha (19 May 1813) took place on the day before the battle of Bautzen (20-21 May 1813) and saw the French defeat an Allied force that had been sent out to attack Lauriston's corps (War of Liberation).
 

20-21 May

The battle of Bautzen (20-21 May 1813) was the second major battle of the Spring Campaign of 1813, and saw Napoleon come close to winning the descisive victory he needed to knock at least one of his opponents out of the war.
 

22 May

The combat of Reichenbach (22 May 1813) was a rearguard action during the Allied retreat after their defeat at Bautzen, most notable for the death of one of Napoleon's closest friends, the Grand Marshal Duroc.
 

23 May

The combat of Görlitz (23 May 1813) saw the French force their way across the River Neisse, on the border between Saxony and Silesia, in the aftermath of their victory at Bautzen (20-21 May 1813).
 

25-27 May

The battle of Fort George was the first American victory on the Niagara front during the War of 1812.
 

26 May

The combat of Hainau (26 May 1813) was a rare Allied success during their retreat after the battle of Bautzen, and saw a Prussian cavalry force ambush an isolated French division east of Hainau.
 

27 May

End of the siege of Glogau (15 March-27 May 1813), a rare example of a successful French defense of one of the isolated fortresses left behind by the retreat from Poland and eastern Germany at the start of 1813

The combat of Sprottau (27 May 1813) was a minor French success during their pursuit of the Russians and Prussians in the aftermath of the battle of Bautzen.

The combat of Hoyerswerda (27 May 1813) was a French victory that encouraged Marshal Oudinot to advance towards Berlin, after a Prussian attack on his positions was repulsed.

 

2 June

The Armistice of Pleischwitz (2 June 1813) was a truce between between Napoleon and his Russian and Prussian opponent that ended the Spring Campaign of 1813 (War of Liberation).
 

6 June

The Battle of Stoney Creek saw the defeat of an American army that was invading Upper Canada in the aftermath of the American victory at Fort George at the end of May.

The combat of Luckau (6 June 1813) was a French defeat during Marshal Oudinot's first attempt to threaten Berlin, but came after an armistice had already ended the fighting in the spring campaign in Germany.

 

21 June

Battle of Vittoria, important British victory during the Peninsular War
 

24 June

The battle of Beaver Dams was an American defeat on the Niagara front that helped the British to recover from the earlier defeat at Fort George on 25-27 May 1813
 

27 June

The Convention of Reichenbach (27 June 1813) was an agreement between Austria, Prussia and Russia, in which the Austrians agreed to join the war against Napoleon unless he agreed to a series of demands.

 

12 July

The Trachenberg Plan (12 July 1813) was the Allied plan for the Autumn Campaign of 1813 (War of Liberation), and called for each of the three Allied armies to avoid fighting Napoleon in person, but to threaten his communications and attack his Marshals, wearing down the French army and denying Napoleon the chance to win a decsisve victory.
 

21 August

The combat of the Bobr or Lowenberg (21 August 1813) was the first occasion on which Napoleon was frustrated by the Trachenberg Plan, in which the Allies had agreed not to risk a battle against the Emperor in person.
 

23 August

Battle of Grossbeeren, Prussian victory over French (Napoleonic Wars)

The combat of Goldberg (23 August 1813) was a minor success for Macdonald's Army of the Bobr, but it came three days before that army suffered a heavy defeat on the Katzbach (26 August 1813), a blow that helped undo the benefits of Napoleon's victory at Dresden (War of Liberation).

 

26 August

The first day of the Battle of Dresden (26 August 1813) saw Napoleon defeat an Allied attack on the city, and launch a successful counterattack that prepared the way for his offensive on the second day.

The battle of Pirna (26 August 1813) was a key part of Napoleon's plan to win a major victory at Dresden, and saw Vandamme attempt but fail to cut off the Allied lines of retreat from Dresden back into Bohemia.

The battle of the Katzbach (26 August 1813) was a victory for a Prussian-Russian army under Marshal Blücher over a French army commanded by Marshal Macdonald that largely cancelled out Napoleon's victory over the Austrians at Dresden, fought at the same time.

 

27 August

The second day of the Battle of Dresden (27 August 1813) saw Napoleon launch a massive counterattack that forced the Allies to retreat, and that might have given him a decisive victory if Marshal Vandamme had made more progress to the south of Dresden.
 

29 August

First day of Battle of Kulm, French defeat (Napoleonic Wars)

The combat of Plagwitz (29 August 1813) was a second French disaster in the aftermath of their defeat on the Katzbach (26 August 1813), and cost them all of Puthod's division.

 

30 August

Attack on Fort Mims marks start of Creek War, (to 1814), (U.S.A.)
Second day of Battle of Kulm, French defeat (Napoleonic Wars)
 

5 September

The combat of Zahna (5 September 1813) was a French success during Marshal Ney's attempt to capture Berlin, but on the following day Ney suffered a defeat at Dennewitz and was forced to abandon the attempt.
 

6 September

The battle of Dennewitz (6 September 1813) was a French defeat that ended Napoleon's second attempt to take Berlin during the autumn campaign of 1813.
 

7 September

The combat of Dahme (7 September 1813) saw Allied troops capture 3,200 French prisoners in the aftermath of the battle of Dennewitz.
 

8 September

The combat of Dohna (8 September 1813) was a minor French victory over the troops of Barclay de Tolly, then advancing up the left bank of the Elbe towards Dresden.
 

9 September

The treaty of Teplitz (9 September 1813) saw Austria formally join the Sixth Coalition, although she had been at war with France since mid-August, and had already fought and lost the major battle of Dresden.
 

10 September

The combat of Geiersberg (10 September 1813) saw Napoleon get into a position from where he could attack the Prussian and Russian contingents of the Army of Bohemia, but then decide not to risk a descent into Bohemia.
 

14 September

The combat of Nollemdorf (14 September 1813) was an Allied counterattack that forced the French out of their most advanced positions in Bohemia, and triggered a brief French offensive that ended with Napoleon's troops briefly fighting south of the mountains.
 

15 September

The combat of Berggiesshübel (15 September 1813) was the first step in a French counterattack that restored their position after an Allied attack on 14 September, and ended with some fighting on the southern side of the Bohemian mountains.
 

16 September

The combat of Peterswalde (16 September 1813) was the second step in a French counterattack that forced the Allies back into Bohemia, and briefly gave Napoleon a chance to operate on the southern side of the Bohemian mountains.

The action of Göhrde (16 September 1813) saw the Allies intercept a column sent out of Hamburg by Marshal Davout and force it to retreat back into the city after suffering heavy losses.

 

17 September

The combat of Dolnitz (17 September 1813) saw the French briefly descend onto the plains south of Bohemian mountains, but after some limited fighting Napoleon decided to withdraw to Saxony, rather than risk fighting with a mountain range separating his army.
 

22 September

The combat of Bischofswerda (22 September 1813) was a minor French success that saw Napoleon push Blücher back from a threatening position between Bautzen and Dresden.
 

3 October

The battle of Wartenburg (3 October 1813) was a key battle in the campaign that led to Leipzig, and saw Blücher's Army of Silesia gain a firm foothold on the left bank of the Elbe, putting all three of the main Allied armies on the same side of the river.
 

8 October

The treaty of Ried (8 October 1813) saw the Kingdom of Bavaria abandon its long-standing support for France and join the Sixth Coalition

The siege of Torgau (8 October 1813-10 January 1814) was one of a series of sieges that saw isolated French garrisons across Germany and Poland slowly forced to surrender in the aftermath of Napoleon's defeat at Leipzig (16-19 October 1813).

 

9 October

The combat of Flemmingen (9 October 1813) was part of a failed Allied attempt to prevent Marshal Augereau's IX Corps from reaching Leipzig.
 

10 October-11 November

The siege of Dresden (10 October-11 November 1813) was triggered by Napoleon's decision to leave a garrison in the city in the days before the battle of Leipzig, exposing it to an inevitable attack and leaving it trapped after his defeat.
 

10 October

The combat of Wethau (10 October 1813) was part of an unsuccessful attempt by Allied troops to stop Marshal Augereau's IX Corps reaching Leipzig.
 

12 October

The combat of Dessau (12 October 1813) saw an isolated division from Tauenzien's Corps defeated by French troops who were attempting to intercept Blücher and Bernadotte as they moved west down the Elbe.
 

14 October

Battle of Liebertwolkwitz, largest cavalry battle in history (Napoleonic Wars)
 

16 October

Start of battle of Leipzig (to 18 October) (Napoleonic Wars)

The first day of the battle of Leipzig (16 October 1813) was Napoleon's last chance to win a significant victory during the War of Liberation, but he was unable to take his chance, and the day ended as a hard fought draw.

 

17 October

The second day of the battle of Leipzig (17 October 1813) was fairly inactive, and is most notable for the arrival of large numbers of Allied reinforcements, and Napoleon's failure to take a chance to escape.
 

18 October

The third day of the battle of Leipzig (18 October 1813) was dominated by a general Allied assault on three sides of the city, and by the start of Napoleon's retreat west towards the Rhine.

 

19 October

The fourth day of the battle of Leipzig (19 October 1813) saw the French attempt to carry out a fighting retreat from the city, but their efforts were marred when the only bridge heading west out of the city was destroyed while tens of thousands of French troops were still in the city.
 

20 October

The combat of Kosen (20 October 1813) was a rearguard action during the French retreat from Leipzig.
 

26 October

The battle of Chateauguay River saw the defeat of one of two American armies attempting to invade Lower Canada in the autumn of 1813.
 

30-31 October

The battle of Hanau (30-31 October 1813) was an  unsuccessful attempt to interfere with the French retreat after Leizpig, carried out by a Austro-Bavarian army that had moved up from southern Germany.
 

29 November

End of the second siege of Danzig (24 January-29 November 1813) -General Rapp surrenders After Napoleon's defeat at Leipzig leaves him isolated.
 

11 November

The battle of Crysler’s Farm was a British victory in the War of 1812 that ended any hope of success for an American attack on Montreal.
 

3 December

The siege of Hamburg (3 December 1813-27 May 1814) was the last phase in Davout's year long occupation of Hamburg, and lasted until after Napoleon's first abdication.
 

11 December

Treaty of Valencay, attempt to make peace between France and Spain, vetoed by Spanish Regency Council.

1814

10 January

End of the siege of Torgau (8 October 1813-10 January 1814)
 

24 January

The engagement of Bar-sur-Aube (24 January 1814) was a rearguard action during the French retreat from their frontiers early in the campaign of 1814, and saw Marshal Mortier hold off an attack by two Allied corps for a day, before being forced to retreat by superior numbers.
 

28 January

The first battle of St. Dizier (28 January 1814) was Napoleon's first battle during the 1814 campaign in France, and saw the French defeat Blucher's rearguard, having moved too slowly to catch Blucher's main army.
 

29 January

The battle of Brienne (29 January 1814) was Napoleon’s first major battle during the 1814 campaign in France, and was a narrow French victory that still failed to prevent the two main Allied armies from joining up.
 

1 February

The battle of La Rothiere (1 February 1814) was the only instance during the campaign of 1814 where the two Allied armies launched a combined attack on Napoleon's main army.
 

10 February

The battle of Champaubert (10 February 1814) was the first significant French success during the campaign of 1814, and saw Napoleon defeat an isolated Russian division at the start of his impressive 'Six Day's Campaign'.
 

11 February

The battle of Montmirail (11 February 1814) was the second of Napoleon's victories during the Six Days Campaign, and saw him prevent the westernmost part of Marshal Blucher's fighting its way east to rejoin the main army.
 

12 February

The battle of Chateau-Thierry (12 February 1814) was one of the great missed chances during Napoleon's defence of France in 1814, but was also a French victory that forced Marshal Blucher to retreat east away from Paris.
 

14 February

The battle of Vauchamps (14 February 1814) was the last French victory during Napoleon's 'Six Days campaign', and saw the French defeat Blucher's attempt to block their path south towards Schwarzenberg's Army of Bohemia, which was advancing on the Seine front.
 

17 February

The engagement of Mormant (17 February 1814) saw the French defeat part of the Allied cavalry at the start of Napoleon's most effective attack on Schwarzenberg's Army of Bohemia during the campaign of 1814.

The engagement of Valjouen (17 February 1814) was the second of two French victories on the same day that caught Schwarzenberg's Army of Bohemia just as it was preparing to retreat to avoid being caught by Napoleon.

 

18 February

The battle of Montereau (18 February 1814) was Napoleon's last significant  victory over General Schwarzenberg's Army of Bohemia during the campaign of 1814, and forced Schwarzenberg to retreat east from the vicinity of Paris back towards Troyes.
 

17 February

The battle of Bar-sur-Aube (27 February 1814) was one of a series of defeats suffered by Napoleon's subordinates during the campaign of 1814, and saw a combined Russian and Bavarian force defeat Marshal Oudinot after an attempt to convince the Allies that Napoleon was still present in that area failed.
 

7 March

The battle of Craonne (7 March 1814) was a rare example of a battle where both commanders misjudged the situation and was unsatisfactory for both the French and the Allies, although counts as a narrow French victory.
 

8-9 March

The battle of Laon (8-9 March 1814) was a French defeat that ended Napoleon's hope of defeating Blucher for a second time during the campaign of 1814 and forced him to retreat into a position between the two main Allied armies.
 

9 March

Treaty of Chaumont, agreement between the allies to fight France until the bitter end
 

13 March

The battle of Rheims (13 March 1814) was Napoleon's last significant success during the 1814 campaign, and saw his troops recapture Rheims in a night attack, briefly causing a panic amongst the Allied commanders.
 

20-21 March

The battle of Arcis-sur-Aube (20-21 March 1814) was Napoleon's last major battle during the campaign of 1814 and saw him misjudge his opponents, march into a dangerous trap and then manage to extricate much of his army.
 

25 March

The battle of La-Fere-Champenoise (25 March 1814) was a French defeat that signalled the failure of Napoleon's last gamble during the campaign of 1814 and saw Schwarzenberg defeat Marmont and Mortier on the road to Paris.
 

26 March

The battle of St. Dizier (26 March 1814) was Napoleon's last battle during the campaign of 1814, and was a meaningless French victory fought while the main Allied armies were heading for Paris.
 

27 March

Battle of Horseshoe Bend (U.S.A.), American victory over Creek Indians
 

28 March

The battle of Valparaiso (28 March 1814) saw the defeat of the Essex and Essex Junior by HMS Pheobe and HMS Cherub and was one of the more controversial naval encounters of the War of 1812, taking place in neutral Spanish waters.
 

30 March

The battle of Montmartre or Paris (30 March 1814) was the last battle of the 1814 Allied invasion of north-eastern France. Although the French defenders of Paris managed to hold off the first Allied attack on the city, it was clear that they couldn't hope to hold out much longer, and early on 31 March an armistice came into effect and Allied troops entered the French capital.
 

April

End of Peninsular War (1807-14), part of Napoleonic Wars
 

27 May

The siege of Hamburg (3 December 1813-27 May 1814) was the last phase in Davout's year long occupation of Hamburg, and lasted until after Napoleon's first abdication.
 

28 June

The clash between USS Wasp and HMS Reindeer (28 June 1814) was an early success in the cruise of the Wasp, the fifth American warship to carry that name (and the fourth in just two years!).

 

5 July

The battle of Chippawa, was an American victory on the Niagara front which saw a British force fail to push back an army that had just crossed the Niagara River.
 

9 August

Treaty of Fort Jackson ends Creek War (from 1813) (U.S.A.)
 

24 August

The battle of Bladensburg was a British victory during the War of 1812 that left Washington vulnerable to attack.
 

1 September

The clash between USS Wasp and HMS Avon (1 September 1814) was a second victory for the American raider, but came late in an ambitious raid that ended in tragedy when the Wasp was lost at sea with all hands.

1815

23 March

The victory of USS Hornet over HMS Penguin (23 March 1815) was an American naval victory that came several months after the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812.
 

18 June

Battle of Waterloo, final defeat of Napoleon, marking final end of Napoleonic Wars (from 1799

1823

5 March

Britian declares war on Burma (First Anglo Burmese War) after Burma invades India

1826

24 February

Treaty of Yandabo ends First Anglo Burmese War, confiming British victory

1828

23 September


Murder of Shaka Zulu, brutal king of the Zulus

1846

24 March

American troops move to Rio Grande, marking start of the Mexican War (to February 1848)

1848

2 February


Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo marks end of Mexican War (from March 1846)

1849

9 May

The battle of Palestrina (9 May 1849) was the first of two victories won by Garibaldi over a Neapolitan force that was taking part in the siege of Rome (30 April-2 July 1849).
 

19 May

The battle of Velletri (19 May 1849) was the second of two victories won by the defenders of Rome over a Neapolitan force that was taking part in the siege of the Rome of April-July 1849).

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