4000 BC 1000 BC 300 BC 1 1000 1500 1700 1800 1810 1850 1900 1925 1950

283 B.C.

 

Death of Ptolemy I of natural causes

276 B.C.

 

Outbreak of the First Syrian War between the Seleucid Empire and Ptolemaic Egypt.

272 B.C.

 

First Syrian War ends in victory for Ptolemaic Egypt

c.272-261 B.C.

  The conquest of Kalinga of c.271-261 BC was the only aggressive war fought by the third Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, and the suffering he saw during this war helped turn the Emperor away from violence and towards a more peaceful path.

266 B.C.

 

Outbreak of Chremonidean War, (to 262 B.C.), Revolt against Macedonian rule by Athens and Sparta

264 B.C.

 

Outbreak of First Punic War (to 241 BC) between Rome and Carthage. Joint Punic and Syracusan siege of Messana begins the fighting.

263 B.C.

 

Alliance between Syracuse and Rome allows the Romans to concentrate on beating Carthage on Sicily.

   

Eumenes’ War, brief war that sees Pergamum become independent of Seleucid Empire.

262 B.C.

 

Fall of Athens marks end of Chremonidean War (from 266), (Greece)

   

First Punic War: Siege and battle of Agrigentum sees Rome capture Carthaginian ally on Sicily

261 B.C.

 

Death of Antiochus I, Seleucid Emperor. End of Eumenes' War

260 B.C.

  Battle of the Lipera Islands, minor Roman naval defeat
    Battle of Mylae, first major Roman victory which began to alter the balance of power at sea.

256 B.C.

 

Battle of Cape Ecnomus, Roman Naval victory that allowed them to invade Carthage's African homeland

    Siege of Aspis. A first Roman victory in Punic North Africa.
    Siege of Adys. Siege that delays the Roman army in North Africa, allowing the Carthaginians to arrive with an army.
    Battle of Adys. Roman victory over a Punic army sent to relief the siege of Adys.

255 B.C.

 

Battle of Tunis, Carthaginian victory that ended the Roman invasion of Africa

   

Battle of Cape Hermaeum, Roman naval victory that allowed the rescue of the survivors of the Battle of Tunis

254 B.C.

 

Sack of Agrigentum, Carthaginian forces recapture and sack the city of Agrigentum, lost in 262 B.C.

   

Siege of Panormus, Roman forces capture the main Carthaginian base in northern Sicily.

251 B.C.

 

Battle of Panormus, Roman victory over a Carthaginian force sent to recapture Panormus (Sicily)

250 B.C.

 

Start of siege of Lilybaeum (to 241 B.C.), Roman attempt to capture main Carthaginian base on Sicily.

249 B.C.

 

The Battle of Drepanum was the only serious Roman naval defeat of the First Punic War.

246 B.C.

 

Probable date for the Battle of Andros, Macedonian naval victory over an Egyptian fleet in the Aegean.

   

Outbreak of the Third Syrian War or Laodicean War (to 241 BC) between Egypt and the Seleucid Empire

242 B.C.

 

Siege of Drepanum (to 242-241 B.C.). Roman fleet arrives by surprise off Sicily. Troops land at Drepanum and begin a siege.

241 B.C.

 

First Punic War (from 264 B.C.) ends in Roman victory

   

Third Syrian War or Laodicean War, (from 246 B.C.) ends with a minor Egyptian victory

   

Outbreak of the War of the Brothers, c.241-236 BC , civil war that saw the Seleucid Empire temporarily split in two.

240 B.C.

 

Battle of Ancyra, (or 239 B.C.), decisive battle of the War of the Brothers and victory for the rebels under Antiochus Hierax.

230-228 B.C.

 

Although it was a short, limited conflict, the First Illyrian War (230-228 BC) is noteworthy as the first time the Roman Republic sent its armies to the eastern shores of the Adriatic.

221 B.C.

 

Outbreak of the inconclusive Fourth Syrian War (to 217 BC)

220 B.C.

 

Battle near Apollonia sees Antiochus III defeat a rebellion under the satrap Molon

219 B.C.

 

The Second Illyrian War (219 BC) was a short campaign in which the Romans restored the balance of power they had created at the end of the First Illyrian War, ten years earlier.

218 B.C.

 

Battle of the Plane Tree Pass, Seleucid victory during the Fourth Syrian War

217 B.C.

22 June

Battle of Raphia, 22 June, was the decisive battle of the Fourth Syrian War, and an Egyptian victory over Antiochus III

    End of the Fourth Syrian War (from 221 BC)

218 B.C.

November

Battle of Ticinus, Hannibal's first victory over the Romans on Italian soil.
 

December

Battle of Trebia, the first of Hannibal's great victories over the Romans.

215-205 B.C.

 

The First Macedonian War was caused by the decision of Philip V of Macedonia to form an alliance with Hannibal in the aftermath of his series of great victories against Rome in Italy.

208 B.C.

  The battle of Linji (208 BC) saw two of the many rebels against the failing Qin dynasty defeated and killed by Zhang Han, one of the most successful Qin generals (Fall of the Qin Dynasty)
    The battle of Dingtao (208 BC) saw the Qin army of Zhang Han defeat and Xiang Liang, king of Chu, the third rebel leader to fall to his armies during the course of 208 BC (Fall of the Qin Dynasty).

207 B.C.

22 June

Battle of Metaurus, defeat of second Punic invasion of Italy led by Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal

   

The battle of Mantinea was the most significant battle of the First Macedonian War, although it involved none of the main participants in that war.

    The battle of Julu (207 BC) was a key victory for rebels against the tottering Qin Dynasty, and resulted in the surrender of Zhang Han, their most able general.
    The battle of Lantian (207 BC) saw a rebel army led by Liu Bang defeat one of the last Qin armies, a defeat that exposed the Qin heartland to conquest and ended the short-lived Qin dynasty.

206 B.C.

  The Chu-Han Contention (206-202 BC) was a civil war that followed the collapse of the Qin Dynasty, and that saw Liu Bang, the founder of the Han dynasty, defeat Xiang Yu, the leader of the revolt that had overthrown the Qin.
    The battle of Ch'ents'ang (206 BC) was the first victory won by Liu Bang, the founder of the Han dynasty, in the civil war that followed the fall of the Qin dynasty.
    The battle of Haochih (206 BC) was the second victory in Liu Bang’s (founder of the Han dynasty) invasion of the kingdom of Yong, the first step in the civil war between Liu Bang and Xiang Yu.
    The siege of Fei-ch'iu (206-205 BC) was the final stage in Liu Bang’s conquest of the kingdom of Yong, the first stage in his eventual creation of the Han dynasty.

205 B.C.

 

The peace of Phoenice of 205 ended the fighting in the First Macedonian War (215-205 BC).

    The battle of Pengcheng (205 BC) was a major defeat suffered by Liu Bang, the founder of the Han Dynasty, after he occupied the capital of his main rival Xiang Yu.
    The battle of Jingzing (205) BC was one of a number of unusual victories won by Han Xin, one of the most able supporters of Liu Bang, the founder the Han Dynasty (Chu-Han Contention).

204 B.C.

  The siege of Xingyang (204 BC) was a victory won by Xiang Yu during his struggle against Liu Bang, the founder of the Han dynasty. Liu Bang was trapped in the besieged city, but managed to escape thus avoiding capture when the city fell.
    The battle of Chenggao (204 BC) was a minor victory won by Liu Bang while the main Chu armies under Xiang Yu were distracted by a defeat suffered by one of his other armies at Hsia-p’ei.
    The battle of Hsia-p’ei (204 BC) was a defeat suffered by the armies of Chu that forced Xiang Yu to abandon his campaign against Liu Bang around Xingyang, giving the Han leader time to recover from his narrow escape from that city.
    The siege of Chenggao (204 BC) was the second occasion during the same year in which Liu Bang, the eventual founder of the Han Dynasty, was forced to flee from a besieged city with a handful of supporters (Chu-Han Contention).
    The battle of Lixia (October 204 BC) was a controversial victory won by a Han army commanded by Han Xin over an army of the Kingdom of Qi that came after Qi had decided to ally with Han.
    The battle of the Wei River (November 204 BC) was a major victory that saw the Han general Han Xin defeat a Chu army that had been sent to defend the kingdom of Qi, allowing the Han to occupy the kingdom of Qi, a strategically important location to the north of the Chu heartland.

203 B.C.

  The battle of Ying (203 BC) was a victory won by a Han army over a Qi army, fought in the aftermath of the major Han victory on the Wei River (November 204 BC).
    The battle of the Si River (203 BC) was a major victory won by Liu Bang over a Chu army that had been defending the city of Chenggao.
    The treaty of the Hong Canal (203 BC) was a short-lived peace treaty agreed between Liu Bang of Han and Xiang Yu of Chu, in which they agreed to split the old Qin Empire between them.
 

November

The battle of Guling (203 BC) was the last victory won by Xiang Yu during the Chi-Han Contention, and saw him defeat the isolated Han army of Liu Bang.

202 B.C.

January

The battle of Gaixia (January 202 BC) was the decisive battle of the Chu-Han Contention and saw Liu Bang inflict a major defeat on Xiang Yu of Chu, who committed suicide soon after the battle.

201 B.C.

 

The battle of Chios was the first of two naval battles fought by Philip V of Macedonia off the coast of Asia Minor during 201.

   

The battle of Lade was the second of two naval battles fought by Philip V of Macedonia during 201 BC.

200-196 B.C.

 

The siege of Abydos was one of the final of a series of conquests made by Philip V of Macedonia around the Aegean that helped trigger the Second Macedonian War (against Rome).

    The Second Macedonian War was the first war in which the Roman Republic made a major military effort in Greece, and it marked an end to the power of Macedonia.

198 B.C.

24 June (probable date)

The battle of the Aous was the first significant Roman victory during the Second Macedonian War.

197 B.C.

 

The battle of Cynoscephalea of 197 B.C. was the decisive battle of the First Macedonian War, and was the first of a series of victories won by Roman legions over the Greek phalanx that ended three centuries of Greek dominance on the battlefield.

192-188 B.C.

 

The war between Rome and Antiochus III was the second of two wars that saw the Roman Republic, in a period of less than a decade, defeat the two most powerful of the successor states to the empire of Alexander the Great – Macedonia and the Seleucid Empire.

191 B.C.

 

The battle of Thermopylae ended the Greek phase of the war between Rome and the Seleucid emperor Antiochus III, and saw Antiochus expelled from Greece

   

The battle of Corycus was the first naval battle of the war between Rome and Antiochus III, and saw the Romans and their allies begin to win control of the Aegean Sea.

190 B.C.

 

The battle of Eurymedon (or Side) was one of two naval battles that marked a turning point in that years fighting in the war between Rome and Antiochus III.

   

The battle of Myonnesus was the decisive naval battle of the War between Rome and Antiochus III, and saw a combined Roman and Rhodian fleet defeat Antiochus’ main surviving fleet.

   

The battle of Magnesia, in the winter of 190 B.C., saw a badly outnumbered Roman army defeat the army of the Seleucid Emperor Antiochus III (the Great), forever altering the balance of power in the eastern Mediterranean.

188 B.C.

 

The peace of Apamea of 188 B.C. ended the war between Rome and Antiochus III, and also ended any chance that the Seleucid Empire might ever reclaim its lands in Asia Minor. 

168 B.C.

22 June

Battle of Pydna, Roman victory over Macedonia

113-101 B.C.

  The Cimbric War (113-101 BC) saw the Romans suffer a series of serious defeats at the hands of the Cimbri, Teutons and other tribes, before the consul Marius won a series of victories that ended the threat to Italy.

113 B.C.

  The battle of Noreia (113 BC) was the first battle of the Cimbric War, and saw a migrating Cimbric army defeat the Roman consul Papirius Carbo after he attempted to ambush them as they were withdrawing from Noricum.

112 B.C.

  The siege of Cirta (112 BC) saw Jugurtha win a brief Numidian civil war, but his actions after the fall of the city provoked a Roman intervention, which eventually ended his reign (Jugurthine War)

111-104 B.C.

  The Jugurthine War (111-104 BC) was a prolonged struggle between Rome and her former ally of Numidia that played a part in the rise of Marius and eventually ended with a Roman victory.

110/109 B.C.

  The battle of Suthul (late 110 BC or early 109 BC) was a Roman defeat early in the Jugurthine War and saw Aulus Postumious Albinus forced to surrender on harsh terms after his army was forced out of its camp in a night attack.

109 B.C.

 

The battle of the Muthul River (109 BC) was the first significant Roman victory during the Jugurthine War, but had little long term impact on the course of the war.

The siege of Zama (109 BC) was a Roman attempt to force Jugurtha to accept battle that backfired and had to be abandoned after Jugurtha carried out a series of costly attacks on the Roman camp.

Silanus's defeat (109-108 BC) was perhaps the most obscure Roman defeat during the Cimbric War with both its location and date in doubt, and even one source making it a Roman victory!

108 B.C.

 

The revolt of Vaga (108 BC) saw this Numidian city massacre a Roman garrison, before almost immediately being recaptured by the Romans, at the same time opening up a feud between the Roman commanders Metellus and Marius.

The siege of Thala (108 BC) saw the Romans under Metellus capture the site of one of Jugurtha's treasuries, but without capturing the King or securing much of the treasure (Jugurthine War)

107 B.C.

 

The siege of Capsa (107 BC) was Marius's first major military success in Numidia, but although it helped him conquer the south-east of the kingdom it failed to bring an end to the war any nearer (Jugurthine War).

Cassius Longinus's defeat (107 BC) saw a Roman army defeated and humiliated by the Tigurini, a Helvetian tribe that was raiding across southern Gaul.

106 B.C.

 

The siege near the Muluccha River (106 BC) saw Marius besiege and capture one of Jugurtha's last fortresses, almost at the western border of Numidia.

The siege of Tolosa (106 BC) is the only recorded fighting in that year during the Cimbric War, and saw the Romans recapture an allied city that had revolted against them.

106/105 B.C.

 

The first battle of Cirta (winter 106-105 BC) saw a Roman army under Marius narrowly escape from an ambush led by Jugurtha and his ally Bocchus (Jugurthine War).

The second battle of Cirta (winter 106-105 BC) was the final major battle of the Jugurthine War, and saw the Romans repulse a second attack on their army in four days, convincing Jugurtha's ally Bocchus to change sides.

91-88 B.C.

  The Italian Social war (91-88 BC) was a conflict between Rome and her Italian allies, triggered by the refusal of the Romans to give their allies Roman citizenship, and with it a say in the government of the empire that the allies had helped create and defend. 

90 B.C.

 

The battle near Grumentum (90 BC) was an setback suffered by the Romans in Lucania early in the Social War.

The siege of Aesernia (90 BC) was a success for the Italian allies, and saw them capture the Latin colony of Aesernia after a lengthy siege (Italian Social War).

The siege of Acerrae (90 BC) saw the Italian rebels defeat a series of Roman attempts to lift the siege, but frustratingly we don't actually know how it ended.

The battle of the Tolenus or Liris River (11 June 90 BC) was a victory for the Italian rebels in which they killed the consul Publius Rutilius Lupus, although Marius, who was serving under him, partly restored the situation.

The battle of Teanum Sidicinum (90 BC) saw the Roman consul Lucius Julius Caesar suffer a defeat at the hands of the Samnite leader Marius Egnatius (Social War), probably during an attempt to lift the siege of either Aesernia or Acerrae.

The battle of Mount Falernus (90 BC) was a victory for the Italians over a Roman force under Pompey Strabo that was moving to besiege Asculum (Social War).

The siege of Firmum (90 BC) saw Pompey Strabo besieged in the city after suffering a defeat at Mount Falernus, delaying his attempt to besiege Asculum (Italian Social War).

The siege of Asculum (90-89 BC) was one of the longest sieges of the Social War, and eventually saw Pompeius Strabo capture the city, after a siege that may have lasted for over a year.

89 B.C.

 

The First Mithridatic War (89-85 B.C.) was the first of three clashes between the Roman Republic and Mithridates VI of Pontus which would last for nearly thirty years, and end with the destruction of the Pontic kingdom.

The battle of Lake Fucinus (89 BC) was a Roman defeat at the hands of the Marsians, which came after the Roman commander Lucius Porcius Cato was killed (Italian Social War).

The siege of Herculaneum (probably to 11 June 89 BC) is one of the more obscure incidents of the Social War, and saw a Roman army recapture the town after it fell to the Samnites in 90 BC.

The battle of Nola (Summer, 89 BC) was a series of encounters in which Sulla defeated a Samnite attempt to raise his sieges of Herculaneum and Pompeii (Social War).

The siege of Pompeii (89 BC) saw a Roman army under Sulla recapture the city, after it fell into the hands of the Italian rebels in the previous year (Social War).

The siege of Aeclanum (89 BC) saw Sulla force the surrender of the Hirpini after capturing their chief town (Social War)

The siege of Bovianum (89 BC) was Sulla's last victory during his campaign of 89 BC, and saw him capture a Samnite town that was the site of the common council of the Italian rebels.

The battle of Canusium (89 BC) was a series of conflicts that saw the Romans under Gaius Cosconius defeat the Samnites in Apulia and regain control of much of the area.

   

The battle of the Amnias River (89 B.C.) was the first battle of the First Mithridatic War, and was the first of a series of victories in which the armies of Mithridates VI conquered the Roman province of Asia.

   

The battle of Protopachium, 89 B.C., was the second of two victories won by the armies of Mithridates VI of Pontus that at least temporarily destroyed Roman authority in their province of Asia at the start of the First Mithridatic War.

88 B.C.

 

The battle of the Teanus River (88 BC) was the last major battle of the Italian Social War, and ended with the death of Quintus Poppaedius Silo, one of the most able of the Italian commanders.

The siege of Rhodes of 88 B.C. was one of the first defeats suffered by Mithridates VI of Pontus in the early period of the First Mithridatic War against Rome.

88-87 B.C.

 

Sulla's First Civil War (88-87 BC) was triggered by an attempt to strip him of the command against Mithridates and saw Sulla become the first Roman to lead an army against the city for four hundred years.

Sulla's attack on Rome or the battle of the Esquiline Forum (88 BC) was a key moment in the fall of the Roman Republic, and was the first time in at least 400 years that a Roman commander had led an army against the city (Sulla's First Civil War).

87 B.C.

 

The siege of Rome (87 BC) saw the opponents of Sulla seize control of the city after a prolonged campaign in the vicinity of Rome.

The siege of Athens of 87-86 B.C. was one of the first major Roman successes during the First Mithridatic War (89-85 B.C.), and marked the point at which the initiative in the war began to move towards the Romans.

   

The siege of Piraeus of 87-86 B.C. was a bitterly fought clash that only ended when the defenders of the city pulled out by sea after the fall of the city of Athens.

86 B.C.

 

The battle of Chaeornea (86 B.C.) was the first of two crushing defeats suffered by Pontic armies that ended Mithridates VI's invasion of Greece (First Mithridatic War).

   

The battle of Orchomenus of 86 B.C. was the second of two great Roman victories that ended the Pontic invasion of Greece during the First Mithridatic War.

83 B.C.

 

The Second Mithridatic War, 83-82 B.C., was a short-lived conflict largely caused by the ambition of Lucius Licinius Murena, the Roman governor of Asia after the end of the First Mithridatic War.

 

 

Sulla's Second Civil War (83-82 BC) saw Sulla overthrow the Marian establishment of Rome, reform the Roman constitution and then unexpectedly retire into private life, giving up formal power.

The battle of Mount Tifata or Casilinum (83 BC) was the first major battle during Sulla's invasion of Italy after his return from the east, and saw him defeat the army of the consul Gaius Norbanus (Sulla's Second Civil War).

The 'battle' of Teanum (83 BC) saw Sulla win over almost the entire army of the consul Scipio Asiaticus, winning a bloodless victory over the second of the two consular armies that had been sent against him as he advanced towards Rome (Sulla's Second Civil War).

82 B.C.

 

The battle of the Halys River was the only major engagement during the short Second Mithridatic War (83-82 B.C.) and was one of the few defeats suffered by a Roman army during the three wars against Mithridates IV of Pontus.

The battle of Sacriportus (82 BC) was a key battle of Sulla's Second Civil War, and saw him defeat the army of the consul Marius the Younger. In the aftermath Marius was besieged in Praeneste, while Sulla was able to occupy Rome without a fight.

The battle of the River Aesis (82 BC) was the first battle in the second year of Sulla's Second Civil War, and probably saw a Sullan army under Metellus Pius defeat part of the consul Carbo's army, under the command of one of his generals, C. Carinas.

The siege of Praeneste (82 BC) saw the consul Marius the Younger besieged in the city for most of the campaign of 82 BC, from his defeat at the battle of Sacriportus in the spring, to his suicide as the city surrendered to Sulla (Sulla's Second Civil War).

The battle of the Glanis River (83 BC) saw Sulla defeat a force of Celtiberian cavalry that had been sent to help the Consuls in their attempt to resist his invasion of Italy (Sulla's Second Civil War).

The battle of Saturnia (83 BC) was a minor victory for Sulla's forces over a detached part of Carbo's army during a period of campaigning in the area around Clusium (Sulla's Second Civil War).

The battle of Sena Gallica (82 BC) saw Pompey defeat one of the consul Carbo's armies near a small port on the Adriatic, helping to strengthen Sulla's position in the north of Italy (Sulla's Second Civil War).

The first battle of Clusium (82 BC) was an inconclusive battle between Sulla and Carbo, fought eighty miles to the north of Rome

The battle and siege of Spoletium (82 BC) was a partial success for Pompey, then serving under Sulla, against Carrinas, one of the lieutenants of the consul Carbo.

The battle of Faventia (82 BC) saw the total failure of an attempt by Carbo to launch a surprise attack on Sulla's commander in the north of Italy, Metellus Pius. Soon afterwards Carbo gave up the fight and fled to Africa, leaving the Marian cause almost leaderless in Italy (Sulla's Second Civil War).

The battle of Placentia (82 BC) saw the Sullan commander Marcus Lucullus defeat a Marian army in the Po Valley, helping to end their command of Cisalpine Gaul.

The second battle of Clusium (82 BC) saw Pompey defeat the remnants of the army of the consul Carbo, after they had been abandoned by their commander (Sulla's Second Civil War).

The battle of the Colline Gate (1 November 82 BC) saw a largely Samnite army come dangerously close to capturing Rome, taking advantage of the distraction caused by Sulla's Second Civil War.

The siege of Norba (82 BC) was a minor incident during Sulla's Second Civil War, and saw the town hold out against Sulla's forces for some time after the anti-Sullan forces had been destroyed at the battle of the Colline Gate.

81 B.C.

  The battle near Utica (81 BC) was a victory for a Sullan army led by the young Pompey over a Marian army led by Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus.

80 B.C.

  The siege of Nola (to 80 BC) was an intermittent Roman attempt to recapture the city after it fell to the Samnites during the Social War, not ended until after Sulla's Second Civil War.

73 B.C.

 

The Third Mithridatic War of 73-63 B.C. was the last of three clashes between Mithridates VI of Pontus and the Roman Republic. A war that began in western Asia Minor ended with Roman armies campaigning in Armenia, to the east of the Black Sea and in Syria and saw Roman power extended into completely new regions

   

The battle of Chalcedon was a combined land and sea battle at the start of the Third Mithridatic War that ended in a crushing victory for Mithridates VI of Pontus.

   

The siege of Cyzicus was a Roman victory that effectively ended Mithridates VI's campaign in western Asia Minor at the start of the Third Mithridatic War.

   

The battle of the Rhyndacis of 73 B.C. was the first of a series of disasters that befell the army of Mithridates VI of Pontus when it attempted to retreat from the siege of Cyzicus (Third Mithridatic War).

   

The battle of Lemnos was a naval victory won by Lucius Licinius Lucullus early in the Third Mithridatic War over a Pontic fleet commanded by the Roman renegade Marcus Varius.

72 B.C

 

The siege of Eupatoria (c.72-71 B.C.) was one of the shorter sieges during the Roman general Lucullus's invasion of Pontus (Third Mithridatic War).

69 B.C.

 

The battle of Tigranocerta, 6 or 7 October 69 B.C., was a one-sided Roman victory over a massive army led by Tigranes I of Armenia, but one that the Romans were unable to take advantage of.

58 B.C.

  Outbreak of the Gallic War (to 51 B.C.)
 

June

The battle of the Arar (June 58 BC) was the first significant victory won by Julius Caesar, and marked the unusually late start of his military career

 

June/ July

The battle of Bibracte (June/July 58 B.C.) was the second and decisive battle in Julius Caesar's first military campaign, and saw him force the Helvetii tribe to abandon their planned migration from Switzerland to the west coast of France

 

September

The battle of Vesontio (September 58 B.C.) was the second major victory of Julius Caesar's military career and saw him defeat a large army of Germans led by Ariovistus, a Suebian chief who had crossed the Rhine some years earlier to intervene in a war between Rome's ally's the Aedui and the Sequani.

57 B.C.

 

The battle of the Aisne (57 B.C.) was Julius Caesar's first victory in his campaign against the Belgic tribes of modern Belgium.

 

July

The battle of the Sambre (July 57 B.C.) was the most important battle of Caesar's campaign against the Belgae in 57 B.C. and saw his army recover after being ambushed to inflict a crushing defeat on three Belgic tribes led by the Nervii.

 

September

The siege of the Atuatuci (September 57 B.C.) was the final major victory during Julius Caesar's conquest of the Belgae.

 

Winter 57/56 B.C.

The battle of Octodurus (winter 57/56 B.C.) was a battle in the upper Rhone valley described by Julius Caesar as a Roman victory, but that effectively ended an attempt to open the Great St. Bernard Pass.

56 B.C.

 

The defeat of the Sotiates (56 B.C.) was the first of two major battles in unknown locations in which Publius Crassus, the son of the Triumvir and one of Caesar's most able lieutenants, defeated the Aquitani tribes of south-west Gaul.

 

June

The battle of the Morbihan Gulf (June 56 B.C.) was the first naval battle in recorded history to definitely took place in the North Atlantic, and saw a Roman fleet raised by Julius Caesar destroy the naval power of the Veneti tribe of modern Brittany.

 

June

The defeat of the Vocates and Tarusates (June 56 B.C.) was the second of two major battles in unknown locations in which Publius Crassus, the son of the Triumvir and one of Caesar's most able lieutenants, defeated the Aquitani tribes of south-west Gaul.

54 B.C.

October

The disaster at Atuatuca (October 54 B.C.) was one of the most serious setbacks suffered by Julius Caesar during his conquest of Gaul, and saw the Eburones destroy an entire Roman legion that had just entered winter quarters.

    The siege of Q. Cicero's camp, early in the winter of 54-53 B.C. was the highpoint of the second Gallic revolt during Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul, and its failure handed the initiative back to the Romans.

52 B.C.

 

The siege of Gorgobina (early 52 B.C.) saw Vercingetorix make an unsuccessful attack on a town that was under the protection of Julius Caesar. The Gauls were forced to lift the siege when Caesar approached from the north with his main army and besieged Novidunum, but the attack had forced the Romans to leave their winter quarters much earlier than they would have liked.  

   

The siege of Vellaunodunum (early 52 B.C.) was the first of three Roman attacks on Gallic towns that forced Vercingetorix to abandon his siege of Gorgobina early in the Great Gallic Revolt of 52 B.C.

   

The siege of Cenabum (early 52 B.C.) was the second of three Roman attacks on Gallic towns that forced Vercingetorix to abandon his siege of Gorgobina, and that saw the Romans capture the town where the great Gallic revolt had begun.

 

March

The siege of Noviodunum (probably March 52 B.C.) was the third of three Roman attacks on Gallic towns that forced Vercingetorix to abandon his siege of Gorgobina. It also saw the first direct clash between the main armies of Caesar and Vercingetorix, a minor cavalry action fought outside the town

 

March-April

The siege of Avaricum (c.March-April 52 B.C.) was the first major clash between Julius Caesar and Vercingetorix during the Great Gallic Revolt, and ended with a Roman victory and the sack of the town.

 

May

The battle of Lutetia (May 52 B.C.) was a victory won by Labienus, Caesar's most able lieutenant during the Gallic Wars, over the Senones and Parisii on the left bank of the Seine close to the centre of modern Paris.

 

May

The unsuccessful siege of Gergovia (May 52 B.C.) was the only major setback suffered by an army led in person by Julius Caesar during the entire Gallic Wars.

 

July

The battle of the Vingeanne (July 52 B.C.) was a cavalry battle that saw the Romans and their German auxiliaries defeat a Gallic attack on their column, a defeat that may have been the main reason that Vercingetorix chose to defend the nearby town of Alesia.
 

October

Battle of Alesia, Caesars final victory in the Gallic Wars

51 B.C.

  The siege of Limonum, early 51 B.C., was an unsuccessful attempt by the Andes, one of the last rebellious tribes in Gaul, to capture the chief town of the Pictones tribe.
   

The battle on the Loire of early 51 B.C. was a Roman victory that effectively ended the Great Gallic revolt on the west coast of Gaul.

    The siege of Uxellodunum (spring 51 B.C.) was the last attempt by the Gauls to defend a fortified town against a Roman attack during Caesar's Gallic War.
   

The defeat of Comius the Atrebatian, late in 51 B.C., was a minor cavalry skirmish noteworthy only for being the last recorded battle of Caesar's Gallic War.

   

End of the Gallic War (from 58 B.C.)

49 B.C.

 

GAUL

The siege of Massilia (March-September 49 BC) was an early victory for Caesar during the Great Roman Civil War, largely won by his subordinates while Caesar himself campaigned in Spain.

The naval battles of Massilia (49 BC) were two victories won by Caesar's naval commander Decimus Brutus during the siege of the same town.

NORTH AFRICA

The battle of Utica (49 BC) was an initial victory won by G. Scribonius, Caesar's commander in North Africa, over Pompey's supporters (Great Roman Civil War)

The siege of Utica (49 BC) was a short-lived attempt by Caesar's lieutenant in North Africa, G. Scribonius Curio, to take advantage of his victory in a battle outside the city (Great Roman Civil War).

The battle of the Bagradas River (24 July 49 BC) was a major defeat for Caesar's army in North Africa, and firmly established Pompey's control over the area.

ADRIATIC

The siege of Curicta (49 BC) was a success for Pompey's supporters against Caesar's governor of Illyria early in the Great Roman Civil War.

The siege of Salonae (49 BC) was an unsuccessful attempt by Pompey's supporters in Illyricum to capture a town that supported Caesar (Great Roman Civil War)

SPAIN

The battle of Ilerda (May-2 July 49 BC) was Caesar's first major military success during the Great Civil War, and saw him defeat Pompey's most experienced armies, posted in Spain where Pompey had gained one of his earliest victories, against the forces of the Roman rebel Sertorius, and which had been his proconsular province in 55 BC.

48 B.C.

 

The siege of Dyrrhachium (March-May 48 BC) was the first direct confrontation between Caesar and Pompey during the Great Roman Civil War, and ended as a victory for Pompey after he broke through Caesar's siege lines.

The battle of Dyrrhachium (20 May 48 BC) was the most serious setback suffered in person by Caesar during the Great Roman Civil War and saw Pompey break out of a blockade south of Dyrrhachium on the eastern coast of the Adriatic.

The siege of Gomphi (48 BC) was a minor victory won by Caesar in the period between his defeat at Dyrrhachium in May and his victory at Pharsalus in August.

46 B.C.

  The battle of Carteia (46 BC) was a minor naval victory won by one of Caesar's lieutenants over a Pompeian fleet that had escaped from Africa to Spain after the battle of Thapsus (47 BC).

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