Battle of Adwalton Moor, 30 June 1643
Royalist victory during the First Civil War. The earl of Newcastle, with an army 10,000 strong, was advancing on the army of Lord Fairfax, then in Bradford. Hearing of this advance, Lord Fairfax decided to move east to threaten the advance, even though he had only 4,000 troops along with an unknown number of effectively unarmed farmers. Newcastle formed up at Adwalton, on a ridge of moorland that runs east out of Bradford, and awaited Fairfax. Despite the numbers, the Parliamentary army had the better of the early exchanged, and Newcastle was even considering a retreat, when a final charge broke the Parliamentary left. This part of the army soon fled, taking the centre with it. Only Sir Thomas Fairfax on the right remained in place, having not received orders to retreat, but orders finally arrived, and he too escaped. The victory secured most of Yorkshire for the Royalist cause.
The English Civil War How to cite this article: Rickard, J. (24 August 2000), Adwalton Moor, battle of, 30 June 1643, http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_adwalton.html
, Richard Holmes & Peter Young, an early work by one of the country's best known military historians, this is a superb single volume history of the war, from its causes to the last campaigns of the war and on to the end of the protectorate.