Aerial Warfare was the Twentieth Century's unique contribution to the art of war. Ten years after the Wright Brothers' first flight in 1903, the airplane was ready to play an increasingly important role in the First World War. Fighter aces became public heroes in a war that was becoming increasingly anonymous on the ground.
Military aircraft have developed at an incredible speed. It took only fifty years to get from the improvised war planes of 1914 to the 2,000 mph Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird. The Second World War saw hundreds of thousands of aircraft of hundreds of different types play a crucial role in the fighting, with some of the aircraft becoming icons in their own right.
We now have 2,126 articles and 1,117,300 words, covering over one thousand military aircraft. Our first set of articles for our War in the Air theme also included our 1,000th article, and the Short Stirling took us over the one million words mark!
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The P.Z.L. P.45 Sokol (Falcon) was a lightweight fighter designed to replace or supplement the increasingly outdated P.Z.L. P.11 that had almost reached the prototype stage when the Germans invaded Poland in 1939.
No.421 Squadron, RCAF, was a Canadian fighter squadron that began operations on defensive patrols over South Wales and the south-west, then moved to the south-east to escort bomber missions over France. It then joined 2nd Tactical Air Force and spent the rest of the war operating over the Continent.
The P.Z.L. P.46 Sum (Sheat-fish) was to have been a more advanced version of the P.23 light bomber and reconnaissance aircraft, but it hadn’t entered production by the time the Germans invaded Poland in 1939.
No.418 Squadron (RCAF) was a Canadian squadron that operated the Boston as a night intruder, then the Mosquito on day intruder, bomber escort and anti V-1 duties, ending the war with 2nd Tactical Air Force.
The P.Z.L. P.43 Karas (Crucian-carp) was a more powerful version of the Polish P.23 light bomber and reconnaissance aircraft, developed in response to a Bulgarian order.
No.417 Squadron (RCAF) was a Canadian fighter squadron that served in North Africa from 1942-43, the took part in the invasions of Sicily and Italy, ending the war as a ground attack unit.
The P.Z.L. P.42 was a single development aircraft used to help with the design of the P.46 Sum (Sheat-fish), the planned replacement for the P.23 Karas.
No.416 Squadron (RCAF) was a Canadian fighter squadron that was initially used to protect coastal shipping before taking part in offensive sweeps over France, ground attack and escort missions. It supported the D-Day landings then moved to Normandy, from where it carried out armed reconnaissance sweeps, finding and attacking German targets.
The P.Z.L. P.23 Karas (Crucian-carp) was a reconnaissance aircraft and light bomber that performed well in the bomber role after the German invasion in 1939, before heavy losses reduced its effectiveness.
No.414 Squadron (RCAF) was a Canadian squadron that operated the Mustang then the Spitfire, mainly in the reconnaissance and ground attack roles, eventually operating as far afield as over Germany.
The P.Z.L. P.24 was a refined version of the P.11 designed to use engines other than Bristol radials, so they could be exported without causing problems with the licensing agreement for those engines.
No.413 Squadron, RCAF, was a Canadian Catalina squadron that operated from Scotland for part of 1941 before moving to Ceylon in 1942, entering service there just before the Japanese raid into the Indian ocean. It spent most of the rest of the war on anti-submarine duties across the Indian ocean before its crews moved back to the UK to reform as a short lived bomber squadron
The P.Z.L. P.11 was the most important Polish fighter aircraft when the Germans invaded in 1939, but although it had been an advanced design when it was first introduced, by then it was outdated and outclassed.
No.412 Squadron (RCAF) was a Canadian fighter squadron that took part in the failed attack on Dieppe, then joined Second Tactical Air Force and supported the D-Day landings and the campaign in north-western Europe.
No.411 Squadron (RCAF) was a Canadian Spitfire squadron that served with Fighter Command then the Second Tactical Air Force, and spent most of its time carrying out offensive sweeps, either over occupied Europe or during the campaign in North-Western Europe in 1944-45.
The P.Z.L. 18 was a design for a heavy torpedo-bomber that never got beyond the design stage.
The P.Z.L. P.8 was a design for an improved inline engine powered of Zygmunt Pulawski’s gull wing fighters, but which never progressed beyond the prototype stage, and was abandoned in favour of the inline powered P.11.
No.409 Squadron (RCAF) was a Canadian night fighter squadron that took part in the defence of Britain in 1941-44, then supported the D-Day landings, flew intruder missions over France and took part in the campaign against the V-1 flying bomb.
The P.Z.L. 3 was a Polish design for a heavy bomber that never got past the design stage, but that influenced the very similar Potez 41 in France, which did reach the prototype stage.
No.407 Squadron, RCAF, was a Canadian squadron that served with Coastal Command from 1941-45, performing a mix of anti-submarine and anti-shipping missions, as well as taking part in the attempt to stop the 'Channel Dash' and the D-Day landings.
The P.Z.L. L.2 was an observation and liaison aircraft designed for the Polish Air Force but that was only produced in small numbers after losing out to a Lublin design.
No.406 Squadron, RCAF, was a Canadian night fighter squadron that was formed in the UK and after an early spell of defensive duties was mainly used as an intruder squadron and for low level sorties over France and later Germany.
The P.Z.L. P.7 was the first domestically designed fighter to enter Polish service and allowed the Polish air force to be the first to convert to an all metal monoplane fighter.
The P.Z.L. P.6 was one of two radial powered developments of the P.1 fighter that were produced at the same time in 1929-30, but lost out to the second model, the high altitude P.Z.L. P.7
No.404 Squadron, RCAF, was a long range fighter and anti shipping squadron that served with RAF Coastal Command from 1941-45.
The P.Z.L. P.1 of 1929 was the first Polish designed fighter aircraft, and was the first in a line of fighters that would still be in front line service a decade later, at the outbreak of the Second World War.
No.403 Squadron, RCAF, was a fighter squadron that was the first Canadian squadron to be formed overseas during the Second World War, and that took part in the air offensive over France, joined Second Air Force and supported the D-Day landings then moved to Europe to support the campaign in North-western Europe.
No.402 Squadron, RCAF, was a fighter squadron that was mainly used on offensive duties, including the raid on Dieppe and supporting the D-Day lands, as well as taking part in the campaign against the V-1 Flying Bomb.
The Curtiss SC Seahawk was the last fixed wing scouting aircraft produced for service on the US Navy’s battleships and cruisers, and entered service late in 1944.
No.401 Squadron, RCAF, was a fighter squadron that took part in bomber escort and fighter sweeps before joining 2nd Tactical Air Force to support the D-Day landings and the campaign in north-western Europe.
The Curtiss SO3C Seamew/ Seagull was an unsuccessful attempt to replace the Curtiss SOC Seagull biplane spotter plane, and after a brief period of front line service in 1942-43 was withdrawn, and in some cases replaced with its predecessor.
No.400 Squadron, RCAF, began the war as am army co-operation squadron, before becoming a reconnaissance squadron, supporting the D-Day landings and the campaign in north-western Europe
The Curtiss SOC Seagull was a biplane scout-observation aircraft that operated from US battleships and cruisers throughout the Second World War, actually outliving two newer aircraft that had been designed to replace it.
No.162 Squadron (RCAF) was a Canadian flying boat squadron that was formed on the Canadian east coast in 1942 as a long range anti-submarine warfare squadron, and that spent most of 1944 and the first half of 1945 operating with RAF Coastal Command in Iceland and Scotland, where it was credited with sinking five U-boats and a share in a sixth.
The Curtiss XBT2C was a one or two seat torpedo and dive bomber developed from the SB2C Helldiver, but which only reached the prototype stage.
No.112 Squadron, RCAF, was an army co-operation squadron that moved to Britain in the summer of 1940 and was largely engaged in training, before becoming No.2 Squadron, RCAF in December 1940.
The Curtiss XBTC was a single seat torpedo and dive bomber that entered development in 1942 but didn’t make its maiden flight until 1945, and that lost out to more modern Douglas and Martin designs.
No.2 Squadron, RCAF, was an army co-operation squadron in the pre-war Permanent Force of the RCAF that was used to reinforce No.110 Squadron, the first Canadian squadron to move to Britain after the outbreak of the Second World War. In December 1940 No.112 Squadron, which was also in Britain, was renumbered as No.2, and flew convoy escort duties along the east coast. It was renumbered as No.402 Squadron in March 1941.
The Curtiss CT was a twin engined torpedo bomber, produced by Curtiss to a Navy design but that never progressed beyond the prototype stage.
No.110 Squadron, RCAF, was a Canadian army co-operation squadron that moved to Britain in 1939 and spent the next year training in army co-operation duties, before being renumbered as No.400 Squadron in March 1941.
No.1 Squadron, RCAF, was part of Canada's pre-war Permanant Force, and moved to Britain early in the Second World War, where it fought in the Battle of Britain, before being renumbered as No.401 Squadron in March 1941.
The Curtis-Wright C-113 Commando was an unsuccessful test bed for a new General Electric turbo-prop engine, and was written off after an ground accident early in its test career.
The Curtiss R5C Commando was the US Navy designation for the C-46A Commando, and was used by the US Marine Corps in the Pacific.
The Curtiss NC (Navy-Curtiss) was a flying boat originally designed in 1917 to be able to cross the Atlantic to reach the war zone, but that became most famous for making the first successful trans-Atlantic flight in May 1919, a few months before Alcock and Brown’s more famous first non-stop flight.
Operation Bodenplatte (1 January 1945) was a large Luftwaffe attack on Allied airfields in Belgium, Holland and France in which a large number of Allied aircraft were destroyed on the ground, but the Luftwaffe lost a large number of irreplaceable veteran pilots, a blow from which its fighter force never recovered.
The Curtiss HS-3 was an improved version of the HS-1 and HS-2 patrol flying boats, but only six were built before development stopped after the end of the First World War.
The Curtiss HS-2L was an improved version of the HS-1 coastal patrol flying boat that could carry a heavier payload, making it more suitable for use against submarines.
The Curtiss HS-1 was a single engined flying boat that was used as a coastal patrol aircraft in American and French waters, and was one of the most significant American designed combat aircraft of the First World War.
The Felixstowe/ Porte Baby was a three engined flying boat that was developed as an alternative to the Curtiss H-4 ‘Small America’, but that was only produced in small numbers after the success of the Felixstowe F.2A.
The Naval Aircraft Factory PN was the designation for a series of closely related flying boats that were developed from the Curtiss F-5L, an American version of the British Felixstowe F.5, which was in turn the final member of a series of flying boats developed from the earlier Curtiss H-4. The last members of the PN family didn’t retire from US service until 1944, extending the life of the Curtiss H and Felixstowe F families across both World Wars!
The Navy Aircraft Factory/ Curtiss F-5L was an American version of the Felixstowe F.5, which was the final member of a family of Felixstowe boats developed from the Curtiss H-4, and which became the standard US Navy patrol flying boat during the 1920s.
The Felixstowe F.5 was the last in a series of flying boats developed by John Porte based on earlier Curtiss boats, and served with the RAF after the First World war and entered production in American as the Curtiss F-5L.
The Felixstowe F.4 Fury was the last flying boat designed by John Porte, and was a massive triplane flying boat that only reached the prototype stage.
The Felixstowe F.3 was the most numerous of the British Felixstowe flying boats, and had a wider wingspan and could carry a heavier payload than the earlier F.2A, although at the cost of reduced agility.
The Felixstowe F.2 was an improved version of the Curtiss H-12 ‘Large America’, produced in Britain by fitting the Curtiss wings to a new hull that had been developed in an attempt to improve the earlier Curtiss H-4 ‘Small America’.
The Felixstowe F.1 was the first in a series of flying boats created by Commander John Porte of the RNAS, and was produced by fitting the wings from a Curtiss H-4 flying boat to a new hull, and was considered to be a great improvement over the original.
The Curtiss H-16 'Large America' was a biplane flying boat that was probably the Curtiss version of the Felixstowe F.2A, and was definitely an improved version of the H-12, which was itself an enlarged version of the H-4 ‘Small America’
The Curtiss H-12 ‘Large America’ was a larger development of the Curtiss H-4 that was developed in response to RNAS experience with the H-4, and that served with the US Navy and RNAS.
The Curtiss H-4 ‘Small America’ was the production version of the earlier H-1 America, and was produced for the British RNAS after the outbreak of the First World War.
The Curtiss H-1 'America' was a long range biplane seaplane, originally designed to fly across the Atlantic, and that became the basis of the wartime H-4, H-12 and H-16 in the US and the British Felixstowe F boats.
The Curtiss MF was a single seat flying boat introduced to replace the older Model F, and that saw some service after the end of the First World War.
The Curtiss Model F was an early single engine flying boat that saw extensive service as a US training aircraft during the First World War.
The Curtiss R-9 was a twin float plane bomber that was based on the earlier Curtiss R-6, but with the pilot and observer’s positions reversed.
The Curtiss R-6 was a twin float observation plane that was a more powerful version of the earlier R-3, and that was the first US Navy aircraft to see service overseas.
The Curtiss R-4 was an improved version of the Curtiss R-2 observation aircraft, and was ordered in larger numbers by the US Army in 1916.
The Curtiss R-3 was a twin float version of the Curtiss R-2 observation aircraft, and although only two were completed, it was followed by the more numerous R-6 and R-9.
The Curtiss R-2 was a two seat observation aircraft that served with the US Army, and in larger numbers with the RFC, and that was essentially an enlarged version of the Curtiss Model N.
The Curtiss-Wright C-76 Caravan was a wooden cargo aircraft designed in case the United States ran short of light alloys as military production accelerated after the US entry into the war.
The Curtiss C-55 was the designation given to the prototype of the Curtiss Model CW-20/ C-46, after it was given a new tail and purchased by the USAAF.
The Curtiss C-46 Commando was one of the most important US transport aircraft of the Second World War, and survived to see service in Korea and Vietnam.
The Curtiss C-30/ R4C-1 was a transport version of the Curtiss Condor II biplane transport aircraft, a rather outdated aircraft when it first appeared in 1933.
The Curtiss XC-10 was a modified version of the Curtiss Robin three seat cabin monoplane that was used for experiments with radio controlled aircraft.
The Curtiss PN-1 was an experimental night fighter of 1921 that didn’t live up to expectations.
The Curtiss Twin JN was a twin engined aircraft based on the famous JN-4 Jenny, produced in small numbers as an observation type.
The Curtiss JNS was the designation given to those JN-4Hs and JN-6Hs that were reconditioned after the First World War, eliminating the differences between the two types.
The Curtiss JN-6 was an improved version of the Curtiss JN-4H, mainly distinguished by the use of ailerons on both wings.
The designation Curtiss JN-5 was given to two different aircraft – first to what became known as the Twin JN and then to a single prototype of an improved model of the Jenny that never entered production.
The Curtiss JN-4Can ‘Canuck’ was an improved version of the Curtiss JN-3 that was developed independently in Canada, and constructed at the same time as the American Curtiss JN-4.
The Curtiss JN-4 was the main production version of the Curtiss Jenny, and was the most important American primary trainer during the First World War, and one of the main aircraft used by the barnstormers of the early 1920s.
The Curtiss JN-3 was the first version of the famous Curtiss Jenny to be produced in large numbers, mainly as a trainer for the RNAS. Two were also purchased by the US Army, but both were lost during the expedition to Mexico in 1916.
The Curtiss JN-2 was the first version of the famous Curtiss Jenny, and was produced in small numbers for the US Army. It wasn’t a great success and within a year the surviving aircraft had been updated to the JN-3 standard.
The Curtiss Jenny (Model JN) was the most important American primary trainer of the First World War, and played a major role in the development of civil aviation after the end of the war.
The Curtiss Model N was the company’s second successful tractor land plane, and was later developed into the N-9 float plane trainer as well as providing some features for the famous Curtiss JN ‘Jenny’.
The Curtiss Model J was the company’s first successful tractor land plane, and became the basis of the famous Curtiss JN ‘Jenny’, the main American training aircraft of the First World War.
The Curtiss SNC Falcon/ Model CW-22 was a basic trainer and light attack aircraft that saw combat against the Japanese with the Dutch, but that was only used as a trainer by the US Navy.
The Curtiss-Wright CW-21 was a lightweight export fighter that was purchased in small numbers by the Chinese and Dutch, and that saw limited combat during the defence of the Dutch East Indies in 1942.
The Curtiss-Wright CW-19 began life as a civilian cabin cruiser but soon became a light military aircraft , and the basis of the CW-21 Demon fighter and CW-22 / SNC-1 Falcon light attack and trainer.
The Curtiss XP-87/ XF-87 Blackhawk was the company’s first all-jet aircraft, and was briefly ordered into production, before being cancelled in favour of the Northrop F-89 Scorpion.
The Curtiss XP-71 was a design for a very heavy escort fighter, designed to support long range bombers. Two prototypes were ordered, but the project was cancelled before either of them had been completed
The Curtiss XP-62 was the heaviest American single-seat fighter to fly during the Second World War, but was underpowered and never progressed beyond the prototype stage.
The Curtiss XP-55 Ascender was an unusual tail first fighter that reached the prototype stage, but that proved to be inferior to more conventional fighter designs.
The Beechcraft L-23/ U-8 Seminole was a general utility aircraft that remained in US Army service for four decades, from the early 1950s to the early 1990s.
The Aeronca L-16 Champion was a post-war development of the L-3 Grasshopper, originally intended for use with the National Guard but forced into front line service during the Korean War.
The Boeing L-15 Scout was an advanced liaison aircraft that used the same basic layout as the wartime ‘Grasshopper’ liaison aircraft, but in a much more radical form.
The Stinson/ Convair L-13 was a post-war liaison aircraft that was designed to replace the L-5 Sentinel and that entered service just after the end of the Second World War.
The Interstate O-63/ L-6 Grasshopper was a potentially promising light liaison aircraft that failed to live up to expectations, and was produced in significantly smaller numbers than the similar Taylorcraft L-2, Aeronca L-3 or Piper L-4.
The Stinson O-54 was the designation given to six Stinson Voyagers ordered for evaluation by the USAAC. More aircraft were ordered during the Second World War, and others taken over from civilian owners, becoming the L-9, and the basic design became the basis of the very successful Stinson L-5 Sentinel.
The Curtiss O-52 Owl was a large, advanced two-man observation aircraft that had been made obsolete by the nature of the fighting in the Low Countries and France in 1940, and mainly saw use as a trainer.
The Ryan O-51 Dragonfly was an observation aircraft developed alongside the Stinson O-49/ L-1 Vigilant, but that only ever reached the prototype stage.
The Bellanca O-50 was an observation aircraft developed alongside the Stinson O-49/ L-1 Vigilant, but that only ever reached the prototype stage.
The North American O-47 was designed as a corps and division observation aircraft, but ended up serving as a trainer and target tug during the Second World War.
The Martin YO-45 was a temporary designation given to a Martin YB-10 while it was being evaluated as a high speed reconnaissance aircraft.
The Fokker O-27 was a two engine observation that was produced in small numbers and saw front line service with the USAAC in the early 1930s.
The Thomas-Morse O-41 was a version of the successful O-19 observation aircraft that was given sesquiplane wings and a Curtiss Conqueror engine, but failed in two attempts to win a USAAC contract, and was eventually sold to Republican Spain, although probably got no further than Mexico.
The Thomas-Morse O-23 was a version of the successful O-19 observation aircraft that was powered by a Curtiss Conqueror engine, making it the first member of the O-19 family to be powered by an inline engine since the original O-6 prototypes.
The Thomas-Morse O-33 was a version of the successful O-19 observation aircraft that was powered by a Curtiss Conqueror engine and given a revised tail.
The Thomas-Morse O-21 was a version of the successful Thomas Morse O-19 observation aircraft that was powered by a Curtiss Chieftain engine then by a Wright Cyclone.
The Thomas-Morse O-20 was a version of the successful O-19 observation aircraft that was powered by a Pratt & Whitney Hornet engine.
The Thomas-Morse O-19 was a two-man observation biplane loosely based on the Douglas O-2, but with an all metal structure. 171 production aircraft were ordered, and it became one of the standard US observation types at the start of the 1930s.
The Thomas Morse O-6 was an all-metal version of the Douglas O-2, one of the main American observation aircraft of the mid 1920s.
The Stinson O-62/ L-5 Sentinel was a larger and more capable liaison aircraft, which operated alongside the L-2/ L-3 and L-4 Grasshoppers, although needed more complex support than the lighter aircraft.
The Piper O-59/ L-4 Grasshopper was the most successful of three models of commercial light aircraft that served as liaison and artillery spotter aircraft for the USAAF, filling a gap left by the slow development of the Stinson O-49/L-1 Vigilant
The Aeronca O-58/ L-3 Grasshopper was one of three models of commercial light aircraft that served as liaison and artillery spotter aircraft for the USAAF, filling a gap left by the slow development of the Stinson O-49/L-1 Vigilant
The Taylorcraft O-57/ L-2 Grasshopper was one of three models of commercial light aircraft that served as liaison and artillery spotter aircraft for the USAAF, filling a gap left by the slow development of the Stinson O-49/L-1 Vigilant
The Stinson O-49/ L1 Vigilant was the first slow flying liaison aircraft to be ordered by the USAAC, but turned out to be too large and too expensive for the role, which was eventually carried out by a variety of military versions of civilian light aircraft
The Focke-Wulf Fw 190S was the designation given to a small number of dedicated two-man trainers produced to help convert pilots from two-seat bombers to the single seater Fw 190.
The Focke Wulf Fw 190G was a long range fighter bomber, based on the Fw 190A and originally produced with dedicated racks for fuel drop tanks under the wings.
The Focke Wulf Fw 190F was an armoured ground attack version of the aircraft, produced to replace the obsolete Ju 87 Stuka.
The Focke-Wulf Fw 190E may have been a designation for a dedicated reconnaissance version of the aircraft, but none were produced under that designation.
The Focke-Wulf Fw 190D was a high altitude version of the aircraft, powered by an inline engine hidden behind an extended version of the normal fuselage, making it look like a radial powered aircraft.
The Focke Wulf Fw 190C would have been powered by the Daimler-Benz DB 603 engine, but it never got past the development stage.
The Focke-Wulf Fw 190A was the most important fighter version of the aircraft, and was one of the best fighters in the world when it first entered service in 1941-42.
The Focke-Wulf Fw 190 was designed in response for a request for a ‘back-up’ to the Messerschmitt Bf 109, and went on to be one of the most important German military aircraft of the Second World War, with around 20,000 produced.
The Focke-Wulf Ta 152S was a planned two-man tandem trainer version of the Ta 152, which was ordered into production but never delivered.
The Focke-Wulf Ta 153 was one of Kurt Tank’s early designs for a replacement for the Fw 190, and a partial prototype was constructed late in 1943, before the entire programme was cancelled for the second time.
The Focke-Wulf Ta 152H was designed as a high altitude version of the standard Ta 152, but as a result of a series of poor decisions by the German Air Ministry it became the only version of the aircraft to actually enter combat, and only in tiny numbers and too late to have any impact on the course of the war.
The Focke-Wulf Ta 152E was a reconnaissance version of the Ta 152, and was on the verge of entering production at the end of the war.
The Focke-Wulf Ta 152C was the third attempt to produce a standard version of the Ta 152, and reached the prototype stage but too late in the war to actually enter production
The Focke-Wulf Ta 152B was the original design for a version of the Ta 152 optimised for higher altitudes, but suffered from problems with its Jumo 213E engine, and never got beyond the prototype stage. However a modified ‘Destroyer’ version, the B-5, did reach the prototype stage late in the war.
The Focke-Wulf Ta 152A was the original design for the standard version of the Ta 152, but the project was cancelled just as it was about to go into production.
The Focke-Wulf Ta 152 was the final evolution of the Fw 190, and entered combat very late in the war as the high altitude Ta 152H, which was only available in tiny numbers and proved to be an impressive but unreliable fighter.
The Martin T4M was a version of the earlier T3M torpedo bomber, powered by a Pratt & Whitney Hornet engine.
The Martin RM-1/ C-3 was the designation given to two Martin 4-0-4 airliners that served with the US Coast Guard and then the US Navy.
The Martin P6M SeaMaster was an advanced jet powered flying boat that was ordered into production, but only appeared in small numbers before the project was cancelled.
The Martin AM Mauler was a single seat carrier based attack aircraft, designed to replace the multi-seat SB and TB types that dominated during the Second World War.
The Martin XB-33 was the designation given to two different designs for high altitude bombers, neither of which entered production.
The Martin PB2M/ JRM Mars was the largest flying boat to enter service with the US Navy, although only a handful were completed for use as a transport aircraft.
The Martin M-130 was a massive flying boat produced for the trans-Pacific route. Only three were built, and two were taken into US Naval service in 1942.
The Martin XB-48 was an early American jet bomber that reached the prototype stage, but didn’t enter production.
The Martin XB-51 was a three engine jet ground attack aircraft that reached the prototype stage but didn’t enter production.
The Martin P4M Mercator was a long range reconnaissance aircraft, powered by a mix of piston and jet engines, and that saw service as an ECM aircraft in the 1950s.
The Martin P5M (P-5) Marlin was developed from the successful PBM Mariner, and was the last operational flying boat to serve with the US Navy.
The Martin XB-13 was the designation given to a version of the Martin B-10 that would have been powered by the Hornet B radial engine.
The Martin XB-14 was an experimental version of the Martin B-10, produced to test out the new Twin Wasp engines.
The 507th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a P-47 group that operated as a ground attack unit during the last few months of the war against Japan.
The 508th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a P-47 group that trained as a long range escort group, but never got further forward than Hawaii.
The Curtiss CS/ Martin SC/ Martin T2M was a Navy designed scout and torpedo bomber of the 1920s that was produced in several versions by Curtiss and Martin
The Martin T3M was an improved version of the CS-2, using a geared Wright engine. It was the most numerous member of its family, with 124 produced.
The 478th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a home based training unit that served as a replacement training unit.
The 479th Fighter Group (USAAF) served with the Eighth Air Force, and operated as a ground attack and bomber escort unit from May 1944 to the end of the war in Europe.
The 506th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a P-51 group that operated with the Twentieth Air Force in the Pacific, carrying out a mix of ground attack and bomber escort missions.
The Martin B-10 was the first of the new generation of monoplane bombers to enter USAAC service in the 1930s, and when it first appeared was a revolutionary aircraft that was faster than the standard fighter aircraft of its day.
The Martin B-12 was a modified version of the successful B-10, powered by Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet A engines.
The 474th Fighter Group (USAAF) served with the Ninth Air Force in Europe, taking part in the Allied invasion of Europe and the advance across north-western Europe into Germany.
The 475th Fighter Group (USAAF) was created in Australia in 1943, and supported the Allied advance across New Guinea and into the Philippines.
The 476th Fighter Group (USAAF) was briefly activated with no squadrons in China, before being activated for a second time as a home based training unit.
The Lockheed P2V (P-2) Neptune was a very successful post-war maritime patrol bomber that was developed during the Second World War, but didn’t enter service until after the war was over.
The Lockheed C-140 was the designation given to a small number of Lockheed Jetstars that were ordered as cargo aircraft, after the original military requirement for the aircraft had been cancelled.
The 413th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a fighter group that served as a fighter-bomber unit with the Twentieth Air Force, mainly operating over Japan and occupied China.
The 414th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a fighter unit that entered combat as a ground attack group with the Twentieth Air Force late in the Second World War.
The 473rd Fighter Group (USAAF) was a home based training unit that operated in 1943-44.
The Lockheed XR6O was a massive transport aircraft that was produced for the US Navy during the Second World War, but that had a low priority and wasn’t completed until after the end of the war.
The Lockheed YO-3A was a very quiet surveillance aircraft, designed to fly low and silently over Vietnam in an attempt to locate hidden Communist troops.
The 338th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a training unit that served with the Third Air Force from 1942 until 1944.
The 339th Fighter Group (USAAF) served with the Eighth Air Force, mainly as a bomber escort group, but with some other missions added.
The 412th Fighter Group was an experimental unit that was used to gain experience with the new generation of jet aircraft.
The Lockheed T2V-1/ T-1 was an improved version of the T-33 trainer, produced as a deck landing trainer for the US Navy.
The Lockheed W2V-1 was a design for an airborne early warning aircraft to be based on the Lockheed Model 1649 Starliner. Two examples were ordered early in 1957, but then cancelled a few months later.
The 329th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a training unit that served with the US Fourth Air Force from 1942 to 1944.
The 332nd Fighter Group (USAAF) served in Italy in 1944-45, and spent most of that time escorting the heavy bombers of the Fifteenth Air Force.
The 337th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a training group that served with the Third Air Force in the south-east of the United States from 1942 until 1944.
The Lockheed T-33 was a two-seat training version of the P-80 Shooting Star, originally developed using Lockheed’s own funds, but soon adopted by the USAF and was produced in impressively large numbers.
The Lockheed F-94 was an all weather fighter produced to fill a gap in the USAF’s post-war arsenal. It entered service late in 1949 and remained in service for a decade, seeing some service in Korea.
The 326th Fighter Group was a training unit that served with the First Air Force from 1942 until 1944.
The 327th Fighter Group was a training group that served with the First Air Force in the US from 1942 until 1944.
The 328th Fighter Group was a training unit based in the US South-West from 1942 until 1944.
The 318th Fighter Group spent two and a half years based on Hawaii, before moving to the front in June 1944 to take part in the invasion of the Marianas and the air attack on Japan.
The 324th Fighter Group fought in Tunisia, Sicily, Italy, the south of France and the final advance into Germany, mainly operating as a close support unit.
The 325th Fighter Group fought in Tunisia, Pantelleria, Sicily and mainland Italy, then became a escort unit supporting the Italian based heavy bombers on their raids across Germany and occupied Europe.
The Lockheed R3O was the designation for two versions of the Model 10 Electra used by the US Navy, one purchased for the Navy and one impressed during the Second World War
The Lockheed R5O was the US Navy’s designation for the Model 18 Lodestar transport, of which nearly 100 were used during the Second World War.
The 85th Fighter Group was a training group that served with the Second and Third Air Forces in the United States in 1942-44.
The 86th Fighter Group was mainly used as a close support unit, and took part in the invasions of Sicily, mainland Italy and the south of France, before ending the war operating over Germany.
The 87th Fighter Group was a short lived replacement training unit for P-47s.
The Lockheed F-80 Shooting Star was the first jet fighter to enter US service, but despite an impressively quick development didn’t arrive in time for the Second World War. It saw extensive service early in the Korean War, before being replaced by the F-86 Sabre.
The Lockheed XF-90 was a design for a penetration fighter, capable of escorting bombers and carrying out ground attack missions, but never got beyond the prototype stage.
The Lockheed XP-49 was a design for a more powerful fighter to be based on the P-38 Lightning, but it never got beyond the prototype stage, and by the time the prototype was ready, it was outclassed by existing P-38s.
The Lockheed XP-58 Chain Lighting was a two-man version of the P-38 that suffered from repeated changes of purpose, and that never entered production.
The 84th Fighter Group (USAAF) served as a training unit from 1942-1944.
The 407th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a home based training unit that also saw limited active service in Alaska.
The 408th Fighter Group (USAAF) was a home based training unit that was active from October 1943 to April 1944.
The Lockheed-Vega XB-38 was a prototype for an improved version of the Flying Fortress using inline liquid cooled engines to guard against any shortage of the standard R-1820s used on the B-17.
The Lockheed C-66 was the designation given to a single Twin Wasp powered Model 18 Lodestars that was impressed by the USAAF during the Second World War.
The 57th Fighter Group supported the British Eighth Army from El Alamein to Tunisia and onto Sicily and Italy, where it took part in the long campaign in Italy and the invasion of the south of France.
The 58th Fighter Group took part in the long New Guinea campaign, the invasion of the Philippines and attacked targets in Korea and on Kyushu.
The 59th Fighter Group went through two incarnations during the Second World War, first as an observation group and then as a training group.
The 78th Fighter Group served with the Eighth Air Force from 1943 until the end of the war, supporting the campaign in north-western Europe and the advance into Germany.
The 79th Fighter Group supported the British Eighth Army from 1942 until early in 1944, then fought at Anzio, in the south of France and in northern Italy, where it once again operated with the Eighth Army.
The 83rd Fighter Group was a training unit that served with the First Air Force.
The Lockheed C-56 was the designation given to a mix of Cyclone and Hornet powered Model 18 Lodestars that were impressed by the USAAF during the Second World War.
The Lockheed C-57 was the designation given to Twin Wasp powered Model 18 Lodestars that were used by the USAAF during the Second World War.
The Lockheed C-59 was the designation given to Hornet powered Model 18 Lodestars originally produced for Britain, some of which were impressed by the USAAF during the Second World War.
The Lockheed C-60 was the designation given to a mix of impressed Model 18 Lodestars and versions of the aircraft that were ordered specifically for the USAAF, and was by far the most numerous military version of the Lodestar.
The Lockheed C-85 was the designation given to a single Model 9 Orion that was impressed into the USAAF in 1942-44.
The Lockheed C-101 ‘Vega’ was the designation given to a single example of the Lockheed Vega that was impressed by the USAAF in 1942
The 52nd Fighter Group was one of the first units to join the Eighth Air Force in Britain, before moving to North Africa for Operation Torch. It then spent the rest of the war operating in the Mediterranean theatre.
The 53rd Fighter Group served in the Panama Canal Zone and as a training unit, before being disbanded in 1944.
The 54th Fighter Group was mainly used as a training unit in the US, but also took briefly took part in the campaign in the Aleutian Islands in 1942.
The Lockheed C-111 Super Electra was the designation given to four Lockheed Model 14-WF62s that were impressed by the USAAF after they reached Australia after escaping from the Dutch East Indies.
The Lockheed XR4O was the designation given to a single example of the Lockheed Super Electra that was used by the US Navy.
The 48th Fighter Group served as a replacement training unit, before joining the Ninth Air Force in Britain in the spring of 1944 and taking part in the campaign to liberate Europe.
The 49th Fighter Group took part in the defence of Australia, the long campaign on New Guinea, the return to the Philippines and raids against Formosa and the China coast.
The 50th Fighter Group served with various training commands in the US, before moving to Britain to take part in the liberation of Europe in 1944-45.
The Lockheed JO was the US Navy’s designation for the Lockheed 12 Electra Junior, a small twin engine transport aircraft.
The Lockheed XRO was the designation given to one Lockheed Altair, which became the first aircraft with a fully retractable undercarriage to be used by the US Navy.
The Lockheed JO was the US Navy’s designation for the Lockheed 12 Electra Junior, a small twin engine transport aircraft.
The Lockheed XRO was the designation given to one Lockheed Altair, which became the first aircraft with a fully retractable undercarriage to be used by the US Navy.
The Lockheed C-37 was a single example of the Lockheed 10-A Electra that served with the National Guard Bureau.
The Lockheed C-40 was the Army designation for the Lockheed 12 Electra Junior, and covered a mix of aircraft that had been purchased by the Air Corps and aircraft that were impressed during the Second World War.
The Lockheed XC-35 'Electra' was an experimental aircraft used for tests with pressurized cabins.
The Lockheed C-36 was the military designation for the Lockheed 10 Electra, and covered three aircraft ordered by the Army Air Corps and more aircraft impressed by the USAAF during the Second World War.
The Lockheed XB-30 was a bomber version of the C-69/ C-121/ Constellation, developed in response to the same specifications that produced the B-29 Superfortress.
The Lockheed R7O/ R7V was a US navy transport aircraft based on the Lockheed Super Constellation airliner, a stretched version of the earlier Constellation.
The Lockheed XFV-1 was an experimental VTOL aircraft that never made a vertical take off or landing, but that did fly with a temporary conventional undercarriage.
The Lockheed PO-1W was an airborne early warning system based on the Lockheed Constellation airliner.
The Lockheed PO-2W/ WV-2 was an early warning aircraft based on the Super Constellation airliner.
The Lockheed C-69 Constellation was developed as a civil airline, but all early production was taken over by the USAAF after the US entry into the Second World War.
The Lockheed C-121 Constellation was the military version of the Model 749 Constellation, designed for use as an intercontinental airliner and of the later Super Constellation, with a higher cargo capacity. It was used for an impressively wide range of functions, and in many different versions.
The Lockheed Y1C-23 ‘Altair’ was the designation given to the sole DL-2 Altair after it was purchased by the USAAC.
The Lockheed Y1C-25 'Altair' was the designation given to the first Lockheed Altair when it was purchased by the USAAC.
The Lockheed Y1C-12 was a single example of a DL-1 'Vega' that was purchased for evacuation by the USAAC.
The Lockheed Y1C-17 'Speed Vega' was a single example of the DL-1B Vega purchased by the USAAC, and was lost in 1931 during an attempt to break a transcontinental speed record.
The Douglas C-132 was a design for a two-deck turboprop powered transport aircraft that never got beyond the mock-up stage.
The Douglas C-133 Cargomaster was the largest turboprop transport to be built for the USAF, and was designed to carry ICBM missiles around the United States.
The Douglas C-118 Liftmaster/ Douglas R6D was the military version of the DC-6, and most were based on the improved DC-6A model.
The Douglas C-124 Globemaster II was the main USAF heavy strategic cargo transport during the 1950s and 1960s, until it was replaced by the Lockheed C-5.