Index to the Articles
Welcome to our new Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars homepage. We are going to use this page to bring together all of our resources about the first 'great war'. If you want to find out what articles we have on this period, go to the Napoleonic special subject index, where we listevery relevant article. If you want to find out more, then have a look at our recommended books, in association with Amazon in the UK, US and Canada. We are also starting to develop a list of Napoleonic Websites, which we expect to expand.
Appropriately, we start our Napoleonic month with a biography of Napoleon himself, one of the few people to give his name to an historical period. He is still a controversial figure - opinion is divided between those who see him as a military dictator, who tried to impose his rule across all of Europe and those who see him as a great liberator and law giver, who overthrew corrupt regimes across the continent.
At the start of our themed month, we had 46 articles about the Napoleonic Wars, containing 28,000 words. At the end, we moved on to 74 articles
We now have 714 articles and 739,600 words on the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
The siege of Hamburg (3 December 1813-27 May 1814) was the last phase in Davout's year long occupation of Hamburg, and lasted until after Napoleon's first abdication.
Johann Gabriel Chasteler de Courcelles (1763-1825) was an Austrian general who served as a engineer, a staff officer and a corps commander.
The combat of Kosen (20 October 1813) was a rearguard action during the French retreat from Leipzig.
The battle of Hanau (30-31 October 1813) was an unsuccessful attempt to interfere with the French retreat after Leizpig, carried out by a Austro-Bavarian army that had moved up from southern Germany.
The fourth day of the battle of Leipzig (19 October 1813) saw the French attempt to carry out a fighting retreat from the city, but their efforts were marred when the only bridge heading west out of the city was destroyed while tens of thousands of French troops were still in the city.
The third day of the battle of Leipzig (18 October 1813) was dominated by a general Allied assault on three sides of the city, and by the start of Napoleon's retreat west towards the Rhine.
The combat of Dessau (12 October 1813) saw an isolated division from Tauenzien's Corps defeated by French troops who were attempting to intercept Blücher and Bernadotte as they moved west down the Elbe.
The second day of the battle of Leipzig (17 October 1813) was fairly inactive, and is most notable for the arrival of large numbers of Allied reinforcements, and Napoleon's failure to take a chance to escape.
The first day of the battle of Leipzig (16 October 1813) was Napoleon's last chance to win a significant victory during the War of Liberation, but he was unable to take his chance, and the day ended as a hard fought draw.
The combat of Wethau (10 October 1813) was part of an unsuccessful attempt by Allied troops to stop Marshal Augereau's IX Corps reaching Leipzig.
The siege of Dresden (10 October-11 November 1813) was triggered by Napoleon's decision to leave a garrison in the city in the days before the battle of Leipzig, exposing it to an inevitable attack and leaving it trapped after his defeat.
The siege of Torgau (8 October 1813-10 January 1814) was one of a series of sieges that saw isolated French garrisons across Germany and Poland slowly forced to surrender in the aftermath of Napoleon's defeat at Leipzig (16-19 October 1813).
The combat of Flemmingen (9 October 1813) was part of a failed Allied attempt to prevent Marshal Augereau's IX Corps from reaching Leipzig.
The treaty of Ried (8 October 1813) saw the Kingdom of Bavaria abandon its long-standing support for France and join the Sixth Coalition
The battle of Wartenburg (3 October 1813) was a key battle in the campaign that led to Leipzig, and saw Blücher's Army of Silesia gain a firm foothold on the left bank of the Elbe, putting all three of the main Allied armies on the same side of the river.
The buildup to the battle of Leipzig (25 September-15 October 1813) saw the failure of Napoleon's last attempts to defeat one of his opponents in isolation, and ended with him forced to fight the united armies of his Russian, Prussian, Austrian and other enemies.
The combat of Dolnitz (17 September 1813) saw the French briefly descend onto the plains south of Bohemian mountains, but after some limited fighting Napoleon decided to withdraw to Saxony, rather than risk fighting with a mountain range separating his army.
The combat of Bischofswerda (22 September 1813) was a minor French success that saw Napoleon push Blücher back from a threatening position between Bautzen and Dresden.
The combat of Peterswalde (16 September 1813) was the second step in a French counterattack that forced the Allies back into Bohemia, and briefly gave Napoleon a chance to operate on the southern side of the Bohemian mountains.
The action of Göhrde (16 September 1813) saw the Allies intercept a column sent out of Hamburg by Marshal Davout and force it to retreat back into the city after suffering heavy losses.
The combat of Nollemdorf (14 September 1813) was an Allied counterattack that forced the French out of their most advanced positions in Bohemia, and triggered a brief French offensive that ended with Napoleon's troops briefly fighting south of the mountains.
The combat of Berggiesshübel (15 September 1813) was the first step in a French counterattack that restored their position after an Allied attack on 14 September, and ended with some fighting on the southern side of the Bohemian mountains.
The treaty of Teplitz (9 September 1813) saw Austria formally join the Sixth Coalition, although she had been at war with France since mid-August, and had already fought and lost the major battle of Dresden.
The combat of Geiersberg (10 September 1813) saw Napoleon get into a position from where he could attack the Prussian and Russian contingents of the Army of Bohemia, but then decide not to risk a descent into Bohemia.
The combat of Dahme (7 September 1813) saw Allied troops capture 3,200 French prisoners in the aftermath of the battle of Dennewitz.
The combat of Dohna (8 September 1813) was a minor French victory over the troops of Barclay de Tolly, then advancing up the left bank of the Elbe towards Dresden.
The combat of Zahna (5 September 1813) was a French success during Marshal Ney's attempt to capture Berlin, but on the following day Ney suffered a defeat at Dennewitz and was forced to abandon the attempt.
The battle of Dennewitz (6 September 1813) was a French defeat that ended Napoleon's second attempt to take Berlin during the autumn campaign of 1813.
The second day of the Battle of Dresden (27 August 1813) saw Napoleon launch a massive counterattack that forced the Allies to retreat, and that might have given him a decisive victory if Marshal Vandamme had made more progress to the south of Dresden.
The combat of Plagwitz (29 August 1813) was a second French disaster in the aftermath of their defeat on the Katzbach (26 August 1813), and cost them all of Puthod's division.
The battle of Pirna (26 August 1813) was a key part of Napoleon's plan to win a major victory at Dresden, and saw Vandamme attempt but fail to cut off the Allied lines of retreat from Dresden back into Bohemia.
The first day of the Battle of Dresden (26 August 1813) saw Napoleon defeat an Allied attack on the city, and launch a successful counterattack that prepared the way for his offensive on the second day.
The combat of Goldberg (23 August 1813) was a minor success for Macdonald's Army of the Bobr, but it came three days before that army suffered a heavy defeat on the Katzbach (26 August 1813), a blow that helped undo the benefits of Napoleon's victory at Dresden (War of Liberation).
The battle of the Katzbach (26 August 1813) was a victory for a Prussian-Russian army under Marshal Blücher over a French army commanded by Marshal Macdonald that largely cancelled out Napoleon's victory over the Austrians at Dresden, fought at the same time.
The Trachenberg Plan (12 July 1813) was the Allied plan for the Autumn Campaign of 1813 (War of Liberation), and called for each of the three Allied armies to avoid fighting Napoleon in person, but to threaten his communications and attack his Marshals, wearing down the French army and denying Napoleon the chance to win a decsisve victory.
The combat of the Bobr or Lowenberg (21 August 1813) was the first occasion on which Napoleon was frustrated by the Trachenberg Plan, in which the Allies had agreed not to risk a battle against the Emperor in person.
The Armistice of Pleischwitz (2 June 1813) was a truce between between Napoleon and his Russian and Prussian opponent that ended the Spring Campaign of 1813 (War of Liberation).
The Convention of Reichenbach (27 June 1813) was an agreement between Austria, Prussia and Russia, in which the Austrians agreed to join the war against Napoleon unless he agreed to a series of demands.
The combat of Hoyerswerda (27 May 1813) was a French victory that encouraged Marshal Oudinot to advance towards Berlin, after a Prussian attack on his positions was repulsed.
The combat of Luckau (6 June 1813) was a French defeat during Marshal Oudinot's first attempt to threaten Berlin, but came after an armistice had already ended the fighting in the spring campaign in Germany.
The combat of Hainau (26 May 1813) was a rare Allied success during their retreat after the battle of Bautzen, and saw a Prussian cavalry force ambush an isolated French division east of Hainau.
The combat of Sprottau (27 May 1813) was a minor French success during their pursuit of the Russians and Prussians in the aftermath of the battle of Bautzen.
The combat of Reichenbach (22 May 1813) was a rearguard action during the Allied retreat after their defeat at Bautzen, most notable for the death of one of Napoleon's closest friends, the Grand Marshal Duroc.
The combat of Görlitz (23 May 1813) saw the French force their way across the River Neisse, on the border between Saxony and Silesia, in the aftermath of their victory at Bautzen (20-21 May 1813).
The battle of Bautzen (20-21 May 1813) was the second major battle of the Spring Campaign of 1813, and saw Napoleon come close to winning the descisive victory he needed to knock at least one of his opponents out of the war.
The combat of Colditz (5 May 1813) was a rearguard action during the Allied retreat after their defeat at Lutzen three days earlier.
The combat of Konigswartha (19 May 1813) took place on the day before the battle of Bautzen (20-21 May 1813) and saw the French defeat an Allied force that had been sent out to attack Lauriston's corps (War of Liberation).
The action of Poserna (1 May 1813) was a French victory on the road to Lützen, but one that cost them Marshal Bessières, who was killed by a cannon shot during the battle.
The battle of Lützen (2 May 1813) was Napoleon's first victory during the Spring campaign of 1813 (War of Liberation), but he was unable to take full advantage of his victory, and the Prussians and Russians were able to escape east with their armies largely intact.
The battle of Möckern (5 April 1813) was the last significant fighting during the Spring Campaign of 1813 before Napoleon arrived at the front to take over command in person.
The combat of Weissenfels (29 April 1813) was one of the first clashes between Napoleon's new army of 1813 and the advancing Prussian and Russian forces, which by late April had reached the Saale River in Saxony.
The Convention of Kalisch (28 February 1813) was signed between Russia and Prussia, and committed Prussia to rejoined the war against Napoleon, setting the stage for the War of Liberation of 1813.
The siege of Glogau (15 March-27 May 1813) was a rare example of a successful French defense of one of the isolated fortresses left behind by the retreat from Poland and eastern Germany at the start of 1813, and saw a sizable garrison hold out for three months before the siege was lifted in the aftermath of the battle of Bautzen.
The combat of Zirke (11-12 February 1813) was one of the first clashes during the War of Liberation, and came during the French retreat from the Vistula to the Oder.
The combat of Kalisch (18 February 1813) was one of the first clashes of the War of Liberation of 1813 and played a part in forcing the French to abandon any attempt to defend eastern Germany.
The Convention of Tauroggen (30 December 1812) was an agreement that made General Yorck's Russian corps neutral, marking the start of a break between Prussia and France (War of Liberation).
The second siege of Danzig (24 January-29 November 1813) saw General Rapp defend the city against the Russians for most of 1813, but without any genuine hope of being rescued (War of Liberation).
The War of Liberation of 1813 was Napoleon's last campaign in Germany, and although he won three major battles it ended with the final defeat of his armies in Germany at the massive battle of Leipzig.
General Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst (1755-1813) was the most important of a group of military reformers who revived the Prussian army after the disasters of 1806 and turned it into an effective weapon during the War of Liberation of 1813 and the campaigns of 1813 and 1814.
Field Marshal Hans David Ludwig Yorck, Graf von Wartenburg (1759-1830) was a senior Prussian commander during the campaigns of 1813 and 1814, but his most important contribution to the defeat of Napoleon came late in 1812 when he agreed to make his corps, then operating with the French in Russia, neutral, a move that helped trigger the War of Liberation in Germany,
Freidrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf (1762-1823) was a successful Prussian corps commander during the War of Liberation of 1813 and the invasion of France of 1814.
General Adolf Wilhelm, Freiherr von Lützow, 1782-1834, was a Prussian general famous for raising a Freikorps during the War of Liberation of 1813.
Freidrich von Gentz (1764-1832) was a Prussian writer who was consistently hostile to Revolutionary and Napoleonic France and ended up working for the Austrians after his attitudes made his position in Prussia too difficult.
Field Marshal August Wilhelm Anton, Graf Neithardt von Gneisenau (1760-1831) was one of the main Prussian military reformers after the disasters of 1806, but is most famous for his role as Blücher's chief of staff in the campaigns in 1813, 1814 and 1815.
General Freidrich Wilhelm Graf Bülow von Dennewitz (16 February 1755-25 February 1816) was a Prussian commander who played a major part in the campaigns of 1813, 1814 and 1815, winning the first Prussian victory since the disasters of 1806 at Grossbeeren in 1813, and playing a major part in the Allied victory at Waterloo.
General Karl Philipp Gottlieb von Clausewitz (1780-1831) was a Prussian general, most famous for his studies of military theory, largely published after his death in 1831
Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick (1735-1806), was an experienced military leader who proved to be unable to cope with the armies of both Revolutionary and Napoleonic France, suffering key defeats at Valmy in 1792 and Auerstädt in 1806
Frederick William, duke of Brunswick (1771-1815), was one of the most implacable enemies of Napoleonic France, and became known as the 'Black Duke'.
Gebhard Lebrecht Fürst Blücher von Wahlstatt was the most famous Prussian commander of the Napoleonic Wars and played an important part in the revival of Prussian military power in 1813-1815 and in the campaigns in Germany, France and of Waterloo.
Frederick William II of Prussia (1744-1797, r.1786-1797) was the king of Prussia at the start of the French Revolutionary Wars, and led Prussia into the War of the First Coalition, before losing interest and taking his country out of the war early in 1795.
Frederick William III (1770-1840, r.1797-1840) was king of Prussia during the Napoleonic Wars, and led Prussia during one of the most disastrous periods in her history in 1806-7 and during her revival in 1813-15.
Marshal Bon Adrien Jeannot de Moncey, duc de Congeliano (1754-1842) was a Napoleonic marshal who took part in three separate wars against Spain, successfully in the first and last, but suffering a loss of reputation during the second.
Marshal Dominique-Catherine, marquis de Pérignon (1734-1818) combined military and political careers, with his main military achievements coming against Spain during the War of the First Coalition.
Marshal Claude Perrin Victor, duc de Bellune (1764-1841) was a capable battlefield commander who was never part of Napoleon's inner circle, and tarnished his reputation by voting for the condemnation of Marshal Nay in 1815.
Marshal Adolphe Edouard Casimir Joseph Mortier, duc de Treviso (1769-1835) was one of Napoleon's more reliable marshals, and fought at Ulm, Friedland, in Spain, Germany and France.
Marshal Jacques Etienne Joseph Alexandre Macdonald (1765-1840) was the son of a Scottish immigrant who served under every regime from the pre-revolutionary Royal army, through the revolutionary and Napoleonic periods and on to the restored Bourbons. His career was a mix of triumph, in particular at Wagram, and defeat in Italy and Germany, and was interrupted by a spell out of favour
Marshal Joachim Murat (1767-1815) was one of Napoleon's most flamboyant and dashing cavalry commanders, but he was less impressive later in the wars, when he was promoted beyond his abilitie
Marshal Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont, duc de Raguse (1774-1852) was an early friend of Napoleon who later became infamous for betraying him in 1814.
Honoré Charles M. J. Reille (1775-1860) was a French general who rose to high command in Spain, and commanded part of the French army during the defeat at Vittoria that effectively ended any chance of maintaining French rule in Spain. He also commanded a corps at Waterloo, although without much success.
The battle of Montmartre or Paris (30 March 1814) was the last battle of the 1814 Allied invasion of north-eastern France. Although the French defenders of Paris managed to hold off the first Allied attack on the city, it was clear that they couldn't hope to hold out much longer, and early on 31 March an armistice came into effect and Allied troops entered the French capital.
General Jean, comte Rapp (1771-1821) was one of Napoleon's aides and was famous for being wounded repeatedly during a successful military career.
Marshal Jean Lannes (1769-1809) was one of Napoleon's most able generals, and probably his closest friend amongst his marshals. His death at Aspern-Essling meant that Napoleon had to fight his later campaigns without one of his most capable subordinates.
The French campaign of 1814 saw Napoleon's last great military achievements. Although the campaign ended with an Allied victory and Napoleon's first abdication, he had managed to inflict a series of defeats on the Allied armies invading France in a campaign that recalled his great achievements in Italy at the start of his career, and demonstrated that Napoleon was still very adept at leading small armies.
The battle of La-Fere-Champenoise (25 March 1814) was a French defeat that signalled the failure of Napoleon's last gamble during the campaign of 1814 and saw Schwarzenberg defeat Marmont and Mortier on the road to Paris.
The battle of St. Dizier (26 March 1814) was Napoleon's last battle during the campaign of 1814, and was a meaningless French victory fought while the main Allied armies were heading for Paris.
The battle of Arcis-sur-Aube (20-21 March 1814) was Napoleon's last major battle during the campaign of 1814 and saw him misjudge his opponents, march into a dangerous trap and then manage to extricate much of his army.
The battle of Rheims (13 March 1814) was Napoleon's last significant success during the 1814 campaign, and saw his troops recapture Rheims in a night attack, briefly causing a panic amongst the Allied commanders.
The battle of La-Fere-Champenoise (25 March 1814) was a French defeat that signalled the failure of Napoleon's last gamble during the campaign of 1814 and saw Schwarzenberg defeat Marmont and Mortier on the road to Paris.
The battle of St. Dizier (26 March 1814) was Napoleon's last battle during the campaign of 1814, and was a meaningless French victory fought while the main Allied armies were heading for Paris.
The battle of Montereau (18 February 1814) was Napoleon's last significant victory over General Schwarzenberg's Army of Bohemia during the campaign of 1814, and forced Schwarzenberg to retreat east from the vicinity of Paris back towards Troyes.
The battle of Bar-sur-Aube (27 February 1814) was one of a series of defeats suffered by Napoleon's subordinates during the campaign of 1814, and saw a combined Russian and Bavarian force defeat Marshal Oudinot after an attempt to convince the Allies that Napoleon was still present in that area failed.
The battle of Craonne (7 March 1814) was a rare example of a battle where both commanders misjudged the situation and was unsatisfactory for both the French and the Allies, although counts as a narrow French victory.
The battle of Laon (8-9 March 1814) was a French defeat that ended Napoleon's hope of defeating Blucher for a second time during the campaign of 1814 and forced him to retreat into a position between the two main Allied armies.
The engagement of Mormant (17 February 1814) saw the French defeat part of the Allied cavalry at the start of Napoleon's most effective attack on Schwarzenberg's Army of Bohemia during the campaign of 1814.
The engagement of Valjouen (17 February 1814) was the second of two French victories on the same day that caught Schwarzenberg's Army of Bohemia just as it was preparing to retreat to avoid being caught by Napoleon.
The battle of Chateau-Thierry (12 February 1814) was one of the great missed chances during Napoleon's defence of France in 1814, but was also a French victory that forced Marshal Blucher to retreat east away from Paris.
The battle of Vauchamps (14 February 1814) was the last French victory during Napoleon's 'Six Days campaign', and saw the French defeat Blucher's attempt to block their path south towards Schwarzenberg's Army of Bohemia, which was advancing on the Seine front.
The battle of Champaubert (10 February 1814) was the first significant French success during the campaign of 1814, and saw Napoleon defeat an isolated Russian division at the start of his impressive 'Six Day's Campaign'.
The battle of Montmirail (11 February 1814) was the second of Napoleon's victories during the Six Days Campaign, and saw him prevent the westernmost part of Marshal Blucher's fighting its way east to rejoin the main army.
Marshal Michel Ney, duc d'Elchingen, prince de la Moscowa (1769-1815) was famous as the bravest of Napoleon's marshals, and was a master of the rearguard action. He was said to have been the last French soldier to leave Russia in 1812, and was a high quality corps commander, if not quite so able when given an independent command.
The battle of Brienne (29 January 1814) was Napoleon’s first major battle during the 1814 campaign in France, and was a narrow French victory that still failed to prevent the two main Allied armies from joining up.
The battle of La Rothiere (1 February 1814) was the only instance during the campaign of 1814 where the two Allied armies launched a combined attack on Napoleon's main army.
The engagement of Bar-sur-Aube (24 January 1814) was a rearguard action during the French retreat from their frontiers early in the campaign of 1814, and saw Marshal Mortier hold off an attack by two Allied corps for a day, before being forced to retreat by superior numbers.
The first battle of St. Dizier (28 January 1814) was Napoleon's first battle during the 1814 campaign in France, and saw the French defeat Blucher's rearguard, having moved too slowly to catch Blucher's main army.
General Anne-Charles Lebrun (1775-1859) was a French general who served on Napoleon's staff during most of his campaigns from 1805 until the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
Marshal Emmanuel, marquis de Grouchy (1766-1847) was a very able French cavalry commander, unfairly remembered for his failures at the battle of Waterloo. Before Waterloo he had an impressive career, and he became the last of Napoleon's marshals
General Jacques-Antoine, baron de Chambarlhac de Laubespin (1754-1826) was a French general best known for his performance in Italy under Napoleon.
General Jean-Etienne Championnet (1762-1800) was a French general who fought on the Rhine in 1795-7, conquered the mainland part of the Kingdom of Naples but who fell foul of political intrigue and died while attempting to save the Italian position in Italy in 1799-1800.
General Louis-Albert-Ghislain Bacler d'Albe (1761-1824) was the head of Napoleon's topographical bureau from 1804 and one of his most important staff officers.
Marshal Pierre Riel, marquis de Beurnonville (1752-1821) was an important figure early in the French revolution, fighting in a huge number of battles early in the Revolutionary Wars.
General Jean-Pierre-François, comte Bonnet or Bonet (1768-1857) was a French general who took command at the battle of Salamanca after Marmont was wounded, before being wounded himself an hour later.
General Jean-François Carteaux (1751-1813) was a minor Revolutionary general best known for being Napoleon's commander at Toulon in 1793.
General Louis-André Bon rose from the ranks after the French Revolution, and was on the verge of making his name during Napoleon's expedition to Egypt before he was killed during the failed attack on Acre.
Marshal Jacques Alexander Bernard Law Marquis de Lauriston (1758-1828) was a French general and friend of Napoleon who fought at Marengo, accompanied Villeneuve's fleet during the crossing of the Atlantic, fought at Wagram, during the invasion of Russia and the campaign in Germany in 1813, where he was captured during the retreat from Leipzig.
Marshal Guillaume Marie Anne Brune (1763-1815) served under Napoleon early in the future Emperor's career, and was one of first group of Napoleonic Marshals, despite a fairly unimpressive career.
Admiral Laurent Jean François Truguet (1752-1839) was a French admiral who was suspected of hostility to the Revolution, and argued with Napoleon, but still managed to maintain a career that lasted into the post-Napoleonic period.
Marshal François Christophe de Kellermann, duke of Valmy (1735-1820) was an experienced commander who helped save the young French Revolution from its foreign enemies at the battle of Valmy.
General François Etienne Kellermann (1770-1835) was the son of Marshal Kellermann, the victor of Valmy, and was a very distinguished cavalry general in his own right, playing a major part in the French victory at Marengo.
General Barthelémy Loius Joseph Scherer (1747-1804) was a French general best known for commanding the French army in Italy for three separate spells.
Horace François Bastien Sebastiani (1772-1851) was a French general who fought at Austerlitz, in Spain and during the invasion of Russia, but who is perhaps best know for being surprised on several occasions in Russia.
General Henri Gratian, count Bertrand (1773-1844) was one of the most loyal of Napoleon's followers and served under him in most of his campaigns as well as accompanying him into exile twice and accompanying his remains back to France in 1844.
General Jean Nicolas Stofflet (1751-96) was a leader of the revolt in the Vendée, and was executed after taking up arms for a second time.
Louis Antoine de Bourbon, Duc d'Angoulême (1778-1844) was a member of the French Royal Family who returned to France with the British in 1814, fought against Napoleon's supporters during the 100 Days, and who died in exile after his father Charles X was overthrown.
Antoine Fran François, Count Andréossy (1761-1828) was a French engineer and diplomat who served in Italy and Egypt and as Napoleon's ambassador to Britain, Austria and the Ottoman Empire.
The battle of Friedland (14 June 1807) was the final battle of the War of the Fourth Coalition, and was a major French victory that forced Tsar Alexander to begin peace talks.
The two treaties of Tilsit (7 and 9 July 1807) ended the War of the Fourth Coalition and saw Napoleon impose very different terms on the Russians and Prussians.
The siege of Danzig (18 March-27 May 1807) was the main French activity in the spring of 1807 and saw them capture one of the last strongholds in Prussian hands after the disastrous defeats of Jena and Auerstadt (War of the Fourth Coalition)
The battle of Heilsberg (10 June 1807) saw the Russians defeat a series of French attacks on their fortified camp at Heilsberg, only to retreat when the French threatened to outflank the position.
Marshal Louis-Gabriel Suchet, duc d'Albufera (1770-1826) was one of the most able of Napoleon's marshals when given an independent command, and performed better than any of his contemporaries during the Peninsular War.
General Jacques Gervaise, baron Subervie (1776-1856) was a French general who commanded a division at Waterloo and went on to have a successful political career after the Napoleonic Wars.
General Joseph, Comte Souham (1760-1837) was a French general who fought early in the Revolutionary Wars then fell out of favour, before returning to active service during the Peninsular War, where he briefly commanded the main French army.
General Alexander Antoine Hureau, baron de Senarmont (1769-1810) was a French artillery command best known for his 'artillery charge' at the battle of Friedland.
General Edouard-Jean-Baptists, comte Milhaud (1766-1833) was a French cavalry general best known for commanding a cuirassier corps at Waterloo.
General Anne Jean Marie René Savary, duc de Rovigo (1774-1833) was a French soldier and diplomat, who saw widespread military service under Napoleon, but ended the wars as his chief of police.
The War of the Fourth Coalition (1806-1807) saw Napoleon defeat Prussia at Jena and Auerstädt in 1806, and Russia at Friedland in 1807, and the resulting Peace of Tilsit marked the high point of Napoleon's power.
The Battle of the Berezina (21-29 November 1812) was the last major success for Napoleon's Grande Armée during the invasion of Russia in 1812 and saw the remnants of the army escape from a Russian trap on the Berezina River and continue their march west to relative safety.
Field Marshal Hans Karl Freidrich Anton, count von Diebitsch (1785-1831) was a Prussian officer who served with the Russian army during the Napoleonic Wars and who eventually became chief of the Russian General Staff.
General Louis Baraguey d'Hilliers was a French general best known as a dragoon commander, but who served in a variety of roles from the start of the Revolutionary Wars until his death in Berlin in 1813.
The second battle of Krasnyi (15-18 November 1812) was a series of clashes between the Russians and elements of Napoleon's retreating Grand Armée that ended as a French victory, but that continued the slow destruction of the army
The battle of Fiedovoisky or Viazma (3 November 1812) was the first serious Russian attack on the French column during the disastrous retreat from Moscow.
General Pierre-François-Joseph, comte Durutte (1767-1827) was a French general whose career was harmed by his close association with Moreau, but who went on to perform well from 1809 to Waterloo.
General Mathieu comte Dumas (1753-1837) was a French general who survived the early years of the Revolution and went on to serve Napoleon as quartermaster and Intendant-Général of the Grande Armée, before writing a nineteen volume history of the fighting between 1798 and 1807.
General Jean-Simon baron Domon (1774-1830) was a French cavalry commander who served throughout the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and whose career survived the Bourbon restoration.
General Antoine, comte Drouot (1774-1847) was a French officer who had the rare distinction of having fought at Trafalgar and at the Waterloo, as well as commanding the Artillery of the Imperial Guard in Russia in 1812.
General Jozef Gregorz Chlopicki (1771-1854) was a Polish general who served in the armies of Poland, France and Russia before retiring after the failed Polish uprising of 1830.
General Jan Henryk Dombrowski (1755-1818) was a Polish officer who served under Napoleon in Italy, Poland, Russia and Germany, before briefly taking service under Tsar Alexander in 1815.
Napoleon's Russian Campaign of 1812 was one of the greatest disasters in military history. Napoleon invaded Russia at the head of an army of over 600,000 men but by the start of 1813 only 93,000 of them were still alive and with the army. The retreat from Moscow was one of the defining images of the Napoleonic period, and the disaster in Russia helped convince many of Napoleon's former allies to turn against him, especially in Germany.
General Alexis-Joseph, baron Delzons (1775-1812) was a French general who was killed at the battle of Maloyaroslavets at the start of the disastrous retreat from Moscow.
General Joseph-Marie, comte Dessaix (1764-1834) was a French general who fought throughout the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and who rose to command a division by the end of the wars.
General Jean-Baptiste-Juvenal, comte Corbineau, 1776-1846, was a French general who served extensively during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, but who is best known for a lucky discovery that helped the remnants of the Grande Armée escape across the Berezina.
Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout, duc d'Auerstädt, prince d'Eckmühl (1770-1823) was one of the most capable of Napoleon's marshals, and earned the nickname of the 'Iron Marshal' because of the strict discipline he imposed on his men.
General François Marquis de Chasseloup-Laubat (1754-1833) was one of the most important military engineers of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
General Jean-Dominique, comte Compans (1769-1845) was a French general best known for his performance during the invasion of Russia in 1812.
Jerome Bonaparte was the youngest, least serious, and probably the least able of Napoleon's brothers, but this wouldn't have been a problem if his illustrious brother hadn’t insisted on appointing Jerome to posts that were beyond his abilities.
General Edouard de Colbert, comte de Colbert-Chabanais (1774-1853) was a French cavalry commander who fought under Napoleon from the Egyptian campaign to Waterloo.
The battle of Vinkovo or Tarutino (18 October 1812) was an unsuccessful Russian attack on Murat's cavalry screen south of Moscow that played a part in convincing Napoleon that he would have to abandon Moscow.
The battle of Maloyaroslavets (24 October 1812) was one of the most important battles during Napoleon's invasion of Russia, and disrupted his original plans for the retreat from Moscow.
Alexander I, Tsar of Russia (1777-1825) was one of the most important figures in the eventual defeat of Napoleon. His refusal to negotiation with Napoleon after the fall of Moscow eventually forced the French to begin the disastrous retreat that destroyed the Grand Army and helped encourage Germany to revolt against Napoleon.
Count Aleksey Andreyevich Arakcheyev was a controversial Russian general and minister of war under Alexander I who was responsible for a successful reform of the artillery but who was seen as a negative influence on the Tsar.
General Armand-Augustin Louis, Marquis de Caulaincourt, duc de Vincence, was Napoleon's chief diplomatic aide, serving as the French ambassador to Russia and representing his master in a series of peace negotiations late in the wars.
General Auguste-Jean-Gabriel de Caulaincourt (1777-1812) was the brother of Napoleon's chief diplomatic aide (Armand-Augustin Louis, Marquis de Caulaincourt), and is most famous for his death in battle at Borodino.
Marshal Jean Baptiste Bessières, duc d'Istrie (1768-1813) was one of Napoleon's most loyal and popular subordinates, and spent much of his career serving with the Imperial Guard.
General Augustin-Daniel Belliard (1769-1832) was a French officer who served as a staff officer for most of his career, serving under Murat for long periods.
Alexander Ostermann-Tolstoy (1771-1857) was a Russian general who served in the Russian army throughout the Napoleonic Wars, but who later agued with the Tsar and spent the last years of his life in exile.
Dmitry Petrovich Neverovsky (1771-1813) was a Russian general who distinguished himself during the 1812 campaign, but who was mortally wounded at the battle of Leipzig in 1813.
When Napoleon invaded Russia in the summer of 1812 his aim was to bring the Russians to battle, inflict a decisive defeat, and force them to sue for peace. That battle eventually came at Borodino on 7 September 1812, just to the west of Moscow. Although Napoleon could claim to have won the battle it was far from a decisive victory, and even the occupation of Moscow failed to bring the Russians to the negotiating table.
The battle of Valutino (19 August 1812) was the last chance for a major French success during Napoleon's manoeuvre of Smolensk, but a combination of inactivity by part of the French army and a stubborn Russian rearguard action meant that the opportunity was missed.
The battle of Shevardino (5 September 1812) was a preliminary battle fought two days before the battle of Borodino, and was fought over the possession of an isolated Russian redoubt built to protect the left wing of their original front line.
The first battle of Krasnyi (14 August 1812) was a successful Russian rearguard action that gave the Russians time to rush reinforcements to Smolensk thus preventing the French from gaining any advantage from Napoleon's famous Manoeuvre of Smolensk.
The battle of Smolensk (16-17 August 1812) was the disappointing end to one of Napoleon's most impressive manoeuvres, an outflanking move that promised to bring him the decisive battle he desired but ended with a costly and unsuccessful attack on the walls of Smolensk.
The battle of Vitebsk (28 July 1812) was one of Napoleon's great missed chances during his invasion of Russia of 1812. By delaying his attack for a day he missed an opportunity to fight a major battle against Barclay de Tolly's 1st Western Army and allowed the Russians to slip away.
The action at Inkovo (8 August 1812) was a minor Russian victory during a short-lived Russian offensive that came soon after the main Russian armies had united at Smolensk.
The battle of Mogilev or Mohilev (23 July 1812) was the first significant fighting during Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812 and was a minor French victory that prevented General Bagration's Second Western Army from moving north to join with Barclay de Tolly's First Western Army.
The battle of Ostrovno (25-26 July 1812) was a rearguard action fought between Ostermann-Tolstoy's rearguard of Barclay de Tolly's 1st Western Army and Murat's advance guard of the Grande Armée. The Russians were eventually forced to retreat into Vitebsk, but they held up the French for two days.
General Charles-Antoine-Louse-Alexis, comte Morand (1771-1835) was one of Napoleon’s best divisional commanders, commanding the 1st Division in Davout’s corps during the main battles of 1806-1813.
General Louis-Vincent-Joseph le Blond, comte de Saint-Hilaire (1766-1809) was one of Napoleon’s best divisional commanders and died just after being promised promotion to Marshal.
The combat of Ostrolenka (16 February 1807) was a minor French victory won on the right flank of their long front in Poland, and ended a Russian attempt to push the French back in the south.
The Convention of Schönbrünn (15 December 1805) was an alliance between Prussia and France forced on the Prussians in the aftermath of Napoleon's great victory at Austerlitz.
The combat of Hof (6 February 1807) was a rearguard action fought between the Russian rearguard under Barclay de Tolly and the advancing French during the Russian retreat before the battle of Eylau.
The battle of Eylau (8 February 1807) was the first major setback suffered by Napoleon on the battlefield and was a costly inconclusive battle fought in the snow in East Prussia.
The combat of Mohrungen (25 January 1807) saw Bernadotte's corps defeat part of a Russian army that was attempting to attack the isolated left wing of Napoleon's army in Poland in the winter of 1806-7.
The battle of Jonkowo (3 February 1807) was an inconclusive battle that allowed the Russians to escape from a trap set for them by Napoleon after the Russians attempted to attack the left flank of the French army in Prussia.
Marshal Pierre-François-Charles Augereau (1757-1816) was a successful Revolutionary general and one of Napoleon's best generals in Italy in 1796 but his later military career was undistinguished, and his actions in 1814 and 1815 cost him his reputation and his titles.
The Treaty of Potsdam (3 November 1805) was an agreement between Prussia and Russia in which the Prussians agreed to join the Third Coalition if Napoleon didn't agree to peace terms.
The battle of Pultusk (26 December 1806) was one of two inconclusive battles fought on the same day between French and Russian forces, and was one of the first hints that the Russians might be a difficult opponent for Napoleon.
The battle of Golymin (26 December 1806) was one of two inconclusive battles fought between French and Russian armies in the Prussian partition of Poland on the same night.
The combat of Czarnowo (23 December 1806) saw the French establish a bridgehead on the east bank of the River Ukra, at the point where it flows into the River Bug (War of the Fourth Coalition).
The combat of Biezun (23 December 1806) saw the defeat of a Prussian attempt to recapture Biezun on the Ukra River, a key position that connected the Prussians to their Russian allies.
The battle of Halle (17 October 1806) was a French victory over the intact Prussian reserve army in the aftermath of the battles of Jena and Auerstädt.
The siege of Magdeburg (20 October-11 November 1806) came in the aftermath of the twin French victories at Jena and Auerstädt, and the surrender of the city marked the end of significant Prussian resistance in 1806.
The battle of Saalfeld (10 October 1806) was the first major clash during the War of the Fourth Coalition and saw a French column defeat a smaller Prussian force under Prince Louis Ferdinand
The battle of Jena (14 October 1806) was one of two simultaneous battles won by the French on the same day and saw Napoleon with most of the Grand Armée defeat the Prussian flank guard at Jena while Marshal Davout defeated the main Prussian force further north at Auerstädt.
The battle of Schleiz (9 October 1806) was a minor clash early in the War of the Fourth Coalition and saw the French defeat an isolated detachment on the left of the Prussian army.
The battle of Auerstädt (14 October 1806) was the most important of two simultaneous French victories over the Prussians and saw Marshal Davoût with a single corps defeat the main body of the Prussian army while further south Napoleon with most of the Grand Armée defeated the smaller Prussian flank guard at Jena.
General Charles Etienne Gudin de la Sablonniere (1768-1812) was a French general who played a major part in the French victory at Auerstädt, fought at Eylau, Eckmühl and Wagram and was killed during the French invasion of Russia in 1812.
General Honoré-Théodore-Maxime Gazan, comte de la Peyrière (1765-1845) was a French general who fought in Austria in 1805, Prussia in 1806 and Poland in 1806-7, before being sent to Spain where he remained to the end of the Peninsula War.
General Paul Freiherr Kray von Krajova (1735-1804) was a relatively successful Austrian general who fought in Germany and Italy, but who was removed from command after suffering a series of defeats in Germany in 1800
Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia (1773-1808) was a promising Prussian general who was killed at the battle of Saalfeld in 1806.
Freidrich Tauenzein, Graf von Wittenburg (1760-1824) was a Prussian general who served through the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, fighting at Jena, Grossbeeren and Dennewitz.
General Alexander Mikhailovich Korsakov (or Rimsky-Korsakov), 1753-1840, was a Russian general best known for his defeat at the Second battle of Zurich in September 1799, but who went on to serve as governor of Lithuania for thirty years.
The Grand Duke Constantine (1779-1831) was the younger brother of Tsar Alexander I and was his heir until he chose to marry Johanna Grudzinska, a Polish lady.
The battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805), or the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of Napoleon's most impressive victories and saw him inflict a crushing defeat on an Austro-Russian army, in the process knocking Austrian out of the War of the Third Coalition.
The battle of Durnstein (11 November 1805) saw an isolated French force north of the Danube come close to being destroyed by a much larger Austro-Russian Army, before French reinforcements saved the day.
The combat of Hollabrunn (15-16 November 1805) was a delaying action fought by the Russian that helped prevent Napoleon from trapping Kutuzov's army before it could join up with another Russian army approaching from the north.
The battle of Elchingen (14 October 1805) saw the French fight their way from the south to the north bank of the Danube, making up for a misjudgement on Napoleon's part and also thwarting an Austrian attempt to escape from Ulm.
The combat of Michelberg (16 October 1805) saw the French push the Austrians out of a key position outside Ulm, making the surrender at Ulm of 20 October almost inevitable.
The battle of Amstetten (5 November 1805) was one of a number of rearguard actions fought as General Kutuzov attempted to elude Napoleon in the aftermath of the Austrian surrender at Ulm.
Mikhail Andreas Barclay de Tolly (1761-1818) was a Russian general who played a major part in the defeat of Napoleon in 1812 but whose career suffered because of his 'foreign' origins.
General Levin August Theophil, Count Bennigsen (1745-1826) was a Russian officer of Hanoverian origin who held high command in the campaigns of 1806-7, 1812 and 1813, despite a lack of genuine command ability at the highest levels.
The combat of Wertingen (8 October 1805) was the first significant fighting of the Ulm campaign, and saw part of the French advance guard defeat an Austrian column ten miles to the south of the Danube.
The combat of Gunzburg (9 October 1805) saw a French corps under Marshal Ney capture the bridge over the Danube at Gunzburg, tightening the French noose around Mack's Austrian army at Ulm and also delaying a planned Austrian offensive north of the river.
The battle of Albeck (11 October 1805) saw a badly outnumbered French force hold its own against an Austrian column attempting to escape from Ulm (War of the Third Coalition).
General Freidrich, Freiherr Bianchi, duke of Casalanza (1768-1855) was an Austrian general who fought in the campaign of 1809, at Dresden and Leipzig and who defeated Murat at Tolentino during the Hundred Days.
Ferdinand Bubna Graf von Litic (1768-1826) was an Austrian general who served as adjutant-general for much of the Napoleonic Wars before getting a field command in 1813, fighting at Dresden, Leipzig and in Savoy.
General Peter Bagration (1765-1812) was one of the most popular and aggressive Russian generals of the Napoleonic Wars, best known for his role in the 1812 campaign and his death at Borodino.
General Karl Federovich Baggovut (1761-1812) was a Russian general who fought in the campaigns of 1805-1807 and 1812 and who was killed in battle outside Moscow. His name is also spelt at Baggovout or Bagavut.
Heinrich, Graf Bellegarde, was a capable Austrian general who commanded against the French from 1799 until 1815.
General Johann Peter, Freiherr von Beaulieu (1725-1819) was an Austrian general who was defeated by Napoleon during his first campaign in Italy in 1796.