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The Franco-Austrian War of 1809 was part of the War of the Fifth Coalition, and was Napoleon's last successful military campaign, ending soon after his victory in the massive battle of Wagram in July 1809.
Zacharie Jacques Theodore Allemand (1762-1826) was one of the more capable French naval commanders of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, gaining his reputation in a series of successful raids against British shipping early in the wars.
The combat of Schöngrabern (10 July 1809) was a second successful Austrian rearguard action in two days in the aftermath of their defeat at Wagram, and saw a small force from Reuss's V Corps hold up Massena's troops advancing on the main road towards Znaim
The battle of Znaim (10-11 July 1809) was the last battle on the main front of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809, and was cut short after Napoleon agreed to Austrian offers of an armistice.
The battle of Linz (17 May 1809) was an unsuccessful Austrian attempt to threaten Napoleon's long lines of communication back from Vienna along the Danube, and to prevent French reinforcements from moving west to join Napoleon's main army
The combat of Hollabrunn (9 July 1809) was a successful Austrian rearguard action during their retreat after defeat at Wagram (5-6 July 1809) and saw Klenau's VI Corps hold up the French troops sent to find the retreating Austrian army
The battle of Wagram (5-6 July 1809) was the decisive (if not the final) battle of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 and was a costly French victory that saw Napoleon command a larger army than at any previous battle.
The combat of Laa (9 July 1809) was one of a number of minor clashes between the French and the retreating Austrians in the aftermath of the battle of Wagram, and helped the French identify the main Austrian line of retreat.
Johann, Freiherr von Hiller (1748-1819) was one of the more capable Austrian generals during the Franco-Austrian War of 1809, but his obvious ambition made him unpopular amongst his fellow generals and he missed the decisive battle of Wagram after asking to be relieved from command on grounds of sickness on the day before the battle
Karl Philipp Freiherr von Wrede (1767-1838) was a Bavarian general who fought both for and against Napoleon, fighting at Wagram in 1809 and taking part in both Napoleon's campaign in Russia in 1812 and the Allied invasion of France in 1813-14.
The siege of Vienna of 10-13 May 1809 saw the Austrian capital fall to Napoleon for the second time in four years after a very short attempt to defend the city.
The battle of Aspern-Essling (21-22 May 1809) was the first serious battlefield defeat suffered by Napoleon, and saw the Austrians repel a hasty French attempt to cross the Danube close to Vienna.
The combat of Riedau (1 May 1809) was a minor rearguard action fought during the retreat of the left wing of the main Austrian army after the failure of their invasion of Bavaria
The battle of Ebelsberg (3 May 1809) was a costly French victory that saw them fight their way across the River Thaun during Napoleon's advance into Austria after his victories in Bavaria
Karl Peter Ott Freiherr von Bartokez (1738-1809) was an experienced Hungarian cavalry commander who proved to be a capable general during the fighting in Belgium and Italy during the Wars of the First and Second Coalitions
Dominique Vandamme (1770-1830) was one of Napoleon's more capable generals, rising to command corps from 1809 until the final end of the wars in 1815.
The battle of Ratisbon or Regensburg (23 April 1809) was the final major battle in the initial Bavarian phase of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 (Fifth Coalition), and saw the French push the Austrians out of their last foot hold on the southern bank of the Danube.
The combat of Salzburg, 29 April 1809, saw a small force of Napoleon's Bavarian allies capture the Austrian city of Salzburg, although they failed to intercept an Austrian column retreating from Munich (Franco-Austrian War of 1809)
The battle of Landshut (21 April 1809) saw the French force their way across the River Isar, completing the defeat of the left wing of the Austrian army that began on the previous day at Abensberg
The battle of Neumarkt (24 April 1809) was a rare French defeat during the Bavarian stage of the Franco-Austrian war of 1809 and saw the retreating Austrian left wing defeat Marshal Bessières' smaller pursuing column.
The combat of Pfaffenhoffen (19 April 1809) was a minor clash between the left wing of the Austrian army invading Bavaria at the start of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 and elements of Marshal Oudinet's corps, advancing east on the right wing of the French army
The battle of Abensberg (20 April 1809) was the first stage in Napoleon's counter-attack against the Austrian army invading Bavaria at the start of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809, and saw him split the main Austrian army in half, forcing it to retreat to separate directions
The battle of Teugn-Hausen (19 April 1809) was the first large scale battle during the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 (Fifth Coalition) and saw the main Austrian army under Archduke Charles fail to take a chance to trap Marshal Davout's isolated 3rd Corps
The combat of Arnhofen (19 April 1809) was a Bavarian victory over an Austrian brigade guarding the left flank of the main Austrian army during its invasion of Bavaria at the start of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809
The engagement at Landshut of 16 April 1809 was one of the few Austrian successes during their invasion of Bavaria at the start of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 (War of the Fifth Coalition)
The engagement on the Regen or of Reinhausen of 17 April 1809 was a minor skirmish found on the north bank of the Danube opposite Regensburg that saw part of the Austrian advance guard clash with elements of Marshal Davout's isolated 3rd Corps
The combat of Mt. Kita (16 May 1809) was the first of a series of French victories that broke the deadlock on the Dalmatian Front during the War of the Fifth Coalition
The combat of Gracac (17 May 1809) was a battle between Austrian and French troops on the Dalmatia-Croatia border that ended in a draw, but that did not prevent the Austrians from having to withdraw further into Croatia
The combat of Gospic (21-22 May 1809) was hard fought clash between the Austrians and French on the border between Croatia and Dalmatia that ended in a draw but that forced the Austrians to retreat to the north.
The combat of Zutalovka (25 May 1809) was a clash between a retreating Austrian army from Croatia and the pursuing French Army of Dalmatia
The combat of Papa (12 June 1809) was a rearguard action fought during Archduke John of Austria's retreat towards the Danube after the failure of his invasion of Italy
The battle of Raab (14 June 1809) was a victory won by the French Army of Italy over an Austrian army in Western Hungary, preventing that army from reinforcing the main Austrian army in the days before the battle of Wagram.
The combat of Tarvisio (18 May 1809) was minor victory during the French advance after their victory over an Austrian army led by Archduke John on the Piave River on 8 May.
The combat near Laybach of 22 May 1809 was an almost bloodless victory for the French that ended with the surrender of a large Austrian force near Laybach (modern Ljubljana)
The battle of St. Michael (25 May 1809) was a disastrous Austrian defeat that saw an entire division destroyed, dramatically reducing their ability to defend against a French invasion from Italy
The combat of Ospedaletto (11 April 1809) was the first significant fighting during the War of the Fifth Coalition, and saw the Austrians under Archduke John push back part of the French Army of Italy during the early stages of their invasion of Italy
The battle of Sacile (16 April 1809) was the first major battle during the War of the Fifth Coalition, and was an Austrian victory that might have caused the French serious problems in Italy if events on the Danube had not forced the Austrians to pull their army back.
The battle of the Piave (8 May 1809) was a French victory that effectively forced the Austrians to retreat from Italy, making up for the earlier French defeat at Sacile
The Marengo campaign (May-14 June 1800) was a crucial moment in Napoleon's career, helping to secure his position as First Consul, and to restore his earlier conquests in Italy
The combat of Turbigo (31 May 1800) was a French victory that cleared the way for Napoleon to enter Milan and split the Austrian armies in northern Italy in two
The battle of Casteggio-Montebello (9 June 1800) was a hard fought French victory that came as the main French and Austrian armies in Piedmont were closing in on each other in the build-up to the battle of Marengo
The combat of Marengo (13 June 1800) was a minor French victory on the evening before the battle of Marengo that badly disrupted the Austrian plans for the following day by giving the French command of a crucial bridge in the village of Marengo.
The battle of Marengo (14 June 1800) was a major French victory that helped to secure Napoleon's power as First Consul as well as expelling the Austrians from most of Italy
The combat of Châtillon (18 May 1800) was a French victory early in the campaign that ended at Marengo
The siege of Fort Bard (21 May-2 June 1800) saw a small Austrian garrison hold up the passage of Napoleon's artillery during the French advance into Italy at the start of the campaign that ended at Marengo.
The combat of Ivrea (24 May 1800) was a French victory during Napoleon's advance into Italy early in the campaign that ended at Marengo.
The battle of Romano-Chiusella (26 May 1800) was a French victory that saw their advance guard under Lannes force the Austrians to retreat from the Chiusella River back towards Turin, and that helped convince the Austrian commanders that Napoleon was heading south towards Genoa
The combats on the Var of 13-28 May 1800 marked the high point of Austrian success during the fighting in Italy in 1800, and saw an Austrian force under Melas and Elsnitz attempt to destroy Suchet's left wing of the French Army of Italy.
The combat of Breglio (1-2 June 1800) was a minor French victory (Suchet) that forced the Austrians (Elsnitz) to retreat from the Col de Tende, his best line of retreat from France into Italy.
The combat of Forcoin (3 June 1800) was a minor French victory during the fighting in the maritime Alps in 1800 that saw the Austrians forced out of a position in the mountains east of the Roya River.
The combat of Bormida (20 April 1800) saw the failure of an attempt by General Suchet to regain contact with the main body of the French Army of Italy around Genoa.
The combat of Borghetto (2 May 1800) was an Austrian victory that saw them force Suchet and the left wing of the Army of Italy to retreat further away from contact with the rest of the army at Genoa.
The combat of Oneglia (7 May 1800) was one of a series of minor Austrian victories that forced the left wing of the French Army of Italy under General Suchet to abandon their last positions on the Italian Riviera and retreat behind the Var River
The combat of the Col de Tende (6 or 7 May 1800) was an Austrian victory that forced the French to abandon a defensive position in the pass that marks the border between the Maritime and Ligurian Alps and retreat back towards Nice.
The combat of Mondovi (28 September 1799) was a French defeat during General Championnet's attempts to protect Cuneo, the last important French possession in Italy after the disastrous campaign of 1799
The combat of Bracco (13 October 1799) was a French attempt to push the Austrians further away from Genoa that achieved some short-term success.
The combat of Beinette (14 October 1799) was one of a minor actions fought around Cuneo as the French under Championnet attempted to stop the Austrians attacking the city, which was their last stronghold on the northern Italian plains.
The combat of Bosco (24 October 1799) was a rare French success during the fighting in Italy in 1799, and saw the French push the Austrians back towards Alessandria from their original positions around Novi
The battle of Genola (4 November 1799) was a final major French defeat in Italy in 1799 which forced them to pull back into the Alps and Apennines, and left the Austrians in command of the northern Italian plains
The combat of Novi (6 November 1799) was a minor French victory that saw them defeat an Austrian attempt to push them out of a position at Novi, on the northern edge of the Apennines.
The siege of Cuneo (18 November-4 December 1799) saw the Austrians capture the last French stronghold on the northern Italian plains at the end of a year that has seen the French position in Italy collapse
The battle of Novi (15 August 1799) was a major French defeat in Italy that saw an Austro-Russian army under Marshal Suvorov defeat the combined French armies in Italy
The combat of Pignerolo (15 September 1799) was one of a series of minor actions fought as the French Armies of the Alps and of Italy attempted to unite in the aftermath of the French defeat at Novi on 15 August.
The combat of Rivoli (15 September 1799) was one of a series of minor actions fought as the French Armies of the Alps and of Italy attempted to unite in the aftermath of the French defeat at Novi on 15 August
The combats of Fossano and Savigliano (17 September 1799) were two Austrian victories that stopped an attempt by General Championnet to combine his newly united Armies of the Alps and of Italy
The battle of Alessandria or Cassina-Grossa (20 June 1799) was a rare French victory in Italy during the campaign of 1799, but one that came too late to prevent the Austro-Russian army of Marshal Suvarov from defeating a second French army at the battle of the Trebbia (17-19 June 1799)
The combat of San Giorgio (20 June 1799) was a rear-guard action during the French retreat after their defeat at the battle of the Trebbia (17-19 June 1799).
The combat of Sassuolo (23 June 1799) was a second French rearguard action (after the combat of San-Giorgio of 20 June) fought after the French defeat on the Trebbia on 17-19 June.
The siege of Bellegarde of 6 May-17 September 1794 saw the French recapture this important border fortification in the eastern Pyrenees over a year after it had fallen to the Spanish.
The sieges of Collioure, Saint-Elme and Port-Ventres of 6-29 May 1794 saw the French eliminate the last major Spanish foothold across the eastern Pyrenees at the end of the first year of the War of the Convention.
The battle of San Lorenzo (13 August 1794) was an unsuccessful Spanish attempt to lift the French siege of the important border fortress of Bellegarde.
The battle of Figueras (17-20 November 1794) was the decisive battle in the eastern Pyrenees during the War of the Convention and saw the French smash a Spanish army that was defending the Lines of Figueras, exposing Catalonia to invasion.
The combat of the bridge of Ceret (26 November 1793) was a Spanish victory on the Eastern Pyrenees front during the War of the Convention that prevented the French from taking advantage of a winter storm that had swept away all but one bridge across the River Tech.
The combat of Collioure (21 December 1793) was a Spanish victory that saw them capture a series of small ports on the French coast and convinced the French army of the Eastern Pyrenees to retreat into winter quarters around Perpignan.
The battle of Le Boulou (30 April-1 May 1794) was a French victory in the eastern Pyrenees that forced the Spanish to retreat back across the border a year after they had first crossed into France.
The combat of Mont Louis (5 September 1793) was a minor French victory during the War of the Convention that prevented a small French army under General Dagobert from being trapped in the mountains and distracted Spanish attention from the more important fighting around Perpignan.
The combat of Peyrestortes (17 September 1793) was a French victory that ended a short-lived blockade of Perpignan in the early phases of the War of the Convention.
The battle of Truillas (22 September 1793) was a major Spanish victory in the eastern Pyrenees that saw them defeat a French attempt to drive them away from Perpignan and back towards the mountains.
The combat of Espolla, 27 October 1793, was a Spanish victory that ended a poorly conceived French attempt to capture the port of Roses early in the War of the Convention.
The Rhine and German fronts saw as much fighting as any other during the War of the First Coalition, but they get far less attention than the fighting in the Austrian Netherlands or in Italy.
The battle of Neuwied (18 April 1797) was the only significant fighting during General Hoche's brief time in charge of the Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse, and saw him fight his way out of the French-held bridgehead at Neuwied and force the Austrians to abandon their positions north of the River Lahn.
The battle of Diersheim (20-21 April 1797) was a major French victory won by General Moreau on the Upper Rhine that came two days after Napoleon had successfully negotiated the Preliminary Peace of Leoben, which ended hostilities between France and the Austrian Empire.
The affair of Gruningen of 21 April 1797 was a minor incident during the Austrian retreat after their defeat at Neuwied on 18 April that is remembered because during it General Ney was captured by the Austrians.
The combat of Mas-d'Ru (19 May 1793) was an early Spanish victory during the War of the Convention that saw them defeat a French force that was attempting to defend a position seven miles to the south-west of Perpignan.
The siege of Bellegarde (May-25 June 1793) was an early Spanish success during the War of the Convention which saw them capture the important French border fortress of Bellegarde, on the main road across the eastern Pyrenees from Catalonia to Perpignan.
The battle of Perpignan (17 July 1793) was the first significant Spanish failure during their campaign at the eastern end of the Pyrenees during the War of the Convention.
The combat of Giessen (16 September 1796) was a diversionary Austrian attack on the left wing of the French position on the Lahn that helped the Archduke Charles fight his way across that river further to the west, at Limburg.
The combat of Limburg (16 September 1796) was an indecisive clash between the Archduke Charles of Austrian and the French right wing on the Lahn under General Marceau. Although Marceau prevented the Archduke from crossing the Lahn, on the night after the battle General Castelvert, on his right, abandoned his position and Marceau was forced to retreat.
The second battle of Altenkirchen (19 September 1796) was actually the final act in a three day long rearguard action in which General Marceau made sure that the Archduke Charles of Austria was unable to interfere with the retreat of General Jourdan and the Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse from the River Lahn to Altenkirchen.
Lazare Carnot (1753-1832) was the French politician and general most responsible for the creation of the armies that saved the infant French Republic, won the War of the First Coalition and that were used to great effect by Napoleon.
Jacques-Philippe Bonnaud (1757-1796) was a French general of the War of the First Coalition who served with the Army of the North and the Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse, before dying of wounds suffered at the combat of Giessen.
The battle of Amberg (24 August 1796) was a chance for a major Austrian victory that saw the Archduke Charles miss a chance to destroy General Jourdan's Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse.
The combat of Burgebrach (29 August 1796) was a minor engagement during General Jourdan's retreat from Amberg that ended as an Austrian victory, but that also helped Jourdan reach relative safety at Schweinfurt
The battle of Würzburg (3 September 1796) was the biggest victory won by the Archduke Charles in his successful campaign against the French invasion of Germany in 1796, and prevented General Jourdan from making a stand at any significant distance to the east of the Rhine.
The Battle of Adwa (also called Adowa and Adua) was fought over two days (1st / 2nd March 1896) between Ethiopian forces under Emperor Menelik II and invading Italian forces, and was the deciding battle in the First Italo-Ethiopian war and a turning point in modern African history with a European Colonial power being defeated and Ethiopia being recognised as a sovereign nation state by the European powers
The combat of Forchheim (7 August 1796) was a victory won by General Kléber during his brief period in command of the Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse that forced the Austrian army of General Wartensleben to abandon its position around Forchheim on the River Rednitz and retreat south to Nuremburg.
The combat of Neukirchen (17 August 1796) was an unnecessarily costly clash between General Nay's advance guard and a strong Austrian force that was one of the last French successes during General Jourdan's invasion of Germany in the summer of 1796.
The combat of Augsberg (17 August 1796) was a costly skirmish fought between the advance guard of Championnet's division and a strong Austrian force posted at Augsberg, a small village five miles to the south of what was then the main road between Nuremburg and Amberg.
The combat of Wolfring (20 August 1796) was the last French success during General Jourdan's second invasion of Germany in 1796.The combat of Deining (22 August 1796) was the first of two delaying actions fought by General Bernadotte which gave General Jourdan and the Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse a chance to escape from a dangerous position on the River Naab.
The combat of Neumarkt (23 August 1796) was the second of two delaying actions fought by General Bernadotte which gave General Jourdan and the Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse a chance to escape from a dangerous position on the River Naab.
The combat of Wilnsdorf (4 July 1796) was a minor French victory that came shortly after General Jourdan's second crossing of the Rhine in the summer of 1796.
The combat of Offheim (7 July 1796) was a French victory during General Moreau's advance from his bridgehead over the Rhine at Neuwied up to the line of the Lahn.
The combat of Ober-Mörlen (9 July 1796) was a minor French victory during General Jourdan's advance from the Lahn to the Main early in his second campaign in Germany in 1796.
The battle of Freidberg (10 July 1796) was a French victory won fifteen miles to the north of Frankfurt on Main that forced the Austrians to abandon their last positions north of the Nidda and the Main and retreat to Offenbach, on the south bank of the Main.
The combat of Bamberg (4 August 1796) was a rearguard action fought during General Wartensleben's retreat along the Main during General Jourdan's second invasion of Germany in 1796.
The battle of Emmendingen (19 October 1796) was an Austrian victory that removed any chance that General Moreau's Army of the Rhine-and-Moselle might have been able to retain a foothold on the eastern bank of the Rhine at the end of his retreat from southern Germany.
The battle of Schliengen (24 October 1796) was a generally successful French rearguard action that allowed General Moreau to retreat safely across the Rhine at Huningue.
The siege of Huningue (26 October 1796-5 February 1797) saw the Austrians eliminate the last French foothold on the east bank of the Upper Rhine in the aftermath of the unsuccessful French invasions of Germany in 1796.
The siege of Kehl (28 October 1796-10 January 1797) saw a sizable French garrison defend a strongly fortified camp on the east bank of the Rhine opposite Strasbourg for three months before the camp was evacuated after prolonged Austrian attacks.
The combat of Kamlach or Mindelheim, 13 August 1796, was a minor victory for the extreme right wing of General Moreau's army during his advance into southern Germany in the summer of 1796.
The battle of Friedberg (24 August 1796) was one of the last major successes during General Moreau's campaign in southern Germany in the summer of 1796, and forced the Austrians under General Latour to abandon the line of the River Lech.
The combat of Langenbruck (1 September 1796) was an unsuccessful Austrian counterattack that came close to the end of General Moreau's successful advance into southern Germany in the summer of 1796.
The combat of Zell (14 September 1796) saw the defeat of a poorly planned Austrian attack on General Moreau's army of the Rhine-and-Moselle just before the start of his retreat across southern Germany in the autumn of 1796.
The combat of Schussenreid (30 September 1796) was a small scale rearguard action fought during General Moreau's retreat from southern Germany after the failure of the French offensive across the Rhine in the summer of 1796.
The battle of Biberach (2 October 1796) was a French victory that resulted from a daring decision by General Moreau to launch a counterattack against an Austrian army that was following him on his retreat from Bavaria in the autumn of 1796.
The battle of Rastatt (5 July 1796) was a minor French victory during General Moreau's invasion of Germany in the summer of 1796.
The battle of Ettlingen (9 July 1796) was an early French victory during General Moreau's campaign in southern Germany that convinced the Archduke Charles to make a fighting retreat towards the Danube
The combat of Haslach (14 July 1796) was a French victory that pushed the Austrians out of most of their remaining positions in the southern Black Forest in the early stages of General Moreau's invasion of southern Germany.
The combat of Canstadt (21 July 1796) was a minor French victory that forced the Archduke Charles to abandon his position on the Necker and continue his retreat towards the Danube.
The battle of Neresheim (11 August 1796) was a French victory that was the result of a rare error of judgement made by the Archduke Charles during his otherwise victorious campaign in Germany in 1796.
The combat of Siegburg (1 June 1796) was the first move in the French offensive across the Rhine that was meant to be their main campaign of 1796.
The first battle of Altenkirchen (4 June 1796) an early success during the French invasion of Germany in the summer of 1796, and saw General Kléber force the Austrians to abandon their positions around Altenkirchen and retreat to the Lahn
The battle of Wetzlar (15-16 June 1796) was the first victory won by the Archduke Charles during his successful campaign in Germany in 1796, and forced General Jourdan and the Army of the Sambre-and-Meuse to retreat back across the Rhine.
The combat of Uckerath (19 June 1796) was a hard-fought but unnecessary rear guard action fought by General Kléber during the French retreat after their defeat at Wetzler
The combat of Renchen (26 June 1796) was a minor French victory that helped expand General Moreau's bridgehead across the Rhine in the early stages of his invasion of Germany.
Jean-Charles Pichegru (1761-1804) was a French general of humble origins who rose to high rank in the armies of the French Republic but who then turned against the Revolution, became a Royalist counter-revolutionary and died after attempting to overthrow Napoleon
The battle of Höchst (11 October 1795) was a manoeuvre battle that forced General Jourdan to abandon his invasion of Germany and retreat back across the Rhine.
The siege of Mannheim of 10 October-22 November 1795 was a result of the failure of the French offensive across the Rhine in the autumn of 1795.
The combat of the Pfrim (10 November 1795) was an Austrian victory that forced General Pichegru to fall back to his last defensive postion north of Mannheim.
The combat of Kreutznach (10 November 1795) was the second of two combats fought in a single day by General Marceau in an attempt to lift the pressure on the isolated Army of the Moselle and the Rhine in the aftermath of the Austrian breakout from Mainz.
The combat of Stromberg (10 November 1795) was a diversionary action fought in the aftermath of the failure of the French invasion of Germany in the autumn of 1795.
The combat of Frankenthal (13-14 November 1795) was an Austrian victory that forced General Pichegru to abandon his last defensive position north of Mannheim and that led to the fall of the city.
The battle of Kaiserslautern (23 May 1794) was the only Prussian contribution to the Allied campaign of 1794, and was a minor victory that saw them push their front line from the Rhine at Mannheim to Kaiserslautern and the northern end of the Vosges.
The combat of Platzberg and Trippstadt (13-14 July 1794) was a minor French victory in the northern end of the Vosges close to Kaiserslautern.
The combat of Heidelberg (25 September 1795) was an Austrian victory that ended any chance that the French could take advantage of the unexpected surrender of Mannheim five days earlier.
The battle of Pirmasens (14 September 1793) was a costly defeat for the French on the west bank of the Rhine in the aftermath of the fall of Mainz.
The storm of the lines of Wissembourg (12-13 October 1793) was an Allied victory on the Rhine front late in 1793 that briefly threatened the entire French position in Alsace.
The battle of Kaiserslautern (28-30 November 1793) was a poorly handled French attack on the Prussian army of the Duke of Brunswick that was an inauspicious start to the career of Lazare Hoche as commander of the French Army of the Moselle.
The battle of Froeschwiller (18-22 December 1793) was the first victory won by General Lazare Hoche in his role as Commander of the Army of the Moselle in the autumn of 1793.
The battle of The Geisberg or Wissembourg (26 December 1793) was a French victory that forced the Austrians and Prussians to abandon their last foothold in Alsace.
Joseph Alvinczy, Freiherr von Berberek (1735-1810) was a successful Austrian commander who is rather unfairly best known for his two failures to lift the siege of Mantua in 1796-97.
Peter Vitus Freiherr von Quosdanovich (1738-1802) was an experienced Austrian general who is best known for his part in the four unsuccessful Austrian attempts to raise the siege of Mantua in 1796-97.
Philipp Freiherr von Vukassovich (1755-1809) was an Austrian general of Croat birth who rose to high rank as a result of his performance during the campaigns in Italy in 1796-7 and 1799. He fell from grace in 1805 but was recalled in 1809 and died leading his brigade at the battle of Wagram
Dagobert Sigismund Graf Würmser (1724-1797) was an Alsatian officer who spent most of his military career in Austrian service, eventually rising to the rank of Field Marshal. He is best known for his two failures to raise Napoleon's siege of Mantua in 1796-97 but before that he had been successful against the French on the Rhine.
The battle of Verona (26 March 1799) was the first battle of the War of the Second Coalition in Italy, and saw the Austrians repel a French attack on Verona
The battle of Magnano (5 April 1799) was a French defeat early in the War of the Second Coalition that ended any chance of their expelling the Austrians from northern Italy before Russian reinforcements could reach the area.
The battle of Cassano (27 April 1799) was an Austro-Russian victory outside Milan that saw them force their way across the River Adda, making the fall of the city inevitable.
The battle of the Trebbia (17-19 July 1799) was a major Allied victory over the French Army of Rome that further weakened an already poor French position in Italy at the start of the War of the Second Coalition.
Napoleon Bonaparte's fame as a military commander can be dated back to his campaign in Italy in 1796-97, where as the young and relatively unknown commander of a ragged and poorly supported army he managed to defeat a series of much larger Austrian and allied armies, conquer most of northern Italy, and force the Austrians to the negotiating table.
The battle of Rivoli (14 January 1797) was the most comprehensive of Napoleon's victories in Italy during his campaign of 1796-97. At the end of the pursuit that followed the victory the French had captured more than half of an Austrian army of 28,000, despite being significantly outnumbered at the start of the campaign.
The battle of La Favorita (16 January 1797) was a French victory that ended the fourth and final Austrian attempt to lift the siege of Mantua.
The Peace of Bologna (23 June 1796) ended Napoleon's first invasion of the Papal States, carried out to satisfy the French Directory.
The Peace of Tolentino (19 February 1797) ended the second of Napoleon's invasions of the Papal States during his first campaign in Italy.
The battle of Caldiero (12 November 1796) was a rare French defeat during Napoleons' campaign in Italy in 1796-97, and saw an Austrian army under Field Marshal Joseph Alvinczy repel a French attempt to push them back from the approaches to Verona during the third Austrian attempt to lift the siege of Mantua.
The battle of Arcola (15-17 November 1796) was the decisive battle during Napoleon's defeat of the third Austrian attempt to raise the siege of Mantua, and saw Napoleon extricate himself from a very dangerous position.
The siege of Mantua (4 June-30 July 1796 and 24 August 1796-2 February 1797) was the focal point of the third phase of Napoleon's campaign in Italy in 1796-97. During the eight month long siege the Austrians made four separate attempts to relief Mantua, each of which ended in failure
The battle of Castiglione (5 August 1796) was a French victory that effectively ended the first Austrian attempt to lift the siege of Mantua, and was an early example of a battle in which Napoleon brought several different columns together on the same battlefield.
The battle of Rovereto (4 September 1796) was a series of scattered engagements between Napoleon's army advancing up the Adige valley on its way to join the Army of the Rhine on the Danube and an Austrian force under Field Marshal Davidovich that was defending the area around Trento.
The battle of Calliano (5 September 1796) was the second of a series of clashes between Napoleon's army advancing along the Adige valley towards Germany and an Austrian covering force under Field Marshal Davidovich that was defending the area around Trento.
The engagement at Lavis (6 September 1796) was a minor clash between one of Napoleon's divisions under General Henri Vaubois and an Austrian army under Field Marshal Davidovich that had been defending the Adige valley.
The battle of Primolano (7 September 1796) was a minor French victory in the valley of the Brenta valley that was the first stage in the defeat of Field Marshal Würmser's second attempt to raise the siege of Mantua.
The battle of Bassano (8 September 1796) was a French victory won at the point where the River Brenta emerged from its mountain valley onto the plains north-west of Venice, and which ended the second Austrian attempt to lift the siege of Mantua.
The battle of San Giorgio (14-15 September 1796) was the disastrous end to the second Austrian attempt to raise the siege of Mantua.
The battle of Fombio (7-9 May 1796) was a small scale engagement fought as Napoleon's army crossed the River Po.
The battle of Borgetto (30 May 1796) was the final French victory in the second stage of Napoleon's campaign in Italy in 1796-97, and forced the Austrian army of Field Marshal Jean-Pierre Freiherr Beaulieu to retreat into the Tyrol, temporarily abandoning most of northern Italy to the French
The first battle of Lonato (31 July 1796) was an early setback during the first Austrian attempt to lift Napoleon's siege of Mantua.
The second battle of Lonato (3 August 1796) saw the final defeat of one of the three Austrian columns attempting to lift Napoleon's siege of Mantua.
Marshal Jean Mathiue Philibert Sérurier (1742-1819) was an aristocratic general and survivor of the ancien regime who supported the French Revolution (and survived the experience), before playing an important part in both Napoleon's first victorious campaign in Italy in 1796-7 and his rise to power in 1799.
Amédée Emmanuel François Leharpe was a Swiss émigré who fought in the French Army of Italy at the start of Napoleon's campaign in Italy in 1796-7.
Jean Joseph Guieu (1758-1817) was a French general who played a part in Napoleon's first successful campaign in Italy in 1796-7.
The battle of Lodi (10 May 1796) was a key moment in the career of Napoleon Bonaparte, and a victory that he would later state convinced him that he could achieve great things.
The battle of Ceva (16 April 1796) was a rare setback for Napoleon during the first stage of his campaign in Italy in 1796.
The battle of Mondovi (19-21 April 1796) was a French victory that saw Napoleon's Army of Italy break out of the Apennines onto the plains of Piedmont, and that convinced King Victor Amadeus to seek peace
The Armistice of Cherasco (28 April 1796) was Napoleon Bonaparte's first diplomatic success, and saw Piedmont leave the First Coalition.
Michael Freiherr von Colli-Marchini (1738-1808) was an Austrian general best known for his unsuccessful period in command of the army of Sardinia (Piedmont) during Napoleon's first campaign in Italy in 1796.
Barthélemy Catherine Joubert (1769-1799) was one of the most successful French generals during the Wars of the French Revolution, and a good example of someone who rose more rapidly through the ranks than would have been possible before the revolution.
The battle of Montenotte (11-12 April 1796) was the first of a series of remarkable victories in northern Italy that firmly established Napoleon Bonaparte as one of the most important figures in revolutionary France.
The battle of Millesimo (13-14 April 1796) was a minor French victory during Napoleon Bonaparte's first campaign in Italy in the spring of 1796, and saw a French force under General Augereau eventually overcome Piedmontese resistance at Millesimo and Cosseria.
The two day long battle of Dego (14-15 April 1796) was the decisive moment in the first stage of Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in Italy in 1796.
Adam Philippe, comte de Custine (1704-1793) was one of a number of early French commanders during the War of the First Coalition to be executed for treason as a result of military failures.
Jean Nicholas Houchard was one of a series of French generals who were executed for their military failures during the Revolutionary terror, in his case despite having recently successfully raised the siege of Dunkirk.
The siege of Nieuport (4-18 July 1794) was one of the more controversial events during the Allied retreat from Belgium into the Netherlands after the French victory at Fleurus (26 June)
The siege of Sluys (or L'Ecluse) of 28 July-25 August 1794 was an early step in the French conquest of the Netherlands in the aftermath of the collapse of the Allied position in Belgium (War of the First Coalition).
The battle of Boxtel (14-15 September 1794) was a minor incident during the Allied retreat from Belgium after the battle of Fleurus that is chiefly remembered for being the first time Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington, came under fire.
Franz Sebastian de Croix, Graf von Clerfayt (1733-98) was a senior Austrian general in the early years of the War of the First Coalition, and fought through the entire campaign in the Austrian Netherlands in 1792-94, before defeating a French offensive across the Rhine in 1795.
The battle of the Ourthe (18 September 1794) was the first of two battles that forced the Austrians to abandon their last foothold in the Austrian Netherlands and retreat behind the Rhine.
The battle of the Roer (2 October 1794) was the second of two battles that forced the Austrians to abandon their last foothold in the Austrian Netherlands and retreat to the line of the Rhine.
The siege of Maastricht of 19 September-4 November 1794 saw the French capture one of the last Austrian-held strongholds close to the Austrian Netherlands, completing the French conquest of the area.
The three sieges of Charleroi between 30 May and 25 June 1794 were at the heart of the French offensive on the Sambre in the summer of 1794, and the defeat of an Allied relief army at Fleurus on 26 June was the decisive moment of the entire two year long campaign in the Austrian Netherlands.
The battle of Fleurus (26 June 1794) was the decisive battle in the two year long campaign in the Austrian Netherlands between the forces of revolutionary France and the powers of the First Coalition.
The battle of Willems (10 May 1794) was an unsuccessful French attempt to continue their offensive in western Flanders, which had begun successfully with the capture of Menin and a victory over the Austrians at Mouscron (29 April).
The battle of Courtrai (11 May 1794) was a minor French victory over the Austrian army in western Flanders that forced the main Allied army to move west in an attempt to restore the situation, and thus led directly to the French victory at Tourcoing (17-18 May).
The battle of Tourcoing (17-18 May 1794) saw the failure of an over elaborate Allied plan designed by General Mack to annihilate the French Armée-du-Nord.
The battle of Tournai (22 May 1794) was an unsuccessful French attempt to take advantage of their victory at Tourcoing on 17-18 May.
The siege of Maubeuge (mid September-17 October 1793) ended a series of Allied successes against the French border fortifications, and was raised by the great French victory at Wattignies on 15-16 October which demonstrated that the new revolutionary armies were becoming increasingly capable.
The battle of Wattignies (15-16 October 1793) was a French victory that forced the Allies to lift the siege of Maubeuge, and removed the threat of an immediate Allied invasion of France.
The siege of Landrecies (17-30 April 1794) was the first Allied operation of 1794 in northern France (War of the First Coalition). Although the siege was successful, it did nothing to advance the Allied cause, which was soon threatened by a powerful French offensive further west in maritime Flanders
The battle of Villers-en-Cauchies (24 April 1794) saw a small force of Austrian and British cavalry break up a much larger French force that was moving into a position from where it could threaten the Allied army besieging Landrecies (War of the First Coalition).
The battle of Landrecies or Beaumont-en-Cambresis (26 April 1794) saw the defeat of a major French attempt to lift the siege of Landrecies, the first Allied offensive action on the Flanders front in 1794 (War of the First Coalition).
The siege of Menin (27-30 April 1794) was an early French victory during their campaign in maritime Flanders in the spring of 1794.
The battle of Mouscron (29 April 1794) was the first significant French victory during their attack into western Belgium at the start of 1794, the campaign that would eventually expel the Allies from the former Austrian Netherlands.
The siege of Quesnoy (19 August-11 September 1793) was the last of a series of successful Allied sieges on the northern border of France in the summer of 1793 that saw the French lose control of a number of key border fortifications, but at the same time gave them the time to raise new mass armies, and which did little to advance the Allied cause
The battle of Avesnes-le-Sec (12 September 1793) saw a sizable French infantry column virtually destroyed by an Austrian cavalry attack, and demonstrated that the new conscripted French infantry could still be vulnerable.
The battle of Menin of 15 September 1793 was an Austrian victory over the French army of General Houchard that helped to restore the Allied position in Belgium after the French victories at Hondschoote (6-8 September 1793) and two days earlier over the same ground at Menin (13 September 1793).
The siege of Nieuport (22-29 October 1793) was an unsuccessful French attempt to capture the channel ports being used by the British Army in Belgium in 1793, and came in the aftermath of the French victory at Wattignies on 15-16 October
The battle of Famars or Valenciennes, 23 May 1793, was an Allied victory on the borders of France which prepared the way for the siege of Valenciennes.
The siege of Valenciennes of 24 May-28 July 1793 was one of the last Allied successes in the campaign on the borders of France during the summer of 1793, but the slow pace of the siege gave the French time to recover from the disasters of the spring, and the year ended with a series of French victories.
The siege of Dunkirk (23 August-8 September 1793) was a British failure that demonstrated the poor condition of the British army at the start of the War of the First Coalition, and marked the beginning of a period of French success in Belgium and northern France
The battle of Hondschoote (8 September 1793) was a victory for the new mass armies of the French Republic, and forced an Allied army under the Duke of York to abandon the siege of Dunkirk.
The battle of Menin (13 September 1793) was a second victory in five days for the French army of General Houchard, and saw the French defeat the Dutch army under William V, prince of Orange, briefly knocking them out of the war.
Auguste Marie Henri Picot, comte de Dampierre, was one of the more successful aristocratic generals of the French Revolutionary Wars, combining military ability with a dedication to the revolution.
The siege of Condé of April-10 July 1793 was part of an overly cautious Allied campaign on the borders of France in the spring and summer of 1793 that gave the French a chance to recover from the disasters that had befallen their armies earlier in the spring
The battle of Condé or St. Amand, 8 May 1793, was an unsuccessful French attempt to lift the Allied siege of Condé-sur-l'Escaut, and ended with the death of the French commander, General Auguste Picot, comte de Dampierre.
The siege of Mainz of 19-21 October 1792 was the first of three sieges of the city in as many years, and saw the French win an easy victory during their first Rhineland campaign in 1792.
The siege of Mainz of 14 April-23 July 1793 saw a Prussian army recapture this key city on the west bank of the Rhine, which had fallen into French hands after a three day long siege in 1792.
The siege of Mainz of 14 December 1794-29 October 1795 was an unsuccessful French attempt to recapture a city which they had briefly held between October 1792, when it had fallen after a three day siege, and 23 July 1793, when the starving defenders had surrendered to the Prussians.
Charles François Dumouriez was an important French military commander and politician in the early phases of the French Revolution and the War of the First Coalition, winning crucial victories at Valmy and Jemappes
The siege of Maastricht of 23 February-3 March 1793 was the first step in the southern half of General Dumoiriez's planned invasion of the Netherlands, but ended in failure after the Austrians launched a counterattack across the Roer on 1 March.
The battle of Aldenhoven, 1 March 1793, was the first success during the Austrian counterattack in Belgium in the spring of 1793 which saw them temporarily drive the French out of their conquests of 1792.
The battle of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) of 2 March 1793 was the second of two defeats that destroyed the French position in southern Belgium, and forced them to abandon their first siege of Maastricht.
The battle of Neerwinden, 18 March 1793, was a major Austrian victory over the armies of Revolutionary France that helped to temporarily expel the French from the Austrian Netherlands, and caused the downfall of General Charles Dumouriez, the victor of Jemappes.
The siege of Lille of 29 September-7 October 1792 was the main Austrian contribution to the Allied invasion of France at the start of the War of the First Coalition, but ended in failure after news of the French victory at Valmy (20 September) forced the Austrians to retreat.
The battle of Jemappes, 6 November 1792, was the first major offensive battlefield victory for the armies of the infant French Republic, and saw the French Armée du Nord, containing a large number of new volunteer soldiers, defeat a regular Austrian army and capture Brussels.
The minor battle of Baisieux of 29 April 1792 was the first battle of the War of the First Coalition, and marked the start of twenty three years of warfare. It came only nine days after the French had declared war on Austria on 20 April, and ended in a humiliating defeat for the armies of revolutionary France.
The siege of Longwy (20-23 August 1792) was the first military success during the Austrian and Prussian invasion of France at the start of the War of the First Coalition.
The siege of Verdun (29 August-2 September 1792) was the second and last military success during the Austrian and Prussian invasion of France at the start of the War of the First Coalition.
The battle of Valmy, 20 September 1792, was the first major battle of the War of the First Coalition, and saved the infant French Republic from early destruction.
The skirmish of Rio Mayor of 19 January 1811 was one of the very few significant clashes to take place while Masséna’s army was camped at Santarem, after his retreat from the lines of Torres Vedras.
The combat of El Bodon of 25 September 1811 was a lucky escape for the British and Portuguese army on the Spanish border in the autumn of 1811.
The combat of Aldea de Ponte of 27 September 1811 was a rearguard action fought during Wellington’s retreat from Fuente Guinaldo to Alfayates in the aftermath of the combat of El Boden.
The combat of Bornos of 5 November 1811 was the only fighting to take place during one of Marshal Soult’s repeated attempts to catch the Spanish General Ballasteros, who had proved himself to be a master of small scale warfare in the south of Andalusia
The siege of Tortosa of 16 December 1810-2 January 1811 was the first of three successful French attacks on Spanish-held cities that briefly appeared to give the French control of eastern Spain.
The siege of Tarragona of 3 May-28 June 1811 was the second of three sieges that saw the French seize the last major cities in Spanish hands in the east of the country in a twelve month period, an achievement that seemed like it might given them a chance to finally secure their control of the area
The combat of Carpio of 25 September 1811 was a minor clash between Wellington’s cavalry screen and part of a French army under Marmont that had just raised the blockade of Ciudad Rodrigo.
The combat of Almazan of 10 July 1810 demonstrated the difficulties the French facing in moving even quite large bodies of reinforcements to their armies in Spain.
The battle of Villagarcia of 11 August 1810 was a French victory that ended a Spanish attempt to liberate Seville, but that also demonstrated the vulnerability of the French position in Andalusia.
The combat of Baza of 4 November 1810 was a French victory won on the borders of Murcia and Granada, which ended a Spanish attempt to threaten the French position in Granada.
The siege of Cadiz of 5 February 1810-24 August 1812 was the longest and arguably most important of the many sieges that punctuated the Peninsular War.
The campaign that led to the battle of Barrosa demonstrated the weakness of the French position in Andalusia during the two and a half years that they occupied the province.
The battle of Barrosa of 5 March 1811 was the end result of one of the most significant attempts made by the garrison of Cadiz to lift the French siege of Cadiz
The siege of Lerida of 15 April-14 May 1810 was one of a series of sieges that saw the French extend their control over eastern Spain, and removed a major obstacle on the road between Saragossa and Barcelona.
The combat of Margalef of 23 April 1810 saw the defeat of a Spanish army attempting to help the besieged garrison of Lerida.
The siege of Mequinenza of 15 May-18 June 1810 saw the French capture the strategically important town, at the highest navigable point on the Ebro.
The siege of Fuengirola of 13-15 October 1810 was a minor disaster suffered by the British in southern Spain during an ambitious attempt to help the hard-pressed guerrillas of Granada.
The combat of Tremendal of 23-24 November 1809 was a rare French success against one of the elusive bands of Spanish guerrillas.
The third siege of Gerona of 24 May-11 December 1809 was one of the great epics of Spanish resistance during the Peninsular War, which despite ending in a French victory would act as a rallying call for Spanish resistance for the rest of the war.
The combat of Hostalrich of 7 November 1809 was a minor French victory in Catalonia, which played a significant part in their victory in the third siege of Gerona (24 May-11 December 1809).
The skirmish of Barba del Puerco of 19-20 March 1810 was a minor clash between part of Craufurd’s line of outposts on the Portuguese border and part of the French army gathering in preparation for Massina’s invasion of Portugal.
The siege of Tarifa of 20 December 1811-5 January 1812 was an unsuccessful French attempt to capture one of the few remaining Spanish-held strongholds in Andalusia.
The siege of Ciudad Rodrigo of 8-19 January 1812 was a major success for Wellington’s British and Portuguese army, and marked a significant turning point in the Peninsular War - the moment when the French lost the initiative in Spain
The combat of Navas de Membrillo of 29 December 1811 was a minor clash between a British and Portuguese expedition under General Hill and part of the French garrison of Estremadura.
The siege of Valencia of 25 December 1811-9 January 1812 was the final major French success during the Peninsular War, and saw French power in eastern Spain reach its maximum extent.
The French invasion of Valencia of September 1811-January 1812 was the last major French success during the Peninsular War, and saw them virtually complete the conquest of eastern Spain, but at the same time they were forced to weaken their forces on the Portuguese border, allowing Wellington to begin the campaign that led to Salamanca, and the beginning of the end for the French in Spain.
The siege of Saguntum of 23 September-26 October 1811 was a French victory during their invasion of Valencia, but one that slowed down their campaign and ended any chance of the expected easy victory.
The battle of Saguntum of 25 October 1811 saw the defeat of a Spanish army under General Joachim Blake which was attempted to raise the French siege of Saguntum.
The combat of Mislata of 26 December 1811 was a rare Spanish success during the fighting around Valencia in the winter of 1811-12, but failed to stop the French trapping a Spanish army in the city of Valencia
The combat of Aldaya of 26 December 1811 was a French victory during their crossing of the Guadalaviar River which saw them drive off most of General Blake’s Spanish cavalry.
The siege of Oropesa of 19 September-11 October 1811 was a French victory during their invasion of Valencia, which saw them capture the coastal town of Oropesa and remove a major obstacle on the coastal road from Tarragona.
The siege of Calatayud of 26 September-4 October 1811 was a significant victory for the Spanish guerrillas over the French garrison of Calatayud.
The siege of Molina of 26 September-27 October 1811 was an unsuccessful attempt by the Spanish guerrillas to help the defence of Valencia.
The combat of Segorbe of 30 September 1811 was a minor French victory during the siege of Saguntum.
The combat of Benaguacil of 2 October 1811 was a minor French victory during the siege of Saguntum
The skirmish at Alcoentre of 8 October 1810 was a minor incident in the final stage of Wellington’s retreat into the Lines of Torres Vedras in the autumn of 1810 and saw the French nearly capture a British horse artillery battery.
The combat of Alemquer of 9 October 1810 was the last fighting between the British rearguard and the French cavalry during the retreat into the Lines of Torres Vedras in the autumn of 1810.
The combat of Granollers of 21-22 January 1810 was an opportunist Spanish victory in Catalonia, which saw a French detachment at Granollers cut to pieces by the Army of Catalonia.
The battle of Vich of 20 February 1810 was a hard-fought French victory in Catalonia, won by an isolated French division under the command of General Souham.
The siege of Hostalrich of 16 January-21 May 1810 was just about the only significant success achieved by the French during Marshal Augereau’s brief time in charge of the 7th Corps in Catalonia.
The combat of Villafranca of 30 March 1810 was the first of two defeats that ended a French attempt to capture the city of Tarragona, the last major fortress in Catalonia to remain in Spanish hands.
The combat of Manresa of 5 April 1810 was the second of two defeats that ended a French attempt to capture the city of Tarragona, the last major fortress in Catalonia to remain in Spanish hands.
The battle of Alcañiz of 23 May 1809 was only the second major Spanish battlefield victory of the Peninsular War, and demonstrated many of the problems that would dog the French for the entire war.
The battle of Maria of 15 June 1809 was a French victory that ended a brief Spanish threat to Saragossa.
The rout of Belchite of 18 June 1809 was a French victory than ended General Blake’s attempt to recapture Saragossa in the summer of 1809.
The combat of Valverde of 19 February 1810 was a minor Spanish victory on the borders of Andalusia at the start of General Ballesteros's raid into western Andalusia.
The combat of Ronquillo of 25-26 March 1810 was the second fight during General Ballesteros’s raid into western Andalusia in the spring of 1810.
The combat of Zalamea of 15 April 1810 was the first defeat suffered by General Ballesteros during his raid into western Andalusia in the spring of 1810.
The combat of Araçena of 26 May 1810 was a minor French victory that ended General Ballesteros’s raid into Andalusia of the spring of 1810.
The Lines of Torres Vedras, on the peninsula north of Lisbon, are the most famous fortifications of the Napoleonic Wars, and in 1810 were the only thing that saved Wellington from having to evacuate his army from Portugal during Marshal Masséna’s invasion of the country.
The combat of Santiago of 23 May 1809 was a relatively rare victory for a Spanish partisan force over regular French troops during the Peninsular War.
The combat of the Oitabén River of 7-8 June 1809 was a victory for a largely partisan Spanish force over Marshal Ney, which played a large part in the final defeat of French efforts to conquer Galicia.
The combat of Arzobispo of 8 August 1809 was a minor French victory late in the Talavera campaign, which saw them force their way across the River Tagus.
The combat of Aranjuez of 5 August 1809 was an inconclusive skirmish between the armies of King Joseph and General Venegas, fought towards the end of the Talavera campaign.
The battle of Almonacid of 11 August 1809 was a relatively costly French victory that effectively ended the Talavera campaign.
Marshal Masséna’s invasion of Portugal of September 1810-March 1811 was intended to be the final campaign of the French invasion of Iberia, ending the Peninsular War, but instead the French ran up against the Lines of Torres Vedras, and the campaign ended in a disastrous retreat.
The first combat of Sobral of 12 October 1810 was the first of two skirmishes around the village of Sobral that would turn out to be the only French attacks on the Lines of Torres Vedras, the strong defensive position built to protect Lisbon.
The second combat of Sobral of 14 October 1810 was a skirmish south of the village of Sobral that would turn out to be the most serious attack the French would launch against the Lines of Torres Vedras.
The combat of Guarda of 29 March 1811 was a bloodless British victory in the last stages of Masséna’s retreat from Portugal.
The combat of Sabugal of 3 April 1811 was the last serious fighting during Masséna’s retreat from Portugal in 1811, and was a missed chance for a major Allied victory over an isolated portion of Masséna’s army.
The battle of Bussaco of 27 September 1810 was the one major battle during Marshal Masséna’s invasion of Portugal of 1810, and was a costly French defeat suffered in an attempt to attack a very strong Allied position on the ridge at Bussaco.
The French siege of Ciudad Rodrigo of 5 June-10 July 1810 was a precursor to Marshal Masséna’s invasion of Portugal.
The combat of Barquilla of 10 July 1810 was one of the few failures for General Craufurd and the Light Division during Marshal Masséne’s invasion of Portugal.
The combat of the Coa of 24 July 1810 was a rare defeat for Craufurd’s Light Division during Masséna’s invasion of Portugal.
The siege of Almeida of 25 July-27 August 1810 was a delaying action fought to slow down Marshal Masséna’s invasion of Portugal in 1810, most famous for the dramatic explosion that ended the siege.
The combat of Pombal of 11 March 1811 was a skilful rearguard action fought by Marshal Ney during the retreat from the Lines of Torres Vedras.
The combat of Redinha of 12 March 1811 was the second rearguard action fought during Masséna’s retreat from the Lines of Torres Vedras in the spring of 1811.
The combat of Casal Novo of 14 March 1811 was a rearguard action during Masséna’s retreat from Portugal that was notable for the reckless behaviour of General Erskine, the temporary commander of the British Light Division.
The combat of Foz de Arouce of 15 March 1811 was the least successful of Marshal Ney’s rearguard actions during Masséne’s retreat from Portugal in the spring of 1811.
The passage of the Alva River of 17-18 March 1811 was a nearly bloodless success for Wellington’s army during the French retreat from Portugal in the spring of 1811.
The battle of Tamames of 18 October 1809 was the first Spanish battlefield victory in the Peninsular War since Alcaniz (23 May 1809), and the most significant since Baylen, right at the start of the war.
The battle of Alba de Tormes of 28 November 1809 was a dramatic French cavalry victory that ended the Spanish Junta’s autumn campaign of 1809.
The failure of the Spanish Junta's autumn campaign of 1809 left Andalusia vulnerable to French conquest, and in January-February 1810 King Joseph led his armies across the mountains from La Mancha, occupying Seville and forcing the Spanish Junta to flee to Cadiz.
The combat of Jaen of 23 January 1810 was a French victory during the invasion of Andalusia, fought after the French had forced their way across the mountains from La Mancha.
The combat of Alcala la Real of 28 January 1810 was a minor French victory during General Sebastiani’s invasion of Granada and Malaga.
The battle of Fuentes de Oñoro of 3-5 May 1811 was Marshal Masséna’s final defeat after his disastrous invasion of Portugal of 1810 and led to the fall of Almeida, the last French stronghold in Portugal.
The Spanish Junta’s Autumn campaign of 1809 was a disastrous politically motivated campaign launched in the hope that a spectacular military victory might remove the pressure on the Central Junta to put in place a more permanent government.
The combat of Astorga of 9 October 1809 was a minor French setback in the autumn of 1809.
The combat of Ocana of 11 November 1809 was a minor French victory early in the Spanish Junta’s autumn campaign of 1809.
The Battle of Ocaña of 19 November 1809 was a major Spanish defeat that ended any chance of success in the Spanish Junta’s autumn campaign of 1809.
The battle of Abluera of 16 May 1811 was one of the bloodiest battles of the Peninsular War, fought to prevent Marshal Soult from coming to the aid of the garrison of Badajoz.
The combat of Usagre (25 May 1811) was a minor cavalry battle during Marshal Soult’s retreat after the battle of Albuera.
The second British siege of Badajoz of 19 May-17 June 1811 was little more successful than the first siege, which had only lasted for one week before Marshal Beresford had been forced to lift the siege
The campaign that ended in the battle of Fuentos de Onoro was the aftermath of Marshal Masséna’s retreat from Portugal early in 1811.
The siege of Almeida of April-10 May 1811 saw Wellington’s army capture the last French stronghold left in Portugal after Marshal Masséna’s retreat from the Lines of Torres Vedras.
Marshal William Beresford was one of the most important British commanders of the Peninsular War, but he only held one important independent command, in Estremadura in the spring of 1811.
The recapture of the Spanish border fortress of Badajoz was the main purpose of Marshal Beresford’s campaign in Estremadura in the spring of 1811, but would prove to be beyond his powers (first siege of Badajoz, 6-12 May 1811).
Army lists for the battle of Albuera of 16 May 1811
The siege of Campo Mayor (14-21 March 1811) was a time-consuming French victory that came between the departure of Marshal Soult from Estremadura and the arrival of an Anglo-Portuguese force under General Beresford.
The combat of Campo Mayor of 25 March 1811 was the first Allied victory during Beresford’s campaign in Estremadura in the spring of 1811.
The siege of Olivenza of 9-15 April 1811 saw the town liberated by an Anglo-Portuguese force only three months after it had been captured by the French.
The siege of Olivenza of 11-22 January 1811 was an early success for the French during Marshal Soult’s invasion of Estremadura.
The French siege and capture of Badajoz of 27 January-10 March 1811 was the main achievement of Marshal Soult’s invasion of Estremadura of 1811.
The battle of the Gebora of 19 February 1811 was a disastrous Spanish defeat that ended an attempt to break the French siege of Badajoz of 27 January-10 March 1811.
Marshal Soult’s invasion of Estremadura in January-March 1811 was a delayed response to the failure of Masséna’s invasion of Portugal in 1810.
The combat of Castillejos of 25 Januar
Eugéne de Beauharnais (1781-1824) was Napoleon’s step-son and an able soldier who spent much of his career as Viceroy of Italy.
The French invasion of Portugal of November 1807 was the first campaign of what would become the Peninsular War.
The Peninsular War was one of Napoleon’s greatest blunders, leading to seven years of warfare and ending with an invasion of France, but it began with a an almost effortless invasion of Spain, which saw the occupation of Madrid, Old Castile and the fortresses on the Pyrenees, and was followed by a cynical but well managed abduction of the Spanish royal family.
Sir Ralph Abercromby (1734-1801) was the most successful British general of the French Revolutionary Wars, admittedly not a period that saw the British army at its best.
The Talavera Campaign of June-August 1809 marked a number of important 'firsts' in the Peninsular War. It was the first time that Sir Arthur Wellesley campaigned in Spain; it saw the first great Anglo-Spain victory of the war and the first really large French defeat in Spain since Baylen, and ended with the first of Wellesley’s retreats back towards Portugal.
We look at the structure of the French army in Spain and Portugal during the spring and summer of 1808
The battle of Talavera of 27-28 July 1809 was the first of Sir Arthur Wellesley’s great victories in Spain during the Peninsular War.
We also provide an article that outlines the structure of the British, French and Spanish armies that fought at Talavera, 27-28 July 1809
The combat of Alcantara of 14 May 1809 was a minor clash between part of Marshal Victor’s corps and a small Portuguese force that had been stationed just across the Spanish frontier to watch the French army in Estremadura.
The combat of Torrijos of 26 July 1809 was a clash between the Spanish rearguard and advancing French cavalry, fought two days before the battle of Talavera.
The combat of Cassa de Salinas of 27 July 1809 was a preliminary action fought on the day before the main fighting at the battle of Talavera.
The siege of Chaves of 20-25 March 1809 saw the Portuguese recapture this border town only two weeks after it had fallen to the French.
The long defence of the bridge at Amarante was the first significant Portuguese success during Marshal Soult’s 1809 invasion of the country.
Sir Arthur Wellesley’s campaign in northern Portugal in April-May 1809 was the first success during Britain’s second intervention in Portugal, and saw the invading army of Marshal Soult expelled from the country.
The combat of Albergaria Nova of 10 May 1809 was the result of an unsuccessful British attempt to trap the advance guard of Marshal Soult’s army at Oporto at the start of Sir Arthur Wellesley’s campaign in Northern Portugal of 1809.
The combat of Grijon of 11 May 1809 was the second action during Sir Arthur Wellesley’s campaign in northern Portugal of 1809 and saw the French advance guard south of Oporto fight a short rearguard action before retreating into the city.
The combat of Peso de Regoa of 10 May 1809 was a relatively minor Portuguese victory over a French column under General Loison that very nearly resulted in the capture of Marshal Soult’s entire army.
The passage of the Ponte Nova of 15/16 May 1809 was one of the most daring exploits during Marshal Soult’s retreat from Oporto of May 1809.
The combat of Salamonde of 17 May 1809 was the only serious fighting during Marshal Soult’s retreat after his defeat at Oporto on 12 May.
The passage of the Misarella River of 17 May 1809 saw Marshal Soult’s army get past the last major barrier between them and relative safety during their retreat from Oporto in May 1809.
Marshal Soult’s invasion of Portugal in the spring of 1809 was to have been the first step in Napoleon’s ambitious plan to end the Peninsular War after his departure from Spain in January 1809.
The combat of Chaves (10-11 March 1809) was an early French victory during Marshal Soult’s invasion of Portugal of March 1809.
The battle of Braga (or of Lanhozo) of 20 March 1809 was a French victory during Marshal Soult’s invasion of Portugal, won against a large force of Portuguese Ordenanza
The battle of Oporto of 29 March 1809 was the final significant success during Marshal Soult’s invasion of Portugal.
Soult's Passage of the Ave of 25-26 March 1809 saw him pass the last barrier between his army and Oporto, the first target on his invasion of Portugal.
Marshal Victor's invasion of Estremadura (or the Medellin Campaign) of March 1809 was part of Napoleon's plan to complete the conquest of Spain in 1809
The combat of Meza de Ibor of 17 March 1809 was a French victory early in the Medellin campaign that forced the Spanish to abandon their positions on the River Tagus and retreat south towards the Guadiana.
The combat of Berrocal of 20 March 1809 was a minor Spanish victory during the Medellin Campaign.
The combat of Miajadas of 21 March 1809 was the second of two minor Spanish victories during their retreat from the Tagus during the Medellin campaign.
The battle of Medellin of 28 March 1809 was the final battle during Marshal Victor’s invasion of Estremadura of March 1809 and was one of the most costly Spanish defeats of the Peninsular War.
The combat of Mora of 18 February 1809 was an inconclusive clash between a Spanish raiding party under the Duke of Albuquerque and a brigade of French dragoons under the command of General Digeon.
The battle of Ciudad Real of 26-27 March 1809 was an almost bloodless French victory over a Spanish army that had attempted to force the French out of La Mancha.
The combat of Igualada (17-18 February 1809) saw the French defeat the left wing of an ambitious Spanish offensive aimed at recapturing Barcelona.
The battle of Valls (25 February 1809) saw the French defeat the right wing of an ambitious Spanish offensive aimed at recapturing Barcelona.
The combat of Alcañiz (26 January 1809) was a minor French victory over a Spanish force outside Saragossa during the second siege of Saragossa
The second siege of Saragossa (20 December 1808-20 February 1809), was an epic struggle that encouraged Spanish resistance to the French throughout the Peninsular War.
Teodoro Reding was a Swiss general who entered Spanish service before the French invasion of 1808. He was largely responsible for the first Spanish victory during the uprising, at Baylen on 19 July 1808, a victory that encouraged resistance to Napoleon in Spain and across Europe.
The battle of Ucles (13 January 1809) was a major French victory close to Madrid early in 1809. It saw a French army under Marshal Victor destroy the vanguard of the Spanish Army of the Centre, under General Venegas, and ended any chance of a quick Spanish return to Madrid.
The siege of Barcelona of August-17 December 1808 was one of the great missed opportunities of the Peninsular War - for over four months large Spanish armies sat inactive around the city, until driven away by a French relief force under St. Cyr
The siege of Rosas was the first engagement during General Gouvion St. Cyr’s campaign in Catalonia in the winter of 1808.
The battle of Cardadeu of 16 December 1808 was a French victory that ended the Spanish siege of Barcelona.
The battle of Molins del Ray (21 December 1808) was the final battle during General St. Cyr’s campaign to raise the siege of Barcelona.
General Francisco Xavier Castañas was the Spanish general who won the first victory of the Spanish uprising against French rule, at Baylen on 19 July 1808.
Don Gregorio de la Cuesta was one of the least successful Spanish generals of the Peninsular War responsible for heavy defeats at Cabezon, Medina de Rio Seco and Medellin
General Joachim Blake was a senior Spanish general of Irish extraction during the Peninsular War. He is widely considered to have been brave but careful, energetic, organised but unlucky
General Carlos Areizaga was an unsuccessful Spanish general during the Peninsular War.
General Francisco Ballesteros was a Spanish general during the Peninsular War, whose career began inauspiciously in northern Spain, but who became a very successful commander of small forces in the south of Spain in 1811-1812.
The battle of Zornoza of 31 October 1808 was a French victory that came just before the start of Napoleon’s campaign in Spain in November 1808.
The skirmish at Valmeceda on 8 November 1808 was a minor French victory in the aftermath of their victory at Zornoza on 31 October 1808.
The battle of Gamonel of 10 November 1808 was the first French victory during Napoleon’s November 1808 campaign in Spain.
The battle of Espinosa de los Monteros of 10-11 November 1808 was a major French victory during Napoleon’s November 1808 campaign in Spain.
The battle of Tudela, 23 November 1808, was a major French victory that sealed the success of Napoleon’s great plan of double-envelopment during the one campaign he conducted in person in Spain.
The battle of the Somosierra Pass, 30 November 1808, was the final Spanish attempt to stop Napoleon reaching Madrid during his 1808 campaign in Spain.
The siege of Madrid of 1-4 December 1808 was the final French success during Napoleon’s only campaign in Spain.
The battle of Evora of 29 July 1808 was a French victory during the Portuguese rebellion of 1808.
The sack of Cordova of 7 June 1808 was an early indication of the ferocity which would be a distinguishing feature of the Spanish uprising against French Rule
The storm of Mataro of 17 June 1808 was a minor French victory that came just before General Duhesme’s first attempt to capture Gerona in June 1808.
The first siege of Gerona, 20-21 June 1808, was the first of three French attempts to seize this city, which blocked their lines of communication between Barcelona and Perpignan
The second siege of Gerona, 24 July-16 August 1808, was a second unsuccessful French attempt to capture the city of Gerona
The action at the defile of Cacabellos, 3 January 1809, was a minor British victory during Sir John Moore’s retreat to Corunna.
The skirmish at Constantino of 5 January 1809 was a rear-guard action during Sir John Moore’s retreat to Corunna in the winter of 1808-1809.
The fighting at Lugo on 7 January 1809 was the closest that the British and French came to fighting a full scale battle during Sir John Moore’s retreat to Corunna over the winter of 1808-1809.
The straggler's battle at Betanzos of 10 January 1809 was an incident late in Sir John Moore’s retreat to Corunna in the winter of 1808-1809.
The battle of Corunna, 16 January 1809, was the final fight during Sir John Moore’s retreat from Spain in the winter of 1808-1809.
Francois Joseph Lefebvre, Duke of Danzig, 1755-1820, was one of Napoleon's more experienced marshals, rising to the rank of general of division during the revolutionary wars. Despite this he rarely held an independent command and did not take command of a large battle until Zornoza in 1808.
Charles Lefebvre-Desnouettes was a very capable French cavalry commander who fought in most major campaigns of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He was present at Marengo and Austerlitz, fought in Spain in 1808, took part in the invasion of Russia in 1812 and was wounded at Waterloo.
The Convention of Alessandria of 15 June 1800 ended Napoleon’s victorious Italian campaign of 1800.
The Armistice of Steyer of 25 December 1800 ended the fighting in the Revolutionary Wars.
The Peace of Lunéville of 9 February 1801 ended the Revolutionary Wars and was a major French triumph.
The Treaty of Florence of 28 March 1801 confirmed French dominance in Italy.
The French invasion of Spain of 1808 began with a series of surprise attacks on the key Spanish border fortifications start at Pamplona on 16 February 1808 and then Barcelona on 29 February 1808, San Sebastian on 5 March 1808 and finally Figueras on 18 March 1808
Andoche Junot was a flamboyant but temperamental French general and was probably the most able of Napoleon’s generals not to be created a marshal.
Marshal Nicholas Jean de Dieu Soult was one of the most able of all Napoleon’s marshals, rising from the ranks to become the Grand Old Man of the French Army, and only the fourth man to be created Maréchal-général of the French army.
The battle of Rolica, 17 August 1808, was the first battle during the British involvement in the Peninsular War, and the first victory for Sir Arthur Wellesley (the future duke of Wellington)
The battle of Vimiero, 21 August 1808 was the decisive battle of the first British expedition to Portugal during the Peninsular War and saw Arthur Wellesley defeat a French attack on his position
The battle of Medina del Rio Seco, 14 July 1808, was a French victory early in the Peninsular War won by Marshal Bessiéres against a much larger Spanish army.
The first siege of Saragossa, 15 June-13 August 1808, saw the Spanish successfully defend the almost unfortified city against a strong French attack, and was an early demonstration of the determination with which the Spanish would defend some of their cities.
The action of Epila, 23-24 June 1808, was a night battle that saw the French defeat a Spanish force attempting to raise the first siege of Saragossa.
General Antoine Lasalle was a talented French cavalry commander of the Napoleonic Wars who was killed leading his men at the battle of Wagram
The battle of Cabezon, 12 June 1808, was a crushing French victory won against an inexperienced Spanish army under the command of captain-general Don Gregorio de la Cuesta.
The action at Tudela of 8 June 1808 was the first of three attempts by the Spanish to defeat or delay a French army that was marching towards Saragossa.
The action at Mallen, 13 June 1808, was the second of three Spanish attempts to stop a French army under General Lefebvre-Desnouettes from reaching Saragossa.
The battle of Alagon, 14 June 1808, was the third of three attempts made by Joseph Palafox, the captain-general of Aragon, to stop a French column under General Lefebvre-Desnouettes from reaching Saragossa.
The action at the River Cabriels, 21 June 1808, saw a French army under Marshal Moncey sweep aside part of a small Spanish force that had been left to watch the northern route between Madrid and Valencia.
The action at the Cabrillas Defile, 24 June 1808, saw the defeat of the last Spanish attempt to stop a French army under Marshal Moncey from reaching Valencia.
The first battle of Valencia (26-28 June 1808) was one of a series of Spanish victories early in the Peninsular War. A French force under Marshal Moncey launched two assaults against the defenders of Valencia and was repulsed twice.
The battle of Sahagun (21 December 1808) was a British cavalry victory during Sir John Moore’s campaign in northern Spain in the winter of 1808.
The battle of Benavente, 29 December 1808, was a rear-guard action during Sir John Moore’s retreat to Corunna.
The battle of Mansilla (30 December 1808) was a French victory over the rearguard of a Spanish army under General La Romana, fought during Sir John Moore’s retreat to Corunna.
The battle of Baylen (19 July 1808) was a crucial Spanish victory early in the Peninsular War that encouraged both Spanish resistance and Napoleon’s enemies across Europe.
Pierre Dupont de L’Etang was a French general who fought in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He was an able subordinate and division commander, but his first truly independent command, in Spain in 1808, led to defeat at Baylen, and to disgrace and imprisonment.
The battle of Oporto of 12 May 1809 was Arthur Wellesley’s first victory after his return to Portugal in April 1809 (Peninsular War)
The battle of Alcolea, 7 June 1808, was a French victory early in the Peninsular War won over an army of Spanish volunteers outside Cordova
18 July 2006: As part of our effort to place historical documents online, we have now added the first thirty documents from the Papers of Admiral Keith, covering his time in command of the south coast after the resumption of war in 1803.
10 May 2006: To test your knowledge of the Napoleonic Wars, we now add a Napoleonic Wars Quiz
Day 24: We finish with an article on the Battle of Copenhagen of 1801, Nelson's second great victory. The article is supported by our first two source documents, Nelson's first and second letters to the Danish Crown Prince attempting to negotiate an end to the fighting.
Day 23: Our penultimate article is on the British Army musket, often known as the 'Brown Bess'
Day 22: The Baker Rifle, the first rifle in use in the British army.
Day 21: Today we finish our three part biography of Lord Nelson, covering the period from the resumption of war in 1803 through to the scene of both his most famous victory and his death, the battle of Trafalgar.
Day 20: We look at the gunboat, one of the smallest ships of war in use during this period, and an essential part of many amphibious operations.
Day 19: The Battle of the Nile, 1 August 1798, Nelson's first battle in command and a crushing British victory that doomed Napoleon's expedition to Egypt.
Day 18: The First battle of Aboukir, 25 July 1799, Napoleon's final victory in Egypt before his return to France to seize power.
Day 17: We look at the Sea Fencibles, a naval home guard formed in Britain to defend against French invasion.
Day 16: The Battle of Eggmuhl, a French victory over the Austrians that led to the occupation of Vienna.
Day 15: Typical of the revolutionary fervour that swept through France was the Republican Calendar, adopted as a symbol of the complete break with the past hoped for by the more radical revolutionaries.
Day 14: The Ship of the Line was the most powerful weapon used during the Napeleonic Wars.
Day 13: Although not in common use, body armour was still used by cavalry during the Napoleonic Wars.
Day 12: Part two of our three part biography of Lord Horatio Nelson, covering the battle of the Nile, Lady Hamilton and the battle of Copenhagen.
Day 11: A biography of Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood, second in command at the battle of Trafalgar, and buried next to Nelson.
Day 10: Calder's Battle off Finisterre (22 July 1805), a missed chance for a British victory during the campaign that led to Trafalgar.
Day 9: The French invasion of Egypt (1798-1801) was the nearest Napoleon and Nelson came to facing either other directly. Our article covers the French invasion from the original plans through to the final French evacuation.
Day 8: Today we list the twenty six Marshals of the Empire created by Napoleon between 1804 and 1815.
Day 7: Our biography of Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753-1815), Napoleon's chief of staff for nearly twenty years, and an important element in many of his military victories.
Day 6: The first part of a three part biography of Lord Horatio Nelson, Britain's most famous sailor. Part one takes Nelson from his birthplace in Norfolk, through to the battle of Cape St. Vincent, where he first made his name.
Day 5: The creation of Demi-Brigades was amongst the first of a series of reforms that made French armies the most feared in Europe in the two decades after the revolution.
Day 4: The first of a series on naval concepts discusses the concept of an Admiral 'flying his flag'.
Day 3: Battle of Vittoria, 1813, the most important British victory of the Peninsular War
Day 2: Napoleonic Sabre, the main cavalry weapon during this period
Day 1: Biography of Napoleon, the man who gave his name to the entire period.
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