Second Jacobite Revolt (The 45)

Jacobite revolt led by Charles Edward Stuart, The Young Pretender, in the name of his father, James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, aided by the French as part of their effort against Britain in the War of the Austrian Succession. The young pretender landed in Scotland on 23 July 1745, accompanied by seven friends, and the Stuart standard was raised on 19 August, by which point Charles Edward had nine hundred men. He entered Edinburgh on 17 September. On the 21st, he defeated Sir John Cope and the bulk of the Loyalist garrison at Prestonpans, and the victory helped attact men to his army. Against much advice, Charles Edward then decided to invade England. His plan had depended on French intervention and English jacobites rising to support him, neither of which happened, and his move into England fatally overextended him. Initially he was successful, capturing Carlisle on 17 November, and reaching Preston, Manchester and Macclesfield, before arriving at Derby on 4 December. By this point he was facing the Loyalist army led by the duke of Cumberland, and his officers refused to march any further into England. Charles Edward was forced to return to Scotland, where he was still able to gain some successes, but Cumberland finally caught him at Culloden on 16 April 1746, where the Jacobite army was crushed. Charles himself escaped the field, and eventually managed to excape to France, creating the image of 'Bonnie Prince Charlie', although his own bad judgement had contributed much to his defeat.
The battle of Prestonpans 1745, 2nd Edition, Martin Margulies. An excellent history of the first part of the '45, covering the build-up to the Jacobite uprising, the brief campaign in the north of Scotland, the fall of Edinburgh and the battle itself. Detailed use of the primary sources allows us to trace who knew what when and why they acted as they did, and explains Cope's march north and his actions around Edinburgh before the battle. [read full review]
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Culloden: The History and Archaeology of the Last Clan Battle, ed. Tony Pollard. This book contains a well chosen series of articles that examine at the last major battle to be fought on British soil in the light of recent archaeological research on the battlefield itself. With articles on the campaign, the two armies, the battle, the battlefield and its aftermath this book provides a good up-to-date and balanced view of this battle [go to full review].

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How to cite this article: Rickard, J. (3 November 2000), Second Jacobite Revolt (The 45), http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_jacobite34.html

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