New Model Army (England)
Standing army formed by Parliament in 1645 during the first English Civil War. The New Model Army was the brainchild of Oliver Cromwell, who saw the need for a more organised army to defeat Charles I. The new force of 22,000 men was to be raised by impressment and supported by regular taxation, which made it a more stable force than either the Royalist forces or the earlier Parliamentarian forces. In some respects the New Model Army was based on Cromwell's Ironsides, and it's improved discipline and vastly improved organization made it much more effective than preceding forces. It also ended the problem posed by militia forces who were often unwilling to leave their own areas. The value of the New Model Army was demonstrated at the battle of Naseby (14 June 1645), where their greater discipline as compared to the Cavalier cavalry of Prince Rupert was one of the deciding issues of the battle. However, the strength of the New Model Army eventually overwhelmed Parliament itself. Cromwell's rise to power was greatly aided by the support he gained from the army, and in the Second Civil War the army seized control (Pride's Purge, 6-7 December 1648), and then put the King on trial, before executing him (30 January 1649). The New Model Army became the army of the Commonwealth, suppressing rebellion in Ireland and maintaining Cromwell in power. However, by 1660 arrears of pay and growing unpopularity led the army to welcome the restoration of Charles II.
The English Civil War How to cite this article: Rickard, J. (11 December 2000), New Model Army (England), http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/weapons_newmodel.html
, Richard Holmes & Peter Young, an early work by one of the country's best known military historians, this is a superb single volume history of the war, from its causes to the last campaigns of the war and on to the end of the protectorate.