The Morane-Saulnier Type AR (M.S.35) was the first in a long series of Morane-Saulnier parasol wing trainers that were used by the French air services well into the 1930s. It was based on the Type LA, a two-seat reconnaissance aircraft of limited success, itself a development of the pre-war Type L (in the hands of Roland Garros the Type L became the first tractor aircraft to be equipped with a fixed forward firing machine gun). The Type AR was a two-seat primary trainer, with a wire braced parasol wing and wing warping controls. The instructor and student were carried in tandem open cockpits, with dual controls. The Type AR had a new fin and rudder, a slim well designed fuselage and a cross axle landing gear.
The Type AR first flew in 1915, but it entered large scale production after the end of the First World War, eventually getting the designation of M.S.35 E.P.2 (two seat trainer). Over 400 were built, most of the M.S.35R version, powered by a Rhône 9C rotary engine. The aircraft was also produced with an Anzani engine (M.S.35A) and an 80hp Clerget 9C engine (M.S.35C). Most of them were used by the Ecoles de Pilotage of the Aéronautique Militaire, and remained in service until 1929. Some surviving aircraft were then sold into private hands. The M.S.35 was also used by the French Navy, and was a considerable export success. Poland received 70 aircraft, the Soviet Union 30. Bolivia ordered four, which arrived in July 1923 (along with a French instructor). These aircraft were used as a primary trainer until at least December 1927. Paraguay ordered one aircraft, which arrived in May-June 1927 and was given the local serial number E.4. Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Guatemala, Romania and Turkey also purchased the M.S.35,
The Type AR/ M.S.35 was followed by the M.S.50, a primary trainer which featured rounded wing tips but didn't enter French service, then the Morane-Saulnier M.S.138 of 1927, which differed in having a swept-back wing, and then the M.S.230, the main French intermediate trainer of the 1930s.
Engine: Le Rhône 9C rotary
Wing span: 34ft 8 1/4in
Maximum take-off Weight: 1,684lb
Max Speed: 78mph
Service Ceiling: 15,090ft