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No.312 Squadron was a Czechoslovak manned fighter squadron that was formed during the Battle of Britain, and that flew a mix of fighter-bomber and bomber escort for the rest of the war.
The squadron was formed at the No.12 Group Sector Station of Duxford on 29 August 1940, just at the start of the German assault on Fighter Command, the most dangerous period of the Battle of Britain. The squadron remained at Duxford until 26 September, when it moved north to Speke to provide defensive cover over Merseyside.
The squadron returned south in May 1941, taking part in offensive sweeps over occupied France from then until August. The squadron then moved to Scotland, where it provided defensive cover.
The squadron returned south again in May 1942, this time to provide fighter cover for bombers operating from the south-west of England. This phase lasted until June 1943, when the squadron moved north to the Orkneys for another spell of defensive duties.
The squadron moved south again in the autumn of 1943 and joined Second Tactical Air Force. In April 1944 it became a fighter-bomber squadron, and performed this role during the D-Day landings.
In July 1944 the squadron changed role once again. While much of 2nd TAF moved to Normandy, No.312 moved to East Anglia and began to provide long-range fighter escort for bombers. The squadron continued to perform this role for the rest of the war.
In August 1945 No.312 Squadron moved to Czechoslovakia, ceasing to be an RAF squadron on 15 February 1946.
August 1940-May 1941: Hawker Hurricane I
May 1941-December 1942: Hawker Hurricane IIB
October-December 1941: Supermarine Spitfire IIA
December 1941-February 1944: Supermarine Spitfire VB and VC
January 1944-February 1946: Supermarine Spitfire IX
August-September 1940: Duxford
September 1940-March 1941: Speke
March-April 1941: Valley
April-May 1941: Jurby
May-July 1941: Kenley
July-August 1941: Martlesham Heath
August 1941-January 1942: Ayr
January 1942: Fairwood Common
January-April 1942: Angle
April-May 1942: Fairwood Common
May 1942: Harrowbeer
May 1942: Warmwell
May-July 1942: Harrowbeer
July 1942: Redhill
July-August 1942: Harrowbeer
August 1942: Redhill
August-October 1942: Harrowbeer
October 1942-February 1943: Churchstanton
February-March 1943: Warmwell
March-June 1943: Churchstanton
June-September 1943: Skeabrae
September-December 1943: Ibsley
December 1943: Llanbedr
December 1943-February 1944: Ibsley
February 1944: Mendlesham
February-March 1944: Southend
March-April 1944: Mendlesham
April-June 1944: Appledram
June 1944: Tangmere
June 1944: B.10 Plumetot
June-July 1944: Tangmere
July 1944: Lympne
July-August 1944: Coltishall
August-October 1944: North Weald
October 1944-February 1945: Bradwell Bay
February-August 1945: Manston
August 1945: R.16 Hildesheim
August 1945-February 1946: Prague
Squadron Codes: DU
1940-1943: Fighter Command
1943-1944: 2nd Tactical Air Force
1944-1945: Long-range fighter escort
6 June 1944: No.134 Wing; No.84 Group; Allied Expeditionary Air Force